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This concise textbook, the first volume in the Ohio State Astrophysics Series, covers all aspects of the interstellar and intergalactic medium for graduate students and advanced undergraduates. This series aims to impart the essential knowledge on a topic that every astrophysics graduate student should know, without going into encyclopedic depth. This text includes a full discussion of the circumgalactic medium, which bridges the space between the interstellar and intergalactic gas, and the hot intracluster gas that fills clusters of galaxies. Its breadth of coverage is innovative, as most current textbooks treat the interstellar medium in isolation. The authors emphasise an order-of-magnitude understanding of the physical processes that heat and cool the low-density gas in the universe, as well as the processes of ionization, recombination, and molecule formation. Problems at the end of each chapter are supplemented by online projects, data sets and other resources.
Now reissued in a fourth, updated edition, this book provides a concise, illustrated introduction to the modern history of Greece, from the first stirrings of the national movement in the late eighteenth century to the present day. As Greece emerges from a devastating economic crisis, this fourth edition offers analyses of contemporary political, economic and social developments. It includes additional illustrations, together with updated tables and suggestions for further reading. A new concluding chapter considers the trajectory of Greek history over the two hundred years since the beginning of the War of Independence in 1821. Designed to provide a basic introduction, the first edition of this hugely successful Concise History won the Runciman Award for a best book on an Hellenic topic in 1992 and has been translated into thirteen languages, including all the languages of the Balkans.
This handbook introduces the reader to the thought-provoking research on the neural foundations of human intelligence. Written for undergraduate or graduate students, practitioners, and researchers in psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and related fields, the chapters summarize research emerging from the rapidly developing neuroscience literature on human intelligence. The volume focusses on theoretical innovation and recent advances in the measurement, modelling, and characterization of the neurobiology of intelligence differences, especially from brain imaging studies. It summarizes fundamental issues in the characterization and measurement of general intelligence, and surveys multidisciplinary research consortia and large-scale data repositories for the study of general intelligence. A systematic review of neuroimaging methods for studying intelligence is provided, including structural and diffusion-weighted MRI techniques, functional MRI methods, and spectroscopic imaging of metabolic markers of intelligence.
The Systems Ecology Paradigm (SEP) incorporates humans as integral parts of ecosystems and emphasizes issues that have significant societal relevance such as grazing land, forestland, and agricultural ecosystem management, biodiversity and global change impacts. Accomplishing this societally relevant research requires cutting-edge basic and applied research. This book focuses on environmental and natural resource challenges confronting local to global societies for which the SEP methodology must be utilized for resolution. Key elements of SEP are a holistic perspective of ecological/social systems, systems thinking, and the ecosystem approach applied to real world, complex environmental and natural resource problems. The SEP and ecosystem approaches force scientific emphasis to be placed on collaborations with social scientists and behavioral, learning, and marketing professionals. The SEP has given environmental scientists, decision makers, citizen stakeholders, and land and water managers a powerful set of tools to analyse, integrate knowledge, and propose adoption of solutions to important local to global problems.
Every Sunday, Christians all over the world recite the Nicene Creed as a confession of faith. While most do not know the details of the controversy that led to its composition, they are aware that the Council of Nicaea was a critical moment in the history of Christianity. For scholars, the Council has long been a subject of multi-disciplinary interest and continues to fascinate and inspire research. As we approach the 1700th anniversary of the Council, The Cambridge Companion to the Council of Nicaea provides an opportunity to revisit and reflect on old discussions, propose new approaches and interpretative frameworks, and ultimately revitalize a conversation that remains as important now as it was in the fourth century. The volume offers fifteen original studies by scholars who each examine an aspect of the Council. Informed by interdisciplinary approaches, the essays demonstrate its profound legacy with fresh, sometimes provocative, but always intellectually rich ideas.
This book is a guide to doing a new kind of psychological research that focuses on the purposes rather than the causes of behavior. The research methods described here are based on a theory of behaviour called Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) that views organisms as purposeful rather than mechanical systems. According to PCT, purposeful behaviour involves acting to control perceptual input variables. Thus, understanding the purposeful behaviour of living organisms is a matter of determining the perceptual variables they are controlling when they are carrying out various behaviors. This book outlines research methods that determine what perceptual variables an organism is controlling, how it controls those variables, and why. It also describes methods for studying how an organism develops the ability to control different perceptions and how consciousness might be involved in this process.
Designing engineering components that make optimal use of materials requires consideration of the nonlinear static and dynamic characteristics associated with both manufacturing and working environments. The modeling of these characteristics can only be done through numerical formulation and simulation, which requires an understanding of the theoretical background and associated computer solution techniques. By presenting nonlinear solid mechanics, dynamic conservation laws and principles, and the associated finite element techniques together, the authors provide a unified treatment of the dynamic simulation of nonlinear solids. Alongside numerous worked examples and exercises are user instructions, program descriptions, and examples for two MATLAB computer implementations with source code available online. While this book is designed to complement postgraduate courses, it is also relevant to industry professionals requiring an appreciation of the way their computer simulation programs work.
This book describes the lives of 12 people born in Europe and North America during the Second World War. They became leading scholars on the development and prevention of violent human behavior. From the first to the last page, the book introduces contrasting life-stories and shows how their paths crossed to create a relatively unified body of knowledge on how human violence develops and possible prevention methods. The authors describe the similarities and differences in their family background, university training, theories, and collaborations. Not to mention how they differ in research methods, scientific conclusions, and their influence on the research published today. These comparisons celebrates the diversity of their experience and, in turn, their achievements. By knowing this, you can stand on the shoulders of these giants to look to the future of this subject and potentially contribute to its next steps.
