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Populism and authoritarian-populist parties have surged in the 21st century. In the United States, Donald Trump appears to have become the poster president for the surge. David Ricci, in this call to arms, thinks Trump is symptomatic of the changes that have caused a crisis among Americans - namely, mass economic and creative destruction: automation, outsourcing, deindustrialization, globalization, privatization, financialization, digitalization, and the rise of temporary jobs; all breeding resentment. Rather than dwelling on symptoms, Ricci focuses on the root of our nation's problems. Thus, creative destruction, aiming at perpetual economic growth, encouraged by neoliberalism, creates the economic inequality that fuels resentment and leads to increased populism. Ricci urges political scientists to highlight this destruction meaningfully and substantively; to use empirical realism to put human beings back into politics. Ricci's sensible argument conveys a sense of political urgency, grappling with real-world problems and working to transform abstract speculations into tangible, useful tools. The result is a passionate book, important not only to political scientists, but to anyone who cares about public life.
Lanka, Ceylon, Sarandib: merely three disparate names for a single island? Perhaps. Yet the three diverge in the historical echoes, literary cultures, maps and memories they evoke. Names that have intersected and overlapped - in a treatise, a poem, a document - only to go their own ways. But despite different trajectories, all three are tied to narratives of banishment and exile. Ronit Ricci suggests that the island served as a concrete exilic site as well as a metaphor for imagining exile across religions, languages, space and time: Sarandib, where Adam was banished from Paradise; Lanka, where Sita languished in captivity; and Ceylon, faraway island of exile for Indonesian royalty under colonialism. Utilising Malay manuscripts and documents from Sri Lanka, Javanese chronicles, and Dutch and British sources, Ricci explores histories and imaginings of displacement related to the island through a study of the Sri Lankan Malays and their connections to an exilic past.
Greg Fealy, Associate Professor, Department of Political and Social Change, Coral Bell School of Asia Pacific Affairs, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra,
Ronit Ricci, Sternberg-Tamir Chair in Comparative Cultures and Associate Professor, Departments of Asian Studies and Religion, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem
Indonesia has always perceived itself as being a tolerant, diverse and pluralist nation. As one of the most ethnically, religiously and culturally complex societies on earth, Indonesia has cast acceptance of difference and equality of rights and opportunities as a cornerstone of its existence. The nation's motto is Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, an Old Javanese phrase typically translated as ‘Unity in Diversity’ but perhaps more accurately rendered as ‘Out of Many, One’. The motto implies that Indonesia not only embraces but also celebrates diversity. Founding president Sukarno set the tone in a speech in 1955 when he declared: ‘This country, the Republic of Indonesia, does not belong to any group, nor to any religion, nor to any ethnic group, nor to any group with particular customs and traditions, but is the property of all of us from Sabang to Merauke! [i.e., from the further-most northwestern to southeastern points of the archipelago]’ (quoted in Vatikiotis 2017: 157). In essence, he was claiming that all who lived within Indonesia's borders were owed the same rights and no single group had preference. More recently, presidents Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (2004–14) and Joko Widodo (2014–) have made terms such as ‘moderation’, ‘tolerance’ and ‘multiculturalism’ central to their nation's international diplomacy. Yudhoyono, for example, declared at a Harvard address in 2009 that Indonesia was a ‘bastion of freedom, tolerance and harmony’ (Yudhoyono 2009) and stated at a high-level event in New York in 2013 that ‘[Indonesia] will always protect our minorities and ensure that no one suffers from discrimination’ (Parlina and Aritonang 2013). In addition, and reflecting a broad sentiment, public opinion surveys have repeatedly shown that an overwhelming majority of Indonesians believe their country to be tolerant and respectful of the rights of minorities (Fealy 2016: 120; Mietzner and Muhtadi in Chapter 9 of this volume).
But is this self-perception justified? In recent years Indonesia's reputation for tolerance and inclusivity has come under growing scrutiny from domestic and overseas civil society and human rights groups, the international media and the diplomatic community. Much of this scrutiny relates to the treatment of religious and ethnic minorities and of the country's lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities. They have variously been subject to condemnation or denigration by other sections of society and political leaders, and in some cases have been the target of violent attack.
Contention has surrounded the status of minorities throughout Indonesian history. Two broad polarities are evident: one inclusive of minorities, regarding them as part of the nation's rich complexity and a manifestation of its "Unity in Diversity" motto; the other exclusive, viewing with suspicion or disdain those communities or groups that differ from the perceived majority. State and community attitudes towards minorities have fluctuated over time. Some periods have been notable for the acceptance of minorities and protection of their rights, while others have been marked by anti-minority discrimination, marginalisation and sometimes violence. This book explores the complex historical and contemporary dimensions of Indonesia's religious, ethnic, LGBT and disability minorities from a range of perspectives, including historical, legal, political, cultural, discursive and social. It addresses fundamental questions about Indonesia's tolerance and acceptance of difference, and examines the extent to which diversity is embraced or suppressed.
Recent mass shooting events remind us of the importance of hospitals’ preparedness to manage a large number of patients in a short period of time. While prehospital systems triage for field interventions and priority of transport, they were not designed to triage for the scarce resources of a hospital. Therefore, upon arrival to hospital, clinicians must then quickly determine how to best assess and provide life-saving interventions based on their limited resources.
In collaboration with the Greater New York Hospital Association (GNYHA), the Center for Disaster Medicine at New York Medical College piloted an interactive and intensive eight-hour course at four New York State hospitals that covered critical areas such as: current literature on Mass Casualty Events and Triage, review of hospital emergency management, hospital-based triage principles, a MCI exercise in the emergency department, a surge capacity tabletop exercise, and use of ultrasound. While targeted towards physicians to foster team-based care and learning, nurses, physician assistants, and hospital administrators also participated in the pilot course.
Sixty persons from four hospitals participated in the pilot phase. Preliminary findings post-training reveal the following: 58% of participants expressed greater confidence in distinguishing between emergency department triage and triage during disasters; 59% of participants expressed greater confidence in performing initial triage of victims; 49% of participants expressed greater confidence in describing the use of ultrasound-guided triage; and 95% of participants reported an enhancement in their ability to perform their clinical role.
Preliminary findings reiterate the ongoing need for hospitals to provide training to their staff in the unique aspects of hospital triage and surge management using tools specifically designed in order to be prepared for the rapid influx of a large number of patients. A multipronged training model is a positive approach to help hospitals prepare for large-scale disasters.
The dynamics of electron-plasma waves is described at arbitrary collisionality by considering the full Coulomb collision operator. The description is based on a Hermite–Laguerre decomposition of the velocity dependence of the electron distribution function. The damping rate, frequency and eigenmode spectrum of electron-plasma waves are found as functions of the collision frequency and wavelength. A comparison is made between the collisionless Landau damping limit, the Lenard–Bernstein and Dougherty collision operators and the electron–ion collision operator, finding large deviations in the damping rates and eigenmode spectra. A purely damped entropy mode, characteristic of a plasma where pitch-angle scattering effects are dominant with respect to collisionless effects, is shown to emerge numerically, and its dispersion relation is analytically derived. It is shown that such a mode is absent when simplified collision operators are used, and that like-particle collisions strongly influence the damping rate of the entropy mode.