To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
During the Italian Renaissance, laywomen and nuns could take part in every stage of the circulation of texts of many kinds, old and new, learned and popular. This first in-depth and integrated analysis of Italian women's involvement in the material textual culture of the period shows how they could publish their own works in manuscript and print and how they promoted the first publication of works composed by others, acting as patrons or dedicatees. It describes how they copied manuscripts and helped to make and sell printed books in collaboration with men, how they received books as gifts and borrowed or bought them, how they commissioned manuscripts for themselves and how they might listen to works in spoken or sung performance. Brian Richardson's richly documented study demonstrates the powerful social function of books in the Renaissance: texts-in-motion helped to shape women's lives and sustain their social and spiritual communities.
Using as a starting point the work of internationally-renowned Australian scholar Sam Ricketson, whose contributions to IP law and practice have been extensive and richly diverse, this volume examines topical and fundamental issues from across IP law. With authors from the US, UK, Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand, the book is structured in four parts, which move across IP regimes, jurisdictions, disciplines and professions, addressing issues that include what exactly is protected by IP regimes; regime differences, overlaps and transplants; copyright authorship and artificial intelligence; internationalization of IP through public and private international law; IP intersections with historical and empirical research, human rights, privacy, personality and cultural identity; IP scholars and universities, and the influence of treatises and textbooks. This work should be read by anyone interested in understanding the central issues in the evolving field of IP law.
Richardson-Little exposes the forgotten history of human rights in the German Democratic Republic, placing the history of the Cold War, Eastern European dissidents and the revolutions of 1989 in a new light. By demonstrating how even a communist dictatorship could imagine itself to be a champion of human rights, this book challenges popular narratives on the fall of the Berlin Wall and illustrates how notions of human rights evolved in the Cold War as they were re-imagined in East Germany by both dissidents and state officials. Ultimately, the fight for human rights in East Germany was part of a global battle in the post-war era over competing conceptions of what human rights meant. Nonetheless, the collapse of dictatorship in East Germany did not end this conflict, as citizens had to choose for themselves what kind of human rights would follow in its wake.
In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has expanded to include UAV sprayers capable of applying pesticides. Very little research has been conducted to optimize application parameters and measure the potential of off-target movement from UAV-based pesticide applications. Field experiments were conducted in Raleigh, NC during the spring 2018 to characterize the effect of different application speeds and nozzle types on target area coverage and uniformity of UAV applications. The highest coverage was achieved with an application speed of 1 m s-1 and ranged from 30 to 60%, while applications at 7 m s-1 yielded 13 to 22% coverage. Coverage consistently decreased as application speed increased across all nozzles, with extended range flat spray nozzles declining at a faster rate than air induction nozzles likely due to higher drift. Experiments measuring the drift potential of UAV applications using extended range flat spray, air induction flat spray, turbo air induction flat spray, and hollow cone nozzles under 0, 2, 4, 7, and 9 m s-1 perpendicular wind conditions in the immediate 1.75 m above the target were conducted in the absence of natural wind in Raleigh, NC. Off-target movement was observed under all perpendicular wind conditions with all nozzles tested but was non-detectable beyond 5 m away from the target. Coverage from all nozzles exhibited a concave-shaped curve in response to the increasing perpendicular wind speed due to turbulence. The maximum target coverage in drift studies was observed when the perpendicular wind was 0 and 8.94 m s-1, but higher turbulence at the two highest perpendicular wind speeds (6.71 and 8.94 m s-1,) increased coverage variability while the lowest variability was observed at 2.24 m s-1 wind speed. Results suggested that air induction flat spray and turbo air induction flat spray nozzles and an application speed of 3 m s-1 provided an adequate coverage of target areas while minimizing off-target movement risk.
Early in a foodborne disease outbreak investigation, illness incubation periods can help focus case interviews, case definitions, clinical and environmental evaluations and predict an aetiology. Data describing incubation periods are limited. We examined foodborne disease outbreaks from laboratory-confirmed, single aetiology, enteric bacterial and viral pathogens reported to United States foodborne disease outbreak surveillance from 1998–2013. We grouped pathogens by clinical presentation and analysed the reported median incubation period among all illnesses from the implicated pathogen for each outbreak as the outbreak incubation period. Outbreaks from preformed bacterial toxins (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens) had the shortest outbreak incubation periods (4–10 h medians), distinct from that of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (17 h median). Norovirus, salmonella and shigella had longer but similar outbreak incubation periods (32–45 h medians); campylobacter and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli had the longest among bacteria (62–87 h medians); hepatitis A had the longest overall (672 h median). Our results can help guide diagnostic and investigative strategies early in an outbreak investigation to suggest or rule out specific etiologies or, when the pathogen is known, the likely timeframe for exposure. They also point to possible differences in pathogenesis among pathogens causing broadly similar syndromes.
