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The expectations of the impact of technology for language teaching and learning have often exceeded the actual results themselves, where emerging technologies are often believed to be more effective than existing ones simply because they are newer, with little consideration of the differences in associated pedagogies (see Bax, 2003; Levy & Stockwell, 2006). Technology is often believed to be inherently motivating for students and linked to the development of autonomy. The realities of technology and its influence on motivation are proving to be somewhat more complex than perceived for both language teachers and learners (Stockwell, 2013). Technology can provide opportunities for motivated learners but is unlikely to lead to motivation or autonomous behavior in many learners unless appropriate pedagogies are applied that capitalize on the affordances of the technologies and include sufficient training in how to use the technologies for language learning purposes (see Reinders, 2018a). At the same time, the role of teachers in the classroom and their attitudes toward their environment and the pressures that they face (Mercer & Kostoulas, 2018) can also impact technology implementation. This article brings together these three interrelated areas and explores how they link to technology: learner motivation and autonomy, teacher psychology, and pedagogical considerations.
A diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder (DID) is controversial and prone to under- and misdiagnosis. From the moment of seeking treatment for symptoms to the time of an accurate diagnosis of DID individuals received an average of four prior other diagnoses and spent 7 years, with reports of up to 12 years, in mental health services.
To investigate whether data-driven pattern recognition methodologies applied to structural brain images can provide biomarkers to aid DID diagnosis.
Structural brain images of 75 participants were included: 32 female individuals with DID and 43 matched healthy controls. Individuals with DID were recruited from psychiatry and psychotherapy out-patient clinics. Probabilistic pattern classifiers were trained to discriminate cohorts based on measures of brain morphology.
The pattern classifiers were able to accurately discriminate between individuals with DID and healthy controls with high sensitivity (72%) and specificity (74%) on the basis of brain structure. These findings provide evidence for a biological basis for distinguishing between DID-affected and healthy individuals.
We propose a pattern of neuroimaging biomarkers that could be used to inform the identification of individuals with DID from healthy controls at the individual level. This is important and clinically relevant because the DID diagnosis is controversial and individuals with DID are often misdiagnosed. Ultimately, the application of pattern recognition methodologies could prevent unnecessary suffering of individuals with DID because of an earlier accurate diagnosis, which will facilitate faster and targeted interventions.
Declaration of interest
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Most language learning research is carried out either in classrooms or among classroom learners. As Richards (2015) points out, however, there are two dimensions to successful learning: what happens inside classrooms and what happens outside them. Rapid development of online media, communications technologies and opportunities for travel has also expanded the world beyond the classroom for language learners. Language learning and teaching beyond the classroom (LBC) is, thus, emerging as a field ripe for the development of new research agendas (Benson & Reinders 2011; Nunan & Richards 2015). We propose potentially fruitful avenues for research here under the headings of settings for learning, learning processes and teaching.
The possible benefits of digital games for language learning and teaching have received increasing interest in recent years. Games are said, amongst others, to be motivating, to lower affective barriers in learning, and to encourage foreign or second language (L2) interaction. But how do learners actually experience the use of games? What impact does gameplay have on students’ perceptions of themselves as learners, and how does this affect their learning practice? These questions are important as they are likely to influence the success of digital game-based language learning, and as a result the way teachers might integrate games into the curriculum. In this study we investigated the experiences of five students who had participated in a fifteen-week game-based learning program at a university in Thailand. We conducted six interviews with each of them (for a total of 30 interviews) to identify what impact gameplay had in particular on their willingness to communicate in English (MacIntyre, Dörnyei, Clément & Noels, 1998). The results showed that gameplay had a number of benefits for the participants in this study, in particular in terms of lowering their affective barriers to learning and increasing their willingness to communicate. We discuss the implications of these results in terms of further research and classroom practice.
Young-onset dementia (YOD) is defined as dementia that develops before the age of 65 years. The prevalence and type of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in YOD differ from patients with late onset dementia. NPS in dementia patients are often treated with psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use (PDU) in Dutch community-dwelling YOD patients and the association between age, gender, dementia etiology and severity, symptoms of depression, disease awareness, unmet needs, and type of NPS.
Psychotropic drug use in 196 YOD patients was registered. Drugs were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical classification. The association between age, gender, dementia type, dementia stage, type of NPS, depressive symptoms, disease awareness, and amount of unmet needs on total PDU was analyzed using binomial logistic regression analysis.
