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To evaluate total usual intakes and biomarkers of micronutrients, overall dietary quality and related health characteristics of US older adults who were overweight or obese compared with a healthy weight.
Two 24-h dietary recalls, nutritional biomarkers and objective and subjective health characteristic data were analysed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2014. We used the National Cancer Institute method to estimate distributions of total usual intakes from foods and dietary supplements for eleven micronutrients of potential concern and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 score.
Older adults aged ≥60 years (n 2969) were categorised by sex and body weight status, using standard BMI categories. Underweight individuals (n 47) were excluded due to small sample size.
A greater percentage of obese older adults compared with their healthy-weight counterparts was at risk of inadequate Mg (both sexes), Ca, vitamin B6 and vitamin D (women only) intakes. The proportion of those with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 40 nmol/l was higher in obese (12 %) than in healthy-weight older women (6 %). Mean overall HEI-2015 scores were 8·6 (men) and 7·1 (women) points lower in obese than in healthy-weight older adults. In addition, compared with healthy-weight counterparts, obese older adults were more likely to self-report fair/poor health, use ≥ 5 medications and have limitations in activities of daily living and cardio-metabolic risk factors; and obese older women were more likely to be food-insecure and have depression.
Our findings suggest that obesity may coexist with micronutrient inadequacy in older adults, especially among women.
The great feud between the clans Campbell and MacDonald in the early seventeenth century AD was part of a power struggle for control of Islay, the seat of the Lord of the Isles, and encompassed wider political, economic and religious change in the region and beyond from the sixteenth century. The discovery of a seal matrix found during excavations at Dunyvaig Castle reveals the personal story of Sir John Campbell of Cawdor (1576–1642) in these broader political events.
Ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal is an important source of nutrients in the American diet. Recent regulatory changes to labelling requirements may impact the fortification of RTE cereal. We used an evidence-based approach to optimize the fortification of RTE cereal considering current dietary patterns and nutrition policy.
A US modelling study of cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013–2014. The percentage of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and above the Upper Tolerable Intake Level (UL) was modelled under three scenarios: baseline, zero fortification and optimized fortification.
Toddlers aged 1–3 years, n 559; children aged 4–12 years, n 1540; adolescents aged 13–18 years, n 992; and adults aged ≥19 years, n 576.
Comparing current with optimized fortification, nutrient/100 g RTE cereal decreased for vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin B12, Ca and Fe (by 2–82 %). The amount of vitamins C and D increased (by 13 and 50 %, respectively). Among RTE cereal eaters, these changes resulted in modest increases in the percentage of the population aged ≥1 year below the EAR (+0·5 to +11·5 percentage points). Decreases were observed in the percentage of the population above the UL.
Fortification of RTE cereal can be optimized to provide key nutrients and minimize the percentage of the population below the EAR and above the UL. Dietary intake modelling is useful to ensure that RTE cereal continues to help the population meet their nutrient needs.
Globally, China is among the ‘saltiest’ nations. In order to support current nationwide salt reduction initiatives, we investigated Chinese consumers’ knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to salt intake and salt reduction.
A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out, focusing on salt knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to salt intake and salt reduction, perceptions of salt reduction responsibility and support for different national strategies.
The survey was carried out in China mainland.
Consumers (n 2444) from six of seven major geographical regions in China participated in the survey. After data cleaning, a sample of 2430 was included in the final analysis.
A majority of Chinese consumers believed that salt added during home cooking was the biggest contributor to their salt intake. Knowledge gaps existed in the awareness of salt hidden in certain foods and flavouring products. Chinese consumers in general were interested in lowering their salt intake. They were aware of salt reduction tools, but the adoption level was low. Consumers expressed strong support for promotion of salt-restriction spoons and public education, but not fiscal policies (e.g. salt-related tax or subsidies). In terms of individual differences, education status demonstrated a substantial impact on salt reduction knowledge and behaviour.
There is still big room to ‘shake’ Chinese consumers’ salt habit. The present study provides important evidence and consumer insights to support China’s efforts to meet its salt reduction targets.
The tri-global stability and sensitivity of the low-speed jet in cross-flow are studied using the adjoint equations and finite-time horizon optimal disturbance analysis at Reynolds number
, based on the average velocity at the jet exit, the jet nozzle exit diameter and the kinematic viscosity of the jet, for two jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratios
. A novel capability is developed on unstructured grids and parallel platforms for this purpose. Asymmetric modes are more important to the overall dynamics at
, suggesting increased sensitivity to experimental asymmetries at higher
. Low-frequency modes show a connection to wake vortices. Adjoint modes show that the upstream shear layer is most sensitive to perturbations along the upstream side of the jet nozzle. Lower frequency downstream modes are sensitive in the cross-flow boundary layer. For
, optimal analysis reveals that for short time horizons, asymmetric perturbations dominate and grow along the counter-rotating vortex pair observed in the cross-section. However, as the time horizon increases, large transient growth is observed along the upstream shear layer. When
, the optimal perturbations for short time scales grow along the downstream shear layer. For long time horizons, they become hybrid modes that grow along both the upstream and downstream shear layers.
In recent years, the discovery of massive quasars at
has provided a striking challenge to our understanding of the origin and growth of supermassive black holes in the early Universe. Mounting observational and theoretical evidence indicates the viability of massive seeds, formed by the collapse of supermassive stars, as a progenitor model for such early, massive accreting black holes. Although considerable progress has been made in our theoretical understanding, many questions remain regarding how (and how often) such objects may form, how they live and die, and how next generation observatories may yield new insight into the origin of these primordial titans. This review focusses on our present understanding of this remarkable formation scenario, based on the discussions held at the Monash Prato Centre from November 20 to 24, 2017, during the workshop ‘Titans of the Early Universe: The Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes’.