The Road to Monetary Union analyses in non-technical language the process leading to adoption of a common currency for the European Union. The monetary union process involved different issues at different times and the contemporary global background mattered. The Element explains why monetary union was attempted and failed in the 1970s, and why the process was restarted in 1979, accelerated after 1992 and completed for a core group of EU members in 1999. It analyzes connections between eurozone membership and Greece's sovereign debt crisis. It concludes with analysis of how the eurozone works today and with discussion of its prospects for the 2020s. The approach is primarily economic, while acknowledging the role of politics (timing) and history (path dependence). A theme is to challenge simplistic ideas (e.g. that the euro has failed) with fuller analysis of competing pressures to shape the nature of monetary union.
Extubation and emergence are high-risk phases of anaesthesia which accounted for 28% of the anaesthesia cases reported to the Fourth National Audit Project of the Difficult Airway Society and the Royal College of Anaesthetists. Problems generally relate to the patient’s anatomy, physiology or to the context in which extubation is carried out. Minor issues such as coughing and breath-holding are common, more serious complications such as aspiration, laryngospasm, post-obstructive pulmonary oedema and hypoxic brain injury are often preventable with proper planning. In this chapter we discuss how to formulate an extubation strategy including risk stratification, planning, awake and deep extubation and modifications aimed at reducing the risk of complications. An awake extubation is suitable for most patients but special techniques such as supraglottic airway exchange, remifentanil infusion or the use of an airway exchange catheter may be helpful in high-risk situations. Post-operative care does not end when the tracheal tube has been removed, handover and documentation are essential components of the extubation plan.
Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during general anaesthesia can be fatal. A 1956 report identified pulmonary aspiration as the commonest cause of death during general anaesthesia and NAP4 reported similarly in 2011. Major efforts have been made to reduce its incidence. Cricoid pressure (force) was introduced in the 1960s but remains controversial. Recent studies and new techniques have shed further light on the debate. The role of second generation supraglottic airway devices and videolaryngoscopy is also discussed.
Direct laryngoscopy should be preceded by airway assessment and discussing rescue strategies with assisting staff. The initial plan and rescue techniques should be based on an understanding of normal airway anatomy and its variants. This chapter uses the two curve theory and the three column model to describe and functionally classify both the normal and difficult airways. This classification then provides the operator with an understanding of the various causes of difficult airways and how they are related to each other and airway morphology (two curve theory). These two concepts form the basis for the decision process to performing direct laryngoscopy and choosing the right laryngoscope blade for the job. Endobronchial intubation is discussed in detail.
The term ars erotica refers to the styles and techniques of lovemaking with the honorific title of art. But in what sense are these practices artistic and how do they contribute to the aesthetics and ethics of self-cultivation in the art of living? In this book, Richard Shusterman offers a critical, comparative analysis of the erotic theories proposed by the most influential premodern cultural traditions that shaped our contemporary world. Beginning with ancient Greece, whose god of desiring love gave eroticism its name, Shusterman examines the Judaeo-Christian biblical tradition and the classical erotic theories of Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and Japanese cultures, before concluding with medieval and Renaissance Europe. His exploration of their errors and insights shows how we could improve the quality of life and love today. By using the engine of eros to cultivate qualities of sensitivity, grace, skill, and self-mastery, we can reimagine a richer, more positive vision of sex education.
Where do we go after we die? This book traces how the European Middle Ages offered distinctive answers to this universal question, evolving from Antiquity through to the sixteenth century, to reflect a variety of problems and developments. Focussing on texts describing visions of the afterlife, alongside art and theology, this volume explores heaven, hell, and purgatory as they were imagined across Europe, as well as by noted authors including Gregory the Great and Dante. A cross-disciplinary team of contributors including historians, literary scholars, classicists, art historians and theologians offer not only a fascinating sketch of both medieval perceptions and the wide scholarship on this question: they also provide a much-needed new perspective. Where the twelfth century was once the 'high point' of the medieval afterlife, the essays here show that the afterlives of the early and later Middle Ages were far more important and imaginative than we once thought.
In Thailand, English proficiency is generally low but demand for English is high. Hence, the need to improve the quality of English language teacher education is urgent. Pre-service education is divided into three main types: first, Bachelor of Education (BEd) programmes for school teacher preparation, mostly run by Rajabhat teacher training institutes which are highly traditional and may manifest nationalist concerns of Thainess and preconventional morality; second, master’s programmes run by universities for university teacher preparation; and third, short initial training courses run by private companies which prepare foreigners, often native speakers of English, to be teachers. Demand for foreign teachers of English in Thailand is high since the native-speaker model of English is prevalent. The certification of teachers by the Teachers Council of Thailand following pre-service education focuses on knowledge not teaching ability, and the application of certification to foreign teachers is inconsistent. Until recently, in-service teacher education has either promoted inequalities by targeting the best teachers or has been of debatable quality. Local resistance to global trends in English language teacher education suggests that English language education in Thailand may not be able to cope with an increasingly connected and changing world.
After the Ming dynasty prohibited private overseas trade in 1374, China’s once-flourishing maritime commerce languished until the 1520s, when a boom in Japanese silver mining impelled Chinese mariners to flock to Japan for the monetary metal in high demand in China. Dubbed “Japanese pirates” (Wokou) by the Ming government, these Chinese entrepreneurs developed multinational merchant coalitions and trade networks (including Japanese and Portuguese traders) across the East/Southeast Asian maritime world. The Wokou also became crucial allies of the daimyo of western Japan, embroiled in civil wars and eager to obtain both trade revenue and Portuguese gunpowder weapons. Ming military campaigns in 1548–1557 eliminated many Wokou leaders, but the smuggling trade proved intractable and the Ming lifted its maritime ban in 1567. The Wokou era also witnessed – albeit temporarily – the emergence of the “port polity” as an alternative to the Chinese imperial model of political economy within East Asia.