To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Answer Set Programming (ASP) solvers are highly-tuned and complex procedures that implicitly solve the consistency problem, i.e., deciding whether a logic program admits an answer set. Verifying whether a claimed answer set is formally a correct answer set of the program can be decided in polynomial time for (normal) programs. However, it is far from immediate to verify whether a program that is claimed to be inconsistent, indeed does not admit any answer sets. In this paper, we address this problem and develop the new proof format ASP-DRUPE for propositional, disjunctive logic programs, including weight and choice rules. ASP-DRUPE is based on the Reverse Unit Propagation (RUP) format designed for Boolean satisfiability. We establish correctness of ASP-DRUPE and discuss how to integrate it into modern ASP solvers. Later, we provide an implementation of ASP-DRUPE into the wasp solver for normal logic programs.
We report the growth of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanoribbons (NRs) on epitaxial Ag and oriented Au nanostructures (NSs) using an ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique at different substrate temperatures. An approximately 2 nm silver (Ag) film has been deposited at different growth temperatures (using UHV-MBE) on cleaned Si(100), Si(110), and Si(111) substrates. For faceted Au NSs, an approximately 50 nm Au film has been deposited (using high-vacuum thermal evaporation) on a Si(100) substrate with a native oxide layer at the interface and the sample was annealed in low vacuum (≈10−2) and at high temperature (≈975°C). Scanning electron microscopy measurements were performed to determine the morphology of MoO3/Ag and MoO3/Au composite films. From energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping and line scans it is found that faceted Au NSs are more favorable for the growth of MoO3 NRs than epitaxial Ag microstructures.
Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, CZTS) consists of abundant and cheap elements and is therefore a very promising alternative to semiconductors based on Ga or In as solar absorber material. In addition it displays very beneficial properties like a high optical absorption coefficient and an ideal band gap for photovoltaic applications. In this contribution we present the preparation of CZTS thin films from metal salts (copper(I) iodide, zinc(II) acetate and tin(II) chloride) and thioacetamide as sulfur source by a solution based precursor method. CZTS solar cells based on these films as absorber layer with a simple ITO/CZTS/CdS/Al assembly are fabricated and characterized. Efficiencies up to 0.5% were achieved demonstrating the potential of this precursor method for the preparation of CZTS thin films for photovoltaic applications.
While the distribution of the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function constitutes a central theme in Mathematics, nothing is known about the algebraic nature of these non-trivial zeros. In this article, we study the transcendental nature of sums of the form
where the sum is over the non-trivial zeros
is a rational function over algebraic numbers and
is a real algebraic number. In particular, we show that the function
has infinitely many zeros in
, at most one of which is algebraic. The transcendence tools required for studying
in the range
seem to be different from those in the range
, we have the following non-vanishing theorem: If for an integer
has a rational zero in
is the quadratic character associated with the imaginary quadratic field
. Finally, we consider analogous questions for elements in the Selberg class. Our proofs rest on results from analytic as well as transcendental number theory.
The existence of genotype by environment interaction (G*E) can cause a change in the ranking of bulls tested in one environment when their daughters are subsequently milked in another environment. If the degree of re-ranking is large, the genetic correlation between milk production in the two environments will be substantially less than 1.0, with the implication that proofs made in one environment may not be reliable predictors of proofs in the second environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of increasing the difference between environments, defined on the basis of herd average milk yield, on the genetic correlation (rg) for milk, fat and protein yield in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in Ireland.
Important differences exist between various databases in the digestibility of ruminant feed ingredients (INRA, 1989; MAFF, 1992). The objective of this experiment was to measure the digestibility of some the more important ruminant feed ingredients and the variation associated with them.
In this paper, an analytical investigation of two-dimensional conventional Burnett equations has been undertaken for gaseous flow through a long microchannel. The analytical solution is obtained by using perturbation analysis around the classical Navier–Stokes solution with appropriate boundary conditions. The perturbation expansion is employed with the smallness parameter
, taken as the ratio of height to length of the microchannel. The solution for pressure is obtained by solving the cross-stream momentum equation while the velocity distribution is obtained from the streamwise momentum equation. The resulting ordinary differential equations in pressure and velocity are third-order and second-order, respectively. The required boundary conditions for pressure are obtained from direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) data. The obtained analytical solution matches the available DSMC solution well. This is perhaps the first analytical solution of the Burnett equations using the perturbation approach.
This study precisely investigates the relationship of information technology (IT) and knowledge management (KM) capabilities with organizational agility along with the moderating influence of external environmental actors on this linkage. A matched-pair field survey was conducted and pretested structured questionnaires were administered to accumulate primary responses from 300 business and IT personnel working in various Indian financial groups. The research findings encompass first, IT and KM capabilities are enablers of organizational agility, while KM capability is more effective on agility. Second, a more diverse and less hostile environment is required for IT and KM capabilities to have more positive influence on agility, yet the moderating effects of environmental factors are found to be more on IT–agility linkage than on KM–agility relationship. These inferences provide several implications for the business and IT executives to concentrate on leveraging both IT and KM capabilities for generating augmented organizational agility.