Fifty-two percent of the patients were prescribed at least one psychotropic drug; 36.2% of patients used one drug, and 12.2% used two different drugs. Antidepressants (36.2%) and antipsychotic drugs (17.3%) were the most frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs. Anti-dementia drugs were prescribed in 51.5% of the patients. Increasing age and moderate to severe depressive symptoms were positively associated with the total use of psychotropic drugs.
Community-dwelling YOD patients have a high prevalence of PDU. More research is needed to study the association between unmet needs, NPS, and PDU, and psychosocial interventions have to be developed to limit the use of psychotropic drugs in YOD.
Hippocampal pathology has been proposed to underlie clinical, functional and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The hippocampus is a highly plastic brain region; examining change in volume, or change bilaterally, over time, can advance understanding of the substrate of recovery in psychosis.
Magnetic resonance imaging and outcome data were collected at baseline and 6-year follow-up in 42 first-episode psychosis subjects and 32 matched controls, to investigate whether poorer outcomes are associated with loss of global matter and hippocampal volumes. Bilateral hippocampal increase (BHI) over time, as a marker of hippocampal plasticity was hypothesized to be associated with better outcomes. Regression analyses were performed on: (i) clinical and functional outcomes with grey matter volume change and BHI as predictor variables; and (ii) cognitive outcome with BHI as predictor.
BHI was present in 29% of psychosis participants. There was no significant grey matter loss over time in either patient or control groups. Less severe illness course and lesser symptom severity were associated with BHI, but not with grey matter change. Employment and global function were associated with BHI and with less grey matter loss. Superior delayed verbal recall was also associated with BHI.
BHI occurs in a minority of patients following their first psychotic episode and is associated with good outcome across clinical, functional and cognitive domains.
Computational and statistical tools play an important role in materiomics, to provide insights in the underlying processes that allow certain materials to outperform other materials. In this chapter, we discuss numerous methods that allow the analysis of materiomics data. Specifically, we describe the use of statistical tests, ranking and data mining approaches, model learning and testing, as well as experimental design and the exchange of experimental results. Also, we review some of the important publications in this field from the past 15 years, organizing them according to the type of material descriptors that were used.
Basic principles of data analysis
Computational methods play an ever more important role in the study of material function. Partly, this is due to the increased scale of the experiments being performed, with an accompanying need for automated analyses. But the move from low-throughput towards high-throughput experiments entails more than just testing more materials simultaneously. The extra information these experiments produce is slowly catalysing a transition to a more rational approach to material discovery, in which not just material screening plays a role but also material modelling. Materials and their environments are approached as systems that can be modelled and thus explored in silico. This ‘systems approach to material research’ has been termed materiomics. This transition is certainly needed given the size of the materiome that one wants to explore: many material parameters can be varied and combined into a practically infinite palette of combinations. This far surpasses even the reach of high-throughput screenings. The question that will be addressed in this chapter is: how can we efficiently make use of our capability to perform high-throughput experiments, to explore and characterize such a large search space?
The role of the interlayer Fermi surface in driving oscillatory exchange coupling of ferromagnetic layers has been critically tested in a series of MBE-grown coherent epitaxial sandwiches prepared on single-crystal substrates. The wedge-shaped Cu (or Cu-based) interlayers have been modified in a number of different ways, achieving orientational, compositional and structural alteration of the Cu Fermi surface. Observed phenomena include multiperiodic coupling oscillations in both the ferromagnetically and antiferromagnetically coupled regions of (lOO) -oriented Co/Cu/Co samples, extended oscillatory periods across CuNi alloy interlayers, and extremely short-period oscillations in a bcc (100) Fe/Cu/Fe system. These phenomena are straightforwardly explained in terms of calculated Fermi surface variations.
To date, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made little impact on the diagnosis and monitoring of psychoses in individual patients. In this study, we used a support vector machine (SVM) whole-brain classification approach to predict future illness course at the individual level from MRI data obtained at the first psychotic episode.
One hundred patients at their first psychotic episode and 91 healthy controls had an MRI scan. Patients were re-evaluated 6.2 years (s.d.=2.3) later, and were classified as having a continuous, episodic or intermediate illness course. Twenty-eight subjects with a continuous course were compared with 28 patients with an episodic course and with 28 healthy controls. We trained each SVM classifier independently for the following contrasts: continuous versus episodic, continuous versus healthy controls, and episodic versus healthy controls.
