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The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and modifiable population-level risk factors, after accounting for deprivation.
A review of the literature identified population-level risk factors including a healthy childcare setting, the local food environment, accessible open space, community safety and crime. Data for these risk factors were then identified and matched by each of the twenty-two local government areas in Wales to each child that had data on height and weight in the Wales Childhood Measurement Programme (CMP) (2012–2017). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations with childhood obesity.
The current study was undertaken in Wales, UK, where approximately one in eight 4–5-year-olds are classified as obese.
All participants were children aged 4 or 5 years who attend school, measured as part of the CMP, between 2012 and 2017 (n 129 893, mean age 5·0 (sd 0·4) years).
After adjusting for deprivation, small but statistically significant associations were found between childhood obesity and percentage of land available as accessible open space OR 0·981 (95 % CI: 0·973, 0·989) P < 0·001) and density of fast food outlets OR 1·002 (95 % CI 1·001, 1·004, P = 0·001). No other population-level risk factors were associated with childhood obesity.
The current study indicates that, even after accounting for deprivation, risk factors such as the density of fast food outlets and access to green space should be considered when tackling childhood obesity as a public health issue.
In 2014, a Nutrition Report Card (NRC) was developed as a sustainable, low-cost framework to assess the healthfulness of children’s food environments and highlight action to support healthy eating. We summarise our experiences in producing, disseminating, evaluating and refining an annual NRC in a Canadian province from 2015 to 2019.
To produce the NRC, children’s food environment indicator data are collected, analyzed and compiled for consensus grading by an Expert Working Group of researchers and practitioners. Knowledge translation activities are tailored annually to the needs of target audiences: researchers, practitioners, policymakers and the public. Evaluation of reach is conducted through diverse strategies, including tracking media coverage and website traffic. Assessment of impact on diets and health outcomes is planned.
The grading process has facilitated refining the NRC to enhance its relevance and utility as a tool for its target audiences. Its public release consistently captures media interest and policymakers’ attention. The importance of partnerships in revealing data sources and in strategising to enhance policy approaches to improve food environments is apparent. The NRC has benchmarked progress and stimulated dialogue regarding healthy food environments for children.
The NRC may help to foster a supportive climate for improving the quality of children’s food environments. As an engaging and accessible document, the NRC represents a key mechanism for collating data related to children’s food environments and ensuring it reaches the audiences best positioned to use it. Efforts are underway to expand the NRC across Canada.
This chapter explores the development of a popular print culture in Ireland during the decades between 1830 and 1880, as well as the growth of an audience for such publications. It traces the history of the technological and legislative changes – such as the arrival of steam presses and the abolition of stamp and paper taxes – necessary for a popular press to emerge, as well as the social and political landscape which enabled an expanded readership to develop. In particular, the chapter examines the role of the radical political press in actively developing that readership through both its network of reading rooms across Ireland and its publishing of newspapers and juvenile story papers, including the Nation newspaper, the Irish Fireside Magazine, Young Ireland and the Shamrock magazine. These publications were intended to establish an imaginative link between popular entertainment and radical politics, especially through the use of Irish history and historical fiction in order to create a print culture which created and reinforced a national Irish audience for both the popular press and mass political movements.
Traditional dietary assessment methods in research can be challenging, with participant burden to complete an interview, diary, 24 h recall or questionnaire and researcher burden to code the food record to obtain a nutrient breakdown. Self-reported assessment methods are subject to recall and social desirability biases, in addition to selection bias from the nature of volunteering to take part in a research study. Supermarket loyalty card transaction records, linked to back of pack nutrient information, present a novel opportunity to use objective records of food purchases to assess diet at a household level. With a large sample size and multiple transactions, it is possible to review variation in food purchases over time and across different geographical areas.
Materials and methods:
This study uses supermarket loyalty card transactions for one retailer's customers in Leeds, for 12 months during 2016. Fruit and vegetable purchases for customers who appear to shop regularly for a ‘complete’ shop, buying from at least 7 of 11 Living Cost and Food Survey categories, were calculated. Using total weight of fruits and vegetables purchased over one year, average portions (80g) per day, per household were generated. Descriptive statistics of fruit and vegetable purchases by age, gender and Index of Multiple Deprivation of the loyalty card holder were generated. Using Geographical Information Systems, maps of neighbourhood purchases per month of the year were created to visualise variations.
The loyalty card holder transaction records represent 6.4% of the total Leeds population. On average, households in Leeds purchase 3.5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day, per household. Affluent and rural areas purchase more fruit and vegetables than average with 22% purchasing more than 5 portions/day. Conversely poor urban areas purchase less, with 18% purchasing less than 1 portion/day. Highest purchases are in the winter months, with lowest in the summer holidays. Loyalty cards registered to females purchased 0.4 portions per day more than male counterparts. The over 65 years purchased 1.5 portions per day more than the 17–24 year olds. A clear deprivation gradient is observed, with the most deprived purchasing 1.5 portions less per day than the least deprived.
