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This article focuses on the collaboration between Colombian black accordionist Carmelo Torres, the most renown performer of accordion cumbia, and Bogotá-based band Los Toscos, a group of academically trained white-mestizo musicians. Considering Carmelo Torres y Los Toscos as representative of the current state of cumbia's global circulation and in dialogue with the growing corpus of scholarly works on the topic, this article traces how this collaboration has circulated on local, national, and transnational scales and theorizes the different discourses of music, race, and nation that emerge from it. Using recent critiques by thinkers of colour to the work of Deleuze and Guattari, I propose the idea of the racial assemblage and put it in dialogue with contributions to critical geography by Michel-Rolph Trouillot as well as current music scholarship from Latin America and the global north to build a interdisciplinary study that thinks embodied musicking in place.
To analyse how much the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA), an important dietary risk factor for CVD, changed among US children and adolescents over a period of time when food regulations that reduced the presence of TFA in the food supply were enacted.
Regression models were used to estimate changes in levels of TFA in plasma and other CVD risk factors among US children and adolescents from 1999–2000 to 2009–2010.
Nationally representative sample of children (aged 6–11 years) and adolescents (aged 12–19 years) who participated in the 1999–2000 and 2009–2010 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Levels of plasma TFA declined significantly by an average of 61·9 % from 1999–2000 to 2009–2010. The average decline in a TFA commonly found in partially hydrogenated oils (elaidic acid, 67·2 %) was larger than the average decline in a TFA naturally occurring in ruminant animals (vaccenic acid, 60·5 %). Significant improvements in a variety of other CVD risk factors (LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, TAG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, C-reactive protein) were also observed.
Between the two time points, 1999–2000 and 2009–2010, there were substantial decreases in plasma TFA levels and improvements in several other important CVD risk factors in the population of US children and adolescents.
Encephalitis due to anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies (ANMDARE) is the most frequent immune-mediated encephalitis. It is distinguished by the subacute onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms.
To evaluate the characteristic neuropsychiatric symptoms and their outcome in patients diagnosed with ANMDARE.
This was a prospective, longitudinal study in patients with a diagnostic suspicion of ANMDARE that presented to the National Institute of Neurology from March 2018 to February 2019. A comparative analysis of two groups (positive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor [NMDAR] vs. negative NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]) was done on admission and at discharge. Neuropsychiatric systematic assessments included the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale, the Confusion Assessment Method Severity, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and the Overt Agitation Severity Scale.
24 individuals were analysed: 14 had positive NMDAR antibodies, and 10 had negative NMDAR antibodies in CSF. On admission, agitation/aggression, euphoria/exaltation, and disinhibition were more common in patients with positive antibodies. Excited catatonia and delirium were diagnosed more frequently in patients with positive antibodies. At discharge, there was an important decrease in neuropsychiatric symptoms, but substantial cognitive impairment remained. The mean hospitalisation length was 41.71 (SD 39.33) days for patients with definitive ANMDARE (p 0.259).
Neuropsychiatric symptoms profile in ANMDARE was associated with the early onset of euphoria/exaltation and disinhibition, accompanied by marked psychomotor agitation. When ANMDARE was suspected, the presence of excited-type catatonia and delirium showed a tendency to predict definitive ANMDARE. At discharged, most patients recovered from catatonia, delirium, and psychosis, but marked cognitive symptoms, anxiety, and depression persisted at discharge.
This study examines bilingual effects in Spanish–English bilingual children with good maintenance of the minority language. The present study compares the performance of a group of Spanish-monolingual children (MON; n = 30) with two groups of Spanish-speaking bilingual children (Low English proficiency group: LEP; n = 36; High English proficiency group, HEP; n = 36) on the elicited productions of Spanish articles and object clitics. Our results suggest that children with LEP performed significantly lower than MON children of the same age on both articles and clitics in Spanish. However, children with HEP, who were a year older on average, performed similarly to the MON group. Both groups of bilingual children produced errors of clitic omission and substitution, but these errors were minimal in the MON group. The results suggest that Spanish clitics and articles are vulnerable to bilingual effects for English/Spanish speaking children with good Spanish maintenance.