Higher dry matter intakes (DMI) have been reported in dairy cows fed maize silage than in dairy cows fed grass silage. The objective of this experiment was to investigate this phenomenon by the measurement of digestibility and the determination of rumen outflow rates for both forages. The response in milk production of late lactation dairy cows to grass or maize silage was also measured.
Fourteen late lactation multiparous dairy cows (n = 7) were fed diets containing either grass silage (GS) (DM: 197g/kg; pH: 4.05; NDF: 642g/kg DM) or high starch maize silage (MS) (DM: 339g/kg; pH: 3.94; starch: 360g/kg DM; NDF: 442g/kg DM) ad-libitum plus 4kgs/hd/day of a dairy concentrate (233g CP/kg DM). Urea (460g N/kg DM) was used as a source of degradable protein (10g/kg DM) for the MS diet which also included straw (40g/kg DM). Dietary NDF equalled 542 and 423g/kg DM for the GS and MS diet.
Pre-1990 published responses to supplementation at pasture ranged from 0.4 to 0.6kg milk/kg concentrate fed. However since 1990 higher responses to concentrate supplementation at pasture have been published (Delaby 2001). The objective of this study was to determine if milk production responses of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows to concentrate supplementation at pasture are influenced by genetic merit (milk yield potential) in a spring calving grass based system of milk production.
Interest is accruing in indicator traits as predictors of fertility which: 1) can be more easily recorded; 2) can be measured early in life; and, 3) possess a co-heritability that is larger than the heritability of the fertility traits. Potentially interesting indicator traits include body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW). The objective of this study was to estimate genetic (co) variances between BCS, BCS change, BW, BW change, and fertility traits in dairy cattle.
Night-time agitation is a frequent symptom of dementia. It often causes nursing home admission and has been linked to circadian rhythm disturbances. A positive influence of light interventions on night-time agitation was shown in several studies. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there is a long-term association between regional weather data (as indicator for daylight availability) and 24-hour variations of motor activity.
Motor activity of 20 elderly nursing home residents living with dementia was analyzed using recordings of continuously worn wrist activity monitors over a three-year period. The average recording duration was 479 ± 206 days per participant (mean ± SD). Regional cloud amount and day length data from the local weather station (latitude: 52°56′N) were included in the analysis to investigate their effects on several activity variables.
Nocturnal rest, here defined as the five consecutive hours with the least motor activity during 24 hours (L5), was the most predictable activity variable per participant. There was a significant interaction of night-time activity with day length and cloud amount (F1,1174 = 4.39; p = 0.036). Night-time activity was higher on cloudy short days than on clear short days (p = 0.007), and it was also higher on cloudy short days than on cloudy long days (p = 0.032).
The need for sufficient zeitgeber (time cue) strength during winter time, especially when days are short and skies are cloudy, is crucial for elderly people living with dementia. Activity forecast by season and weather might be a valuable approach to anticipate adequately complementary use of electrical light and thereby foster lower night-time activity.
Throughout their lives, people are confronted with unexpected life events, which can be difficult to incorporate into their life narratives. Such a confrontation can result in an experience of contingency. Different ways of relating to contingency have been described by Wuchterl: denying, acknowledging, and “encounter with the Other.” In the present article, we aim to trace these theoretical distinctions in real-life experiences of patients.
We analyzed 45 interviews using the constant comparative method with a directed content analysis approach in the Atlas.ti coding program. The interviews originated from a randomized controlled trial evaluating an assisted reflection on life events and ultimate life goals. Seven spiritual counselors from six hospitals in the Netherlands conducted the interviews from July of 2014 to March of 2016. All 45 patients had advanced cancer.
We found four different modes into which relating to contingency can be classified: denying, acknowledging, accepting, and receiving. With denying, patients did not mention any impact of the life event on their lives. In acknowledging, the impact was recognized and a start was made to incorporate the event into their life. In accepting, patients went through a process of reinterpretation of the event. In receiving, patients talked about receiving insights from their illness and living a more conscious life.
Significance of results:
Our study is the first to investigate the different ways of relating to contingency in clinical practice. The defined modes will improve our understanding of the various ways in which cancer patients relate to their disease, allowing caregivers to better target and shape individual care.
V. The life assurance branch of the General Assurance Company (Assicurazioni Generali Austro Italiche) in Trieste was established in 1834 as a separate branch of business of this Company, which also undertakes fire and marine assurance; and its operations extend not only to all Austria and Germany, but also to other European countries, and especially to Italy. It is a purely Proprietary Company, the assured receiving no part of the profits of the Company. The security for the fulfilment of the Company's engagements is a share capital of two millions gulden (£200,000), in 2000 shares of 1000 gulden (£100) each, of which 10 per cent. is paid up. One half of the capital is specially set apart for the guarantee of the life and annuity business. The Company offers to the public the choice of a great variety in the modes of assurance. Assurances for the whole life, for fixed periods of years, of sums deferred for a given time—assurances of the sum payable either in case of death or on attaining a given age—survivorships, the last with the return of premiums in case of the life against which the assurance is made dying first—as well as endowments and life annuities—are granted. As in other established Companies, by far the greater part of the business consists of the single assurances for the whole life, and the other modes are resorted to but seldom. The premiums appear to be computed on some peculiar data, or a table not generally recognized.