Loyalty card transaction data offer an exciting opportunity for measuring variation in fruit and vegetable purchases. Variation is observed by age, gender, deprivation, geographically across a city and throughout the seasons. These insights can inform both policymakers and retailers regarding areas for fruit and vegetable promotion.
Supermarket transaction data, generated from loyalty cards, offers a novel source of food purchase information. Data are available for large sample sizes, over sustained periods of time, allowing for habitual purchasing patterns to be generated. In the UK, recommended dietary patterns to achieve a healthy diet are pictorially illustrated using the Eatwell Guide. Foods include: Fruit and vegetables; starchy products including potatoes, bread, pasta, rice; dairy or dairy alternatives; proteins such as beans, pulses, fish, eggs and meat; oils and spreads; and advice to limit foods high in salt, fat and sugar. Through mapping of foods purchased to the categories of the Eatwell Guide it is possible to review population performance against these national recommendations.
Materials and methods
All loyalty card transaction records for purchases made in a UK supermarket chain, by residents of Yorkshire and the Humber during 2016 were included in this research. Customers who purchased foods from 7 or 11 Living Cost and Food Survey (LCFS) categories on ten or more occasions throughout the year were included in the sample, as these customers were considered to be purchasing the majority of their foods from the supermarket. All foods purchased were mapped to the Eatwell Guide food groups via the LCFS categories.
Households purchased: 25% of their total spend on fruits and vegetables, compared with 39% recommended; 13% on starchy products compared to 37% recommended; 23% of protein rich foods compared with 12% recommended; 12% dairy and alternatives compared to 8%; oils and spreads 2% compared to 1% recommended; and 25% foods that should be limited compared to 3% (recommended, but not pictorially illustrated on the plate).
Supermarket transaction data is a novel source of food purchase information which can be used to illustrate dietary behaviours in the UK population. However, it represents foods purchased, not consumed and is at a household level, not individual. Food purchases outside the home are not included. That said, it is arguably an objective measure for dietary assessment. From this study, it is clear to see that food purchases do not match the recommendations. Purchases of high sugar, high fat and high salt snacks constitute a significant proportion of spending, when they should in fact be limited. Protein rich products are also over-represented. Fruit and vegetables and starchy products are under-represented. This insight can benefit both retailers and policy makers for understanding the food purchase behaviours of our society.
The term ‘northern soul’ refers to both a canon of primarily 1960s American records and a music-focused community that developed in the United Kingdom in the 1970s and continues to attract a multigenerational and international following. Participation is orchestrated by a scene calendar of ‘soul nites’ (that run 9 p.m.–midnight), ‘alldayers’ (midday into the evening) and ‘allnighters’ (from 9 p.m. to 8 a.m.). These events are organized by individuals active on the scene, and most are run in an attempt to cover costs, rather than to make a profit. Scene practices revolve around dancing to, DJing and collecting within this canon of supposedly rare records from a range of genres –from American R&B to funk –that have become associated with the scene (see Wall 2006). The construction and sharing of the history of the scene is a do-it-yourself process undertaken by scene insiders, and more specifically by individuals who claim the right to speak on behalf of the scene through their personal experience of northern soul in the 1970s (see Raine and Wall 2017; Raine and Wall 2019). As such, the diverse experiences and wide network of dance halls and youth clubs of the past have been streamlined into a linear, dominant narrative: an ‘official’ history of particular mythologized venues and their associated vinyl. Furthermore, this official history is preserved through the very processes of claiming membership, with the past conveying value on those who are able to demonstrate a personal experience of this past.
This chapter draws on a three-year ethnographic study of the British northern soul scene. It explores how the northern soul past is lived in the present and illuminates the precarity of these interlinked processes of heritagization and membership for the scene's younger participants who are part of a music community that values original participation in the 1970s. Referencing interviews and my own experience, I consider how personal and shared engagements with the past and with the passing of time are encoded into scene practices. In doing so, I show how a collective understanding of this past is organized through stories of northern soul nights, told and retold by an older generation of scene participants in their claim to authentic participation.