Scaffolds based on two different geometries were constructed by additive manufacturing: one based on a triply periodic minimal surface, the Schwarz D surface, and the other based on a rectangular geometry with orthogonal through-holes. For construction of the scaffolds, two different materials were used: polylactic acid (PLA) in filament form and alumina in printable paste form. The structure of the resulting scaffolds was characterized via X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and cell proliferation was assessed for each geometry and material, using fluorescence microscopy and DNA quantification via NanoDrop. Additive manufacturing allowed us to obtain scaffolds with the assessed materials while guaranteeing the interconnectivity of the pores in each one. The curved surfaces constructed with PLA were more favorable for cell attachment and proliferation of the CHO-K1 cell line.
Violence against women in politics is increasingly recognized around the world as a significant barrier to women’s political participation, following a troubling rise in reports of assault, intimidation, and abuse directed at female politicians. Yet conceptual ambiguities remain as to the exact contours of this phenomenon. In this article, we seek to strengthen its theoretical, empirical, and methodological foundations. We propose that the presence of bias against women in political roles—originating in structural violence, employing cultural violence, and resulting in symbolic violence—distinguishes this phenomenon from other forms of political violence. We identify five types of violence against women in politics—physical, psychological, sexual, economic, and semiotic—and three methodological challenges related to underreporting, comparing men’s and women’s experiences, and intersectionality. Inspired by the literature on hate crimes, we develop an empirical approach for identifying cases of violence against women in politics, offering six criteria to ascertain whether an attack was potentially motivated by gender bias. We apply this framework to analyze three cases: the assassination of Benazir Bhutto, the impeachment of Dilma Rousseff, and the murder of Jo Cox. We conclude with the negative implications of violence against women in politics and point to emerging solutions around the globe.
To assess the reliability and validity of body weight (BW) and body image (BI) perception reported by parents (in children) and by adolescents in a South American population.
Cross-sectional study. BW perception was evaluated by the question, ‘Do you think you/your child are/is: severely wasted, wasted, normal weight, overweight, obese?’ BI perception was evaluated using the Gardner scale. To evaluate reliability, BW and BI perceptions were reported twice, two weeks apart. To evaluate validity, the BW and BI perceptions were compared with WHO BMI Z-scores. Kappa and Kendall’s tau-c coefficients were obtained.
Public and private schools and high schools from six countries of South America (Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Uruguay, Chile, Brazil).
Children aged 3–10 years (n 635) and adolescents aged 11–17 years (n 400).
Reliability of BW perception was fair in children’s parents (κ=0·337) and substantial in adolescents (κ=0·709). Validity of BW perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·176) and fair in adolescents (κ=0·268). When evaluating BI, most children were perceived by parents as having lower weight. Reliability of BI perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·124) and moderate in adolescents (κ=0·599). Validity of BI perception was poor in children’s parents (κ=−0·018) and slight in adolescents (κ=0·023).
Reliability of BW and BI perceptions was higher in adolescents than in children’s parents. Validity of BW perception was good among the parents of the children and adolescents with underweight and normal weight.
We investigated the distribution of comorbidities among adult tuberculosis (TB) patients in Chiapas, the poorest Mexican state, with a high presence of indigenous population, and a corridor for migrants from Latin America. Secondary analysis on 5508 new adult TB patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 revealed that the most prevalent comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (DM; 19.1%) and undernutrition (14.4%). The prevalence of DM in these TB patients was significantly higher among middle aged (41–64 years) compared with older adults (⩾65 years) (38.6% vs. 23.2%; P < 0.0001). The prevalence of undernutrition was lower among those with DM, and higher in communities with high indigenous presence. Immigrants only comprised 2% of all TB cases, but were more likely to have unfavourable TB treatment outcomes (treatment failure, death and default) when compared with those born in Chiapas (29.5% vs. 11.1%; P < 0.05). Unfavourable TB outcomes were also more prevalent among the TB patients with undernutrition, HIV or older age, but not DM (P < 0.05). Our study in Chiapas illustrates the challenges of other regions worldwide where social (e.g. indigenous origin, poverty, migration) and host factors (DM, undernutrition, HIV, older age) are associated with TB. Further understanding of these critical factors will guide local policy makers and health providers to improve TB management.