At baseline, patients with a continuous course were already distinguishable, with significance above chance level, from both patients with an episodic course (p=0.004, sensitivity=71, specificity=68) and healthy individuals (p=0.01, sensitivity=71, specificity=61). Patients with an episodic course could not be distinguished from healthy individuals. When patients with an intermediate outcome were classified according to the discriminating pattern episodic versus continuous, 74% of those who did not develop other episodes were classified as episodic, and 65% of those who did develop further episodes were classified as continuous (p=0.035).
We provide preliminary evidence of MRI application in the individualized prediction of future illness course, using a simple and automated SVM pipeline. When replicated and validated in larger groups, this could enable targeted clinical decisions based on imaging data.
The corrosion behaviour in liquid electrolytes were investigated for some Fe- and Ni-based metallic glasses varying pH-value, electrolyte temperature and heat treatment. For some (Fe100-xMx)83B17 glasses the high temperature oxidation behaviour was studied.
Multilayers composed of oxides including Fe3O4, CoxFe3−x, O4, CoO, NiO and MgO have been grown epitaxially by MBE on MgO(100) single crystal substrates. These structures can be grown with a high crystallinity in the form of flat layers having sharp interfaces. RHEED studies which commonly yielded sharp streaks accompanied by Kikuchi lines show that, for instance, growth of CoO on Fe3O4 changes the RHEED pattern from that consistent with a spinel structure to that of a rocksalt structure within about one and a half unit cell of CoO. STM studies on a 400 Å Fe3O4 layer displaying atomic resolution enabled us to identify the origin of the reconstruction that one commonly observes in the RHEED and LEED patterns for magnetite. Regarding important fundamental magnetic parameters, relevant thickness dependencies were mapped out using localized magneto-optical Kerr effect experiments performed on several samples that routinely included one or multiple wedge shaped layers. These studies revealed the existence of a region in the Fe3O4 layer near the interfaces which exhibits no net magnetic moment, strain driven perpendicular orientated magnetization for the CoO/Fe3O4(100) and CoO/CoxFe3−xO4(100) bilayer systems, and information on the thickness dependence of the magnetic interlayer coupling across an MgO spacer layer.
The magnetic interlayer exchange coupling in Fe/Si-based thin film structures employing sputtered multilayers with variations of Si-alloyed Fe for the magnetic layers and Fe-alloyed Si spacers, as well as wedge-shaped MBE-grown Fe/Si/Fe sandwich samples has been systematically studied. From structural and magnetic analysis it is concluded that ultrathin Si and FexSi100-x (x < 50) spacer layers transform into a crystalline iron suicide with a composition close to Fe50Si50. The exchange coupling mediated by this metallic suicide is antiferromagnetic and depends on the spacer thickness in an exponential, i.e. non-oscillatory, manner with a universial characteristic decay length of 3–4 Å at room temperature. This observation can be qualitatively explained within the framework of a recent coupling theory on the premise that the FeSi interlayer has the metastable CsCl(B2)-structure.
Reliability and validity of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCD-Q) was assessed using a population-based sample of 608 children (311 males, 297 females; mean age 7y 8mo [SD 2y 4mo]), a sample of 55 children with DCD referred to a rehabilitation clinic, and a control sample of 55 children matched for age and sex (48 males, seven females in each sample; mean age 8y 3mo [SD 2y]). The DCD-Q is reliable and valid in the age range for which the questionnaire was developed(8y–14y 7mo) and in a younger age range (4–8y). Sensitivity and specificity of the DCD-Q was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children as the criterion standard. The DCD-Q met the standard for sensitivity (80%) in the clinic-referred sample (81.6%), but not in the population-based sample (28.9%). Specificity almost reached the standard of 90%: 89% in the population-based sample and 84% in the clinic-referred sample.
Michael Stingl's sensitive paper links two
debates now dominating contemporary Western societies:
the debate on euthanasia and the debate on healthcare reform.
The link is important for both practical and theoretical
reasons. Given the rise of national expenditures for healthcare,
most governments have a strong interest in cost containment.
In various countries we see reduced accessibility to healthcare
services and facilities, albeit for different reasons.
Sometimes healthcare is largely a matter of private insurance,
as in the United States; sometimes shifts are made toward
rising financial copayments for the use of particular services,
as seems to be the case in Canada and in many European
countries; sometimes accessibility is reduced by waiting
lists, characteristic of systems with socialized medicine
such as in Britain and the Netherlands.