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The aim of the paper is to foster a discussion in the engineering design community about its understanding of the innovation phenomena and the unique contribution that comes from engineering design. The paper reports on the dialouge originating from a series of workshops with participants from different backgrounds in engineering design, systems engineering, industrial design psychology and business.
Definitions of innovation are revisited as used in business, management and engineering design contexts. The role of innovation is then discussed related to product development from (i) the management perspective, (ii) a systems architecture perspective and (iii) in relation to sustainable development as one driver of innovation.
It is argued that engineering design has a central role in how to realise the novelty aspect of innovation and often plays a critical role in maturing these into the valuable products, and there is a need to articulate the role of engineering design in innovation to better resonate with the business and management research.
Design pervades our world in variety and complexity that is difficult to grasp. Different disciplines and researchers take one or few perspectives to study, model, and try to understand design, why it fails and when it succeeds. However, without a comprehensive model, the value of such approaches is limited. We created a framework – the PSI (Problem, Social and Institutional Spaces) framework – that includes several models, ranging from simple to complex, networked, and hierarchical or recursive that can be used to model all design scenarios. In what follows, we demonstrate the network version of this framework, how it is used, and what insight it can present. The diversity of situations we present, mergers and acquisitions of companies, collaborations between industry and university, large multi- organizational projects, and a very complex project, as well as other cases we do not present here, confers the validity of utility and potential of the PSI framework.
Data assimilation addresses the general problem of how to combine model-based predictions with partial and noisy observations of the process in an optimal manner. This survey focuses on sequential data assimilation techniques using probabilistic particle-based algorithms. In addition to surveying recent developments for discrete- and continuous-time data assimilation, both in terms of mathematical foundations and algorithmic implementations, we also provide a unifying framework from the perspective of coupling of measures, and Schrödinger’s boundary value problem for stochastic processes in particular.
Little is known about health-related quality of life in young children undergoing staged palliation for single-ventricle CHD. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of CHD on daily life in pre-schoolers with single-ventricle CHD and to identify determinants of health-related quality of life.
Prospective two-centre cohort study assessing health-related quality of life using the Preschool Paediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory in 46 children at a mean age of 38 months and 3 weeks. Children with genetic anomalies were excluded. Scores were compared with reference data of children with biventricular CHD. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify determinants of health-related quality of life.
Health-related quality of life in pre-schoolers with single-ventricle CHD was comparable to children with biventricular CHD. Preterm birth and perioperative variables were significant predictors of low health-related quality of life. Notably, pre-Fontan brain MRI findings and neurodevelopmental status were not associated with health-related quality of life. Overall, perioperative variables explained 24% of the variability of the total health-related quality of life score.
Despite substantial health-related burden, pre-schoolers with single-ventricle CHD showed good health-related quality of life. Less-modifiable treatment-related risk factors and preterm birth had the highest impact on health-related quality of life. Long-term follow-up assessment of self-reported health-related quality of life is needed to identify patients with poorer health-related quality of life and to initiate supportive care.
1. Introduction. Let S denote the family of functions f(z) regular and univalent in ∣z∣ < 1, with the expansion f(z) = z + a2z2 + … about z = 0, and let Af denote the area of the intersection of the open circle ∣ω∣ < 1 with Df, the image of ∣z∣ < 1 under f(z). A few years ago one of the authors (1) proved that if
A diverse Permian crinoid fauna is reported from the Taiyuan Formation, Dajian Member (Asselian) at Anyang, northeastern Henan Province of the North China Craton. The specimens are well preserved, including articulated crowns and cups. The fauna contains representatives of each of the major Paleozoic crinoid clades: Cladida (including the Flexibilia), Disparida, and Camerata. Identified genera suggest a greater affinity with North American faunas than with Tethyan faunas. Four new species, Neoprotencrinus anyangensis, Ulocrinus qiaoi, Artichthyocrinus limani, and Synbathocrinus chenae, are proposed herein.
To determine the effect of mandatory and nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies on vaccination rates and symptomatic absenteeism among healthcare personnel (HCP).
Retrospective observational cohort study.
This study took place at 3 university medical centers with mandatory influenza vaccination policies and 4 Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare systems with nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies.
The study included 2,304 outpatient HCP at mandatory vaccination sites and 1,759 outpatient HCP at nonmandatory vaccination sites.
To determine the incidence and duration of absenteeism in outpatient settings, HCP participating in the Respiratory Protection Effectiveness Clinical Trial at both mandatory and nonmandatory vaccination sites over 3 viral respiratory illness (VRI) seasons (2012–2015) reported their influenza vaccination status and symptomatic days absent from work weekly throughout a 12-week period during the peak VRI season each year. The adjusted effects of vaccination and other modulating factors on absenteeism rates were estimated using multivariable regression models.
The proportion of participants who received influenza vaccination was lower each year at nonmandatory than at mandatory vaccination sites (odds ratio [OR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07–0.11). Among HCP who reported at least 1 sick day, vaccinated HCP had lower symptomatic days absent compared to unvaccinated HCP (OR for 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72–0.93; OR for 2014–2015, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69–0.95).