To examine the effectiveness of the Produce for Better Health Foundation grocery store tour programme as a nutrition education tool for changing consumers’ intention to consume various forms of fruits and vegetables (F&V).
Ten grocery stores in a city in the Southeast USA.
A total of 147 grocery shoppers in Alabama, who participated in a grocery store tour, completed a retrospective pre-/post-survey using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.
Results from independent-samples t tests indicated that mean values of attitude, subjective norm and perceived control were significantly increased after store tours (P < 0·01). Participants’ intentions to consume various types of F&V (fresh, dried, canned, juice and frozen), especially dried F&V, increased significantly after store tours. Results from structural equation modelling indicated that before store tours attitude (γ = 0·48, P < 0·01) was the most significant predictor of intention to consume F&V, followed by perceived behavioural control (γ = 0·24, P = 0·02) and subjective norm (γ = 0·21, P = 0·03). After store tours, attitude (γ = 0·51, P < 0·01) and perceived behavioural control (γ = 0·44, P < 0·01) were still strong predictors of intention to consume F&V, while subjective norm became an insignificant predictor of intention.
Findings revealed positive changes in study participants’ attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and their intentions to consume various forms of F&V, which suggest potential benefits of providing grocery store tours as a tool to promote consumers’ F&V intake.
To describe the modification and validation of an existing instrument, the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO), to better capture provider feeding practices.
Modifications to the EPAO were made, validity assessed through expert review, pilot tested and then used to collect follow-up data during a two-day home visit from an ongoing cluster-randomized trial. Exploratory factor analysis investigated the underlying factor structure of the feeding practices. To test predictive validity of the factors, multilevel mixed models examined associations between factors and child’s diet quality as captured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score (measured via the Dietary Observation in Childcare Protocol).
Family childcare homes (FCCH) in Rhode Island and North Carolina, USA.
The modified EPAO was pilot tested with fifty-three FCCH and then used to collect data in 133 FCCH.
The final three-factor solution (‘coercive control and indulgent feeding practices’, ‘autonomy support practices’, ‘negative role modelling’) captured 43 % of total variance. In multilevel mixed models adjusted for covariates, ‘autonomy support practices’ was positively associated with children’s diet quality. A 1-unit increase in the use of ‘autonomy support practices’ was associated with a 9·4-unit increase in child HEI-2010 score (P=0·001).
Similar to the parenting literature, constructs which describe coercive controlling practices and those which describe autonomy-supportive practices emerged. Given that diets of pre-schoolers in the USA remain suboptimal, teaching childcare providers about supportive feeding practices may help improve children’s diet quality.
Age-related hearing and vision problems are common among people with dementia and are associated with poorer function, reduced quality of life and increased caregiver burden. Addressing sensory impairments may offer an opportunity to improve various aspects of life for people with dementia.
Electronic databases were searched using key terms dementia, hearing impairment, vision impairment, intervention, and management. Database searches were supplemented by hand searching bibliographies of papers and via consultation with a network of health professional experts. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included adults aged over 50 with dementia with adult-onset hearing or vision impairment who had received a hearing or vision intervention in relation to cognitive function, rate of decline, psychiatric symptoms, hearing/vision-related disability, quality of life, and/or caregiver burden outcomes. A range of study designs were included. Results were summarized descriptively according to level of evidence and effect sizes calculated where possible. Risk of bias was assessed using Downs and Black's (1998) checklist. The development of the intervention was summarized according to the CReDECI2 scheme. PROSPERO review registration number 2016:CRD42016039737.
Twelve papers describing hearing interventions and five papers describing vision interventions were included. Most were of low to moderate quality. One high quality randomized controlled trial of a hearing aid intervention was identified. Hearing interventions included provision of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, communication strategies, hearing aid trouble shooting, and cochlear implantation. Vision interventions included prism lenses, rehabilitation training, and cataract surgery. There was no consistent evidence for the positive impact of hearing/vision interventions on cognitive function, rate of cognitive decline, quality of life, or caregiver burden.
Sensory interventions may promote better outcomes, but there is a need for properly powered, controlled trials of hearing and vision interventions on outcomes relevant to people living with dementia.
To (i) describe the proportion of foods and beverages available on school canteen menus classified as having high (‘green’), moderate (‘amber’) or low (‘red’) nutritional value; (ii) describe the proportion of these items purchased by students; and (iii) examine the association between food and beverage availability on school canteen menus and food and beverage purchasing by students.
A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a larger randomised controlled trial (RCT).
A nested sample of fifty randomly selected government schools from the Hunter New England region of New South Wales, Australia, who had participated in an RCT of an intervention to improve the availability of healthy foods sold from school canteens, was approached to participate.
School principals, canteen managers and students.
The average proportion of green, amber and red items available on menus was 47·9, 47·4 and 4·7 %, respectively. The average proportion of green, amber and red items purchased by students was 30·1, 61·8 and 8·1 %, respectively. There was a significant positive relationship between the availability and purchasing of green (R2=0·66), amber (R2=0·57) and red menu items (R2=0·61). In each case, a 1 % increase in the availability of items in these categories was associated with a 1·21, 1·35 and 1·67 % increase in purchasing of items of high, moderate and low nutritional value, respectively.
The findings provide support for school-based policies to improve the relative availability of healthy foods for sale in these settings.