Written Finnish and the Finnish literacy culture provide an exceptional context for an interesting separation of the various processes associated with reading acquisition. The orthography of Finnish is relatively optimally wired to give young learners an easy time acquiring basic decoding skills. Finnish orthography has full transparency in both reading and writing. After learning the limited set of sounds connected consistently with specific graphemes, learners usually learn to decode accurately, even those with learning difficulties in reading.
The high status of literacy in Finland, which dates from the early stages of its writing system, has led to additional benefits. The written language of Finnish was established in the mid-sixteenth century. The first book published in Finnish was an ABC-book, a primer for reading and a catechism. As early as the seventeenth century, literacy started to become more common with the influence of the church.
Sleep disturbances are prevalent in cancer patients, especially those with advanced disease. There are few published intervention studies that address sleep issues in advanced cancer patients during the course of treatment. This study assesses the impact of a multidisciplinary quality of life (QOL) intervention on subjective sleep difficulties in patients with advanced cancer.
This randomized trial investigated the comparative effects of a multidisciplinary QOL intervention (n = 54) vs. standard care (n = 63) on sleep quality in patients with advanced cancer receiving radiation therapy as a secondary endpoint. The intervention group attended six intervention sessions, while the standard care group received informational material only. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), administered at baseline and weeks 4 (post-intervention), 27, and 52.
The intervention group had a statistically significant improvement in the PSQI total score and two components of sleep quality and daytime dysfunction than the control group at week 4. At week 27, although both groups showed improvements in sleep measures from baseline, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in any of the PSQI total and component scores, or ESS. At week 52, the intervention group used less sleep medication than control patients compared to baseline (p = 0.04) and had a lower ESS score (7.6 vs. 9.3, p = 0.03).
Significance of results
A multidisciplinary intervention to improve QOL can also improve sleep quality of advanced cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Those patients who completed the intervention also reported the use of less sleep medication.
Previous research has shown that psychoeducation for bipolar disorder (BD) improves symptoms and reduces relapse risk, but there is little research on how this impacts stigma, perceived recovery and views about diagnosis. The aim of this study was to explore whether a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT)-based 12-week BD psychoeducation group conducted in a community mental health team for adults impacted perceived stigma, diagnosis-related self-esteem, recovery and views about diagnosis. The case series pre- and post-group had 23 participants across three groups. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, views on Manic Depression Questionnaire, Bipolar Recovery Questionnaire and author-constructed questions were completed pre and post. Twenty participants completed the group. An intent-to-treat repeated measures multiple analysis of variance showed significantly improved perceived recovery and improvements in sense of control and understanding around their diagnosis. Other specific questions such as understanding of triggers and impact of thinking patterns also improved. However, there was no change in the perceived stigma or self-esteem associated with living with BD. CBT-based psychoeducation groups may help improve perceived recovery and factors such as sense of control in BD. However, there appears to be no impact on stigma and self-esteem, and the role of non-specific factors needs to be examined further.
Key learning aims
(1)To raise awareness of the impact of stigma and self-esteem in bipolar disorder.
(2)To understand the content and structure of CBT-based psychoeducation groups.
(3)To consider the potential benefits of CBT-based psychoeducation groups beyond symptoms and relapse reduction on factors such as perceived recovery.
The preservation of genetic diversity is an important aspect of conservation biology. Low genetic diversity within a population can lead to inbreeding depression and a reduction in adaptive potential, which may increase extinction risk. Here we report changes in genetic diversity over 12 years in a declining population of the Corncrake Crex crex, a grassland bird species of high conservation concern throughout Europe. Despite a twofold demographic decline during the same period, we found no evidence for a reduction of genetic diversity. The gradual genetic differentiation observed among populations of Corncrake across Europe suggests that genetic diversity is maintained in western populations by constant gene flow from the larger and more productive populations in eastern Europe and Asia. The maintenance of genetic diversity in this species is an opportunity that may help the implementation of effective conservation actions across the Corncrake’s European range.
We explore the potential of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, a skills-based intervention that provides participants with sustainable tools for adaptive responses to stress and negative mood, for the large group of young people with depression or anxiety who only partially or briefly respond to currently available first-line interventions.
Declaration of interest
T.B. is the co-author of a book on mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and has received fees and honoraria for teaching MBCT workshops. W.K. is Director of the University of Oxford Mindfulness Centre. He donates all speaker fees to the not-for-profit Oxford Mindfulness Foundation. J.F. has been paid to deliver mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) programmes in the workplace and has delivered MBIs to elite performers at his own expense.