Latin America has been at the vanguard in implementing diverse strategies to combat violence against women in politics (VAWIP). In 2012, Bolivia became the first country to criminalize “political violence and harassment against women” with Law 243. Soon, Ecuador, Peru, Costa Rica, and Mexico followed with similar proposals (Krook and Restrepo Sanín 2016). Despite high levels of criminal impunity (Piscopo 2016), legislative measures have been the preferred strategy to combat VAWIP within the region. The Inter-American Commission on Women (CIM) recently published a model law, drawing on experiences in Bolivia, to serve as inspiration for other legislative measures in the region. What can these legislative definitions tell us about the phenomenon of VAWIP, its limits, and its challenges?
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aims of this study are (1) to develop and characterize a novel nonhuman primate model of pneumococcal pneumonia that mimics human disease; and (2) determine whether Streptococcus pneumoniae can: (a) translocate to the heart, (b) cause adverse cardiac events, (c) induce cardiomyocyte death, and (d) lead to scar formation during severe pneumonia in baboons. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Six adult baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were surgically tethered to a monitoring system to continuously assess their heart rate, temperature, and electrocardiogram (ECG). A baseline transthoracic echocardiogram, 12-lead ECG, serum troponin-I levels, brain natriuretic peptide, and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) levels were obtained before infection and at the end of the experiment to determine cardiovascular damage during pneumococcal pneumonia. Animals were challenged with 108 colony-forming units of S. pneumoniae in the right middle lobe using flexible bronchoscopy. Three baboons were rescued with ampicillin therapy (80 mg/kg/d) after the development of pneumonia. Cardiac damage was confirmed by examination of tissue sections using immunohistochemistry as well as electron and fluorescence microscopy. Western-blots and tissue staining were used to determine the presence of necroptosis (RIP3 and pMLKL) and apoptosis (Caspase-3) in the cardiac tissue. Cytokine and chemokine levels in the heart tissue were determined using Luminex technology. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Four males (57%) and three (43%) females were challenged. The median age of all baboons was 11 (IQR, 10-19) years old, which corresponds to a middle-aged human. Infected baboons consistently developed severe pneumonia. All animals developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome with tachycardia, tachypnea, fever, and leukocytosis. Infection was characterized by initial leukocytosis followed by severe leukopenia on day 3 postinoculation. Non-specific ischemic alterations by ECG (ST segment and T-wave flattering) and in the premortem echocardiogram were observed. The median (IQR) levels of troponin I and HFABP at the end of the experiment were 3550 ng/mL (1717–5383) and 916.9 ng/mL (520.8–1323), respectively. Severe cardiomyopathy was observed using TEM and H&E stains in animals with severe pneumonia. Necroptosis was detected in cardiomyocytes of infected animals by the presence of pMLKL and RIP3 in cardiac tissues. Signs of cardiac remodeling indicated by disorganized collagen deposition was present in rescued animals but not in the other animals. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We confirmed that baboons experience cardiac injury during severe pneumococcal pneumonia that is characterized by myocardial invasion, activation of necroptosis, and tissue remodeling in animals rescued by antimicrobial therapy. Cardiac damage by invading pneumococci may explain why adverse cardiac events that occur during and after pneumococcal pneumonia in adult human patients.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This poster will present preliminary results from a study examining whether person-centered care planning—a new innovation in community mental health care—responds to the culture of, and helps reduce health disparities among, Latinx and Asian populations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The study was funded by an NIMH/NIH Administrative Supplement for Minority Health and Mental Health Disparities Research and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the authors’ university. Participants included 26 mental health clients and 12 mental health providers of diverse backgrounds. The study employed empirical qualitative methods to explore client understandings of mental health, client experiences of culture and discrimination, and the process of care engagement and care planning from both client and provider perspectives. The analysis team itself included people of Latinx and Asian background, as well as a person with lived experience of mental health recovery. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that the results will show ways in which person-centered care successfully incorporates clients’ goals, but that there will also be evidence of ways in which the clinical encounter struggles to incorporate more social, collective, and cultural values and approaches. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The poster will present up-to-date findings on this project, which speaks to pressing issues of health equity and community engagement for 2 of the fastest growing populations in the country.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal for this project is to determine the feasibility of using a novel multi-photon fiber-coupled microscope to aid surgeons in localizing STN during surgeries. In order to accomplish this goal, we needed to identify the source of a strong autofluorescent signal in the STN and determine whether we could use image classification methods to automatically distinguish STN from surrounding brain regions. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We acquired 3 cadaveric brains from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Department of Pathology. Two of these brains were non-PD controls whereas 1 was diagnosed with PD. We dissected a 10 square centimeter region of midbrain surrounding STN, then prepared this tissue for slicing on a vibratome or cryostat. Samples were immuno-labeled for various cellular markers for identification, or left unlabeled in order to observe the autofluorescence for image classification. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The border of STN is clearly visible based on the density of a strong autofluorescent signal. The autofluorescent signal is visible using 2-photon (850–1040 nm excitation) and conventional confocal microscopy (488–647 nm excitation). We were also able to visualize blood vessels with second harmonic generation. The autofluorescent signal is quenched by high concentrations of Sudan-black B (0.5%–5%), and is primarily localized in microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2)+ cells, indicating that it is likely lipofuscin accumulation in neurons. Smaller lipofuscin particles also accumulate in microglia, identified based on ionized calcium binding adopter 1 (Iba1)+ labeling. We anticipate that colocalization analysis will confirm these qualitative observations. Using 2-photon images of the endogenous autofluorescent signal in these samples, we trained a logistic regression-based image classifier using features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrices. Preliminary testing indicates that our classifier performed well, with a mean accuracy of 0.89 (standard deviation of 0.11) and a Cohen’s Kappa value of 0.76 (standard deviation of 0.24). We are currently using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and third harmonic imaging to identify different features of myelin that can be used to distinguish between these regions and expect similar results. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Traditional methods for localizing STN during DBS surgery include the use of stereotactic coordinates and multi-electrode recording (MER) during implantation. MERs are incredibly useful in DBS surgeries, but require penetration of brain structures in order to infer location. Using multi-photon microscopy techniques to aid identification of STN during DBS surgeries offers a number of advantages over traditional methods. For example, blood vessels can be clearly identified with second harmonic generation, something that is not possible with MER. Multi-photon microscopy also allows visualization deep into tissue without actually penetrating it. This ability to look within a depth of field is useful for detection of STN borders based on autofluorescent cell density. When combined with traditional stereotactic information, our preliminary image classification methods are a fast, reliable way to provide surgeons with extra information concerning their location in the midbrain. We anticipate that future advancements and refinements to our image classifier will only increase accuracy and the potential applications and value. In summary, these preliminary data support the feasibility of multi-photon microscopy to aid in the identification of target brain regions during DBS surgeries. The techniques described here complement and enhance current stereotactic and electrophysiological methods for DBS surgeries.