These data suggest that mandatory HCP influenza vaccination policies increase influenza vaccination rates and that HCP symptomatic absenteeism diminishes as rates of influenza vaccination increase. These findings should be considered in formulating HCP influenza vaccination policies.
October 1998 marked the tenth anniversary of the promulgation of Brazil’s most recent democratic constitution—and the debates about how to reform that same constitution have been going on just as long. The continuing efforts at constitutional reform in Brazil suggest the gravity of institutional choice in new democracies. The importance of “getting institutions right” is underscored, in political science, by the notion that institutional choices can undermine or solidify democratic rule.
Many contemporary linguists describe their data in terms of a system of rules which state that one string of symbols is to be rewritten as another string of symbols, perhaps with the condition that this only occur when the symbols occur in a particular context. When the linguist wants to use the grammar to produce a particular utterance, he starts with an initial symbol and, one at a time in linear sequence, applies or attempts to apply the rules to the string of symbols he is building up. After applying all of the rules, or perhaps a subset of them, he may have to reapply the rules of a subset of them again and again until no further changes can be made to the string. If at the end of this process the string consists solely of terminal symbols, he has produced a grammatical utterance. Basically such systems consist of symbols and a few operations on these symbols, including match, copy, concatenate, and replace. This system grew out of a union of the item-and-process approach to linguistics with automata theory, an area of mathematics related to the understanding of computers.
The radio continuum emission of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies can be decomposed into a central region, a clumpy “thin disk”, concentrated in the spiral arms, and a smooth “thick disk” (or flattened “halo”). The emissivity ratio of the two disks seems to be related to the magnetic field properties: Galaxies with strong radio spiral arms reveal a highly ordered field following the arm direction, while galaxies with diffuse disks contain a less ordered, smoothly distributed field. The degree of uniformity of the field seems to correlate with the total optical luminosity. The average magnetic field in the Milky Way is weak and turbulent compared to most of the nearby galaxies observed so far.
A large radio continuum loop of diameter was discovered at G16.5+0.7 on the Bonn 2.7 GHz and NRO 10 GHz galactic plane surveys. The loop is associated with the H II region M16, and the diameter is 60 pc at a distance of 2.8 kpc. Figure 1 shows the loop at 2.7 GHz in gray scale. The spectrum is thermal and the total H II mass is estimated at 3×103 M⊙. If the loop is due to a shell of the same diameter, the mean electron density on the shell is about 4 cm−3. The total thermal energy is about 6×1048ergs. The characteristics are summarized in Table 1.
Radio observations with high sensitivity have shown that lots of more or less compact structures can be found in the field of extended and old supernova remnants (SNRs). These small diameter sources have been subject to many recent observations. The aim of these studies is to infer a possible physical association of these sources with the SNR shell. The interest in this link is based on various aspects, instabilities of shocked interstellar matter, star formation, etc.
Radio observations of large supernova remnants (SNRs) with high angular resolution have been provided by modern synthesis instruments preferentially at frequencies below 2 GHz. Since these instruments are sensitive mainly to unresolved emission spots, weak extended SNRs usually remain undetected. Besides this, there are numerous physical parameters, which can be studied more properly at higher frequencies. In particular, the polarization characteristics can be more easily analyzed and reduced to the intrinsic magnetic field orientation. In some cases foreground effects substantially disturb the SNR's field structure at low frequencies.
Flat plate turbulent boundary layers under zero pressure gradient are simulated using synthetic turbulence generated by the fast random particle–mesh method. The stochastic realisation is based on time-averaged turbulence statistics derived from Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes simulation of flat plate turbulent boundary layers at Reynolds numbers
. To determine fluctuating pressure, a Poisson equation is solved with an unsteady right-hand side source term derived from the synthetic turbulence realisation. The Poisson equation is solved via fast Fourier transform using Hockney’s method. Due to its efficiency, the applied procedure enables us to study, for high Reynolds number flow, the effect of variations of the modelled turbulence characteristics on the resulting wall pressure spectrum. The contributions to wall pressure fluctuations from the mean-shear turbulence interaction term and the turbulence–turbulence interaction term are studied separately. The results show that both contributions have the same order of magnitude. Simulated one-point spectra and two-point cross-correlations of wall pressure fluctuations are analysed in detail. Convective features of the fluctuating pressure field are well determined. Good agreement for the characteristics of the wall pressure fluctuations is found between the present results and databases from other investigators.
Changes of the cosmic ray electron spectrum throughout the Galaxy have been found, based on the comparison of large-scale radio continuum surveys. These observations are not compatible with the assumption of a static Galactic halo, but indicate the existence of a Galactic wind. Galactic plane surveys reveal sources of cosmic ray electrons in the Galactic disk. Recent studies of the population of radio sources show no evidence for a large number of compact Galactic non-thermal sources. Most of the extended sources are probably HII-regions. Relatively few new supernova remnants (SNRs) with low surface brightness could be identified. Most of the non-thermal emission in the disk-halo interface seems diffuse or unresolved, even at arcmin angular resolution.