Feed represents a substantial proportion of production costs in the dairy industry and is a useful target for improving overall system efficiency and sustainability. The objective of this study was to develop methodology to estimate the economic value for a feed efficiency trait and the associated methane production relevant to Canada. The approach quantifies the level of economic savings achieved by selecting animals that convert consumed feed into product while minimizing the feed energy used for inefficient metabolism, maintenance and digestion. We define a selection criterion trait called Feed Performance (FP) as a 1 kg increase in more efficiently used feed in a first parity lactating cow. The impact of a change in this trait on the total lifetime value of more efficiently used feed via correlated selection responses in other life stages is then quantified. The resulting improved conversion of feed was also applied to determine the resulting reduction in output of emissions (and their relative value based on a national emissions value) under an assumption of constant methane yield, where methane yield is defined as kg methane/kg dry matter intake (DMI). Overall, increasing the FP estimated breeding value by one unit (i.e. 1 kg of more efficiently converted DMI during the cow’s first lactation) translates to a total lifetime saving of 3.23 kg in DMI and 0.055 kg in methane with the economic values of CAD $0.82 and CAD $0.07, respectively. Therefore, the estimated total economic value for FP is CAD $0.89/unit. The proposed model is robust and could also be applied to determine the economic value for feed efficiency traits within a selection index in other production systems and countries.
This chapter examines the affective dimension of the unsaid. It proposes an affective approach to understanding, researching, and writing the unsaid by outlining and utilizing two distinct yet resonate methodologies, grounded in the research practices of each author. In doing so, the chapter shows how different methodological approaches to the challenge of writing the unsaid offer an unfolding of potentials for how silence might speak without words. The chapter begins with a brief account of affect studies in the humanities before detailing a methodology of affective witnessing to the silence of political violence, followed by an examination of the relations between silence and the body in the unsaid of sexual abuse and the problem of writing in the face of blockages to speaking. In closing, it considers in more general terms what affective methodologies might bring to qualitative research into the unsaid.
Drop-out from mental health services is a significant problem, leading to inefficient use of resources and poorer outcomes for clients. Adapted dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), often termed Emotional Coping Skills (ECS) programmes, show some of the highest rates of drop-out from therapy recorded in the literature. The present study aimed to add to the evidence base, by evaluating predictors of drop-out from an ECS programme in a UK-based Community Mental Health Team (CMHT). An existing data set of 49 clients, consisting of clients’ responses on a number of questionnaires, was evaluated for predictors of drop-out. Predictors of drop-out included symptom severity, substance use and client demographics. Independent-samples t-tests and chi-square cross tabs analyses revealed no significant differences between drop-outs and completers of therapy on any of the variables. This suggests that contrary to common assumptions and previous findings, clients using substances, who are highly anxious, or who experience a greater degree of emotion dysregulation, are not more likely to drop out from ECS programmes compared with other individuals. The clinical implications of these findings and future research are discussed within the wider context of the evidence base.
Key learning aims
(1)To be familiar with common predictors of drop-out from psychological therapies, as indicated by the literature.
(2)To understand the theories underlying factors that impact drop-out and the associated consequences for mental health services.
(3)To understand the potential impact of staff assumptions of factors that affect drop-out on client retention.
(4)To have an understanding of initiatives and strategies that may improve client-retention and engagement in services.
Megan Richardson, Megan Richardson is Professor of Law at the University of Melbourne. Her research and publication interests include intellectual property, privacy and personality rights, law reform and legal theory. She is currently Co- Director of the Melbourne Law School's Centre for Media and Communications Law (CMCL) and the Intellectual Property Research Institute of Australia (IPRIA).
IT IS SAID that celebrity is a combination of the celebrity producer, the celebrity figure and the public. And all three are evident in Napoleon Sarony's iconic portrait of Oscar Wilde—No. 18 of a set of 27—taken in Sarony's studio in New York at the beginning of Wilde's American tour in January 1882. Sarony created the portrait, posing Wilde, arranging his contours and approving his expression (intelligent and thoughtful), selecting the props (Wilde's dandified clothes and the book in his hand signifying the idea of the intellectual aesthete), and ordering the background (the rich Persian carpet on the floor adding to the impression of cultivated aestheticism, drawing here on the Orientalism that Wilde and other British aesthetes favored). Sarony's recognizable customized signature at the bottom of each image completes the suggestion that America's leading celebrity photographer was responsible for the remarkable image. But without Wilde's distinetive figure, face. and personal renown as a literary celebrity even at this relatively early stage of his literary life, the photograph would mean nothing to the audience. And without an audience to be impressed, amused, scandalized, and mesmerized, in turn, there would be no point in the photographic author or his (in)famous subject taking part in the project.
The project was initiated by the entertainment entrepreneur Richard D'Oyly Carte, ‘Oily’ Carte as he was sometimes known, for the Gilbert and Sullivan comic opera Patience that Carte was producing, which was now commencing its American tour after a successful season in London. The show featured J.H. Ryley in the role of the poet-dandy Reginald Bunthorne and, concerned that the American public might not appreciate that such British dandies actually existed, Wilde was approached with the proposition that he tour alongside the musical to provide the necessary evidence, including sitting in the audience when the opera was performed, appropriately dressed and coiffured to reflect the character on stage—a clever play on things that worked to foster confusion as to just who was the copy and who was the original here.
In this cohort of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp hospital-onset bacteremia, isolated fluoroquinolone resistance had a larger relative impact on mortality than other phenotypic resistance patterns. This finding may support stewardship efforts targeting unnecessary fluoroquinolone use and increased attention from infection prevention and control departments.