In the industry, the titanium nitride (TiN) coating is widely used in cutting tools, decorative and corrosion protection film, but unfortunately, this coating presented a poor performance under some work condition. For that, different studies have been dedicated to improving its properties with the inclusion of a third element that modifies the film structure, chemical and mechanical properties. In this work, TiN layers with/without of Al, B, and Cr inclusion were studied in order to analyze their effect in the film tribological performance. These were deposited using cathodic arc PVD technic on AISI-M2 steel. They were chemical and structural characterized using EDX and XRD, respectively. While the film thickness was determinate using a ball-cratering technique. Their tribological performance was studied using a sliding reciprocating movement in dry conditions, under three loads, at 30 min against Al2O3 ball as counterbody. The resulting wear tracks were studied using optical microscopy in order to study the wear mechanism. Raman spectroscopy was used to determinate the chemical changes produced on wear zones and the lost material was measured with a stylus profilometer. As result, the structure and morphology were modified with the inclusion of the third element. The TiN with the inclusion of Al and B presented a higher friction force and wear rate than TiN films. While the TiN with Cr inclusion film presented the best tribological performance with lower wear rate and friction coefficient. The Raman studies did not showed considerable changes on the damage coted surface areas, except for TiAlN coating that show the M2 tool steel Raman spectra on the areas where the film was removed.
Managerial devices are rapidly developing as a means for driving the legal performance of organisations, including those of states and corporations. This paper explores the managerial rationality underpinning global legal indicators, and the constraints they convey on institutional behaviour. In particular, it argues that indicators are better understood as part of a system of management control and distributed governance, which is steadily eroding state-centred forms of authority, including state law. In this context, legitimacy and reactivity are contingent to their cycle of production and implementation, which is fourfold: data-collecting, benchmarking, auditing and allocating incentives. Each process is meant to generate respectively subjectification, self-knowledge by comparison, accountability and stimulus for action. Indicators with higher degrees of legitimacy become entrenched in institutional practices and legal decision-making processes. The paper concludes that regulatory spaces where indicators unfold need critical and political scrutiny to expose their pernicious effects, undesirable uses and inevitable misuses.
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identifying newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk for TB adverse events in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Surveillance data between 2006 and 2013 (8431 subjects) was used to develop risk scores based on predictive modelling. The final models revealed that TB patients failing their treatment regimen were more likely to have at most a primary school education, multi-drug resistance (MDR)-TB, and few to moderate bacilli on acid-fast bacilli smear. TB patients who died were more likely to be older males with MDR-TB, HIV, malnutrition, and reporting excessive alcohol use. Modified risk scores were developed with strong predictability for treatment failure and death (c-statistic 0·65 and 0·70, respectively), and moderate predictability for drug resistance (c-statistic 0·57). Among TB patients with diabetes, risk scores showed moderate predictability for death (c-statistic 0·68). Our findings suggest that in the clinical setting, the use of our risk scores for TB treatment failure or death will help identify these individuals for tailored management to prevent these adverse events. In contrast, the available variables in the TB surveillance dataset are not robust predictors of drug resistance, indicating the need for prompt testing at time of diagnosis.
Comprehensive psychiatric rehabilitation programs in Latin America have been designed across several countries in the region without yet achieving full implementation. Facing an increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders, including alcohol and substance use disorders, the region has responded unevenly to the challenge. Moreover, low priority for mental health in national policies and insufficient funding for mental health services are common barriers for the much-needed mental health services reforms. Reestablishing a primary care community-based model of care has been a shared aspiration for most countries during the last two decades. Comprehensive models of psychiatric rehabilitation developed predominantly in high-income countries need to be culturally adapted to local contexts, while strengthening health systems research will provide evidence on the efficiency of locally designed interventions and on the critical milestones to succeed in the scaling up strategies. Increasing participation of patients and their families in the mental health delivery system is another key factor in order to ensure comprehensive patient-centred psychosocial rehabilitation programs in Latin America.
One of the many roles played by international law in the Colombian Peace Accord is that of guarantor—that is, creating assurances that the parties will comply with their commitments. To this end, negotiators declared that the Final Peace Accord would constitute a Special Agreement (SA) in “terms of Article 3 common to all Geneva Conventions of 1949,” which “will be introduced [in the Colombian legal system] as part of the constitutional block” and deposited “before the Swiss Federal Council.” Furthermore, they stated, “a presidential declaration will be made taking the form of a unilateral declaration of the Colombian State before the Secretary-General of the United Nations,” and its incorporation in a Resolution of the Security Council will be requested.