By the end of the nineteenth century, it was estimated that 86 per cent of the Irish population were literate. While more nuanced understandings of what that literacy might actually entail complicate this statistic, it was nevertheless the case that the overwhelming majority of the population – especially those of working or school age – could read and write with basic competency, and usually a great deal more than that. The resonances of literacy becoming an almost universal skill were profound in the everyday lives of many people, particularly perhaps those who were now significantly more literate than their parents or grandparents had been. Most obviously, it opened up new employment possibilities as literacy meant that working-class or lower-middle-class school-leavers could aspire to clerical and office-work which was probably more secure, better-paid and of higher status than previous generations of their family could have achieved. Particularly in Dublin, but also in other cities and even small towns, the army of clerks expanded rapidly during the late nineteenth century. Working alongside these clerks but performing a more highly-specialised form of literate work, the number of typists expanded even more rapidly. Where in 1901 there were 704 typists in Ireland, by 1911 there were 2,865, almost all of them women. Often proficient in shorthand as well, their working lives were founded on a very particular kind of literacy – a skill of the hands which produced uniform, mechanised writing at greater speed than had ever been possible before.
This era in which more and more people were regularly writing as well as reading coincided with a popular fascination with the hand itself, and specifically with a belief that the hand was a way of gaining particular insight into its owner's identity and character, or even into their future. One publication claimed simply that ‘[t]he hand of man is the key to his character. The hand is the picture of the brain’. This chapter will explore the intersecting forms this fascination with the hand took, from graphology (the interpretation of handwriting) and palmistry, to x-rays and the use of fingerprint technology in criminal cases. These diverse activities overlapped each other in a cultural landscape where scientific and occult practices often blurred into one in the public imagination.
Since past few decades, observations have improved so strongly that when modelling Milky Way (MW) dynamics it is required to include small perturbations to the modelling process. It is difficult task that we try to solve by selecting regions to model so small that the perturbation can be considered to give nearly constant effect. We use Solar Neighbourhood (SN) as our test sample and assume that the bar effects show more or less constant contribution to SN. By extrapolating and smoothing observed stars on their orbits, and requiring that smoothed and observed phase space are consistent we were able to deduce acceleration vector. We conclude from non-radial acceleration component that the bar must cause about one third of total acceleration near SN.
The Beck’s Petrel Pseudobulweria beckii is a ‘Critically Endangered’ seabird whose breeding sites remain unknown. Historic observations suggest the species’ distribution is concentrated in the Bismarck Archipelago and particularly southern New Ireland. Over the course of two research expeditions in 2016 and 2017 we used on-land and at-sea observations, local interviews and satellite telemetry to understand the distribution of the species, its at-sea movements and potential breeding locations. Land-based and at-sea observations indicated that the area of Silur Bay in southern New Ireland was a significant site for Beck’s Petrel with numbers of birds increasing near shore prior to dusk and birds observed in spotlights over land. A local population is estimated to be in the low thousands. In 2017 a single Beck’s was captured at sea, fitted with a satellite transmitter and tracked for eight months. This bird maintained a core distribution off the south-east coast of New Ireland and north of Bougainville for 122 days. During the tracking period, the bird was located over land at night seven times; predominantly over southern New Ireland, where the signal was also lost for extended periods suggesting occupancy of an underground burrow. In August the bird migrated 1,400 km to a core pelagic habitat north of West Papua before the signal was eventually lost. Our combination of land- and sea-based observations and analysis of behaviour from satellite tracking supports the conclusion that a breeding site for Beck’s Petrel lies in the inland mountains of southern New Ireland and most likely in the high-altitude zone (> 2000 m) of the Hans Meyer Range. Further investigations are required to determine the exact location of breeding colonies in the mountains of southern New Ireland and the importance of a potential west Papuan non-breeding pelagic habitat for the species.
To assess and compare the favourability of healthy public policy options to promote healthy eating from the perspective of members of the general public and policy influencers in two Canadian provinces.
The Chronic Disease Prevention Survey, administered in 2016, required participants to rank their level of support for different evidence-based policy options to promote healthy eating at the population level. Pearson’s χ2 significance testing was used to compare support between groups for each policy option and results were interpreted using the Nuffield Council on Bioethics’ intervention ladder framework.
Alberta and Québec, Canada.
Members of the general public (n 2400) and policy influencers (n 302) in Alberta and Québec.
General public and policy influencer survey respondents were more supportive of healthy eating policies if they were less intrusive on individual autonomy. However, in comparing levels of support between groups, we found policy influencers indicated significantly stronger support overall for healthy eating policy options. We also found that policy influencers in Québec tended to show more support for more restrictive policy options than their counterparts from Alberta.
These results suggest that additional knowledge brokering may be required to increase support for more intrusive yet impactful evidence-based policy interventions; and that the overall lower levels of support among members of the public may impede policy influencers from taking action on policies to promote healthy eating.
Traumatic memories of war can result in mental disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterized by intrusive trauma memories and severe stress responses with devastating personal and societal consequences. Current treatments teach patients to regulate trauma memories, but many experience a return of symptoms even after initially successful treatment. Neuroscience is discovering ways to permanently modify trauma memories and prevent the return of symptoms. Such memory modification techniques (MMTs) have great clinical potential but also important ethical, legal and social implications. In this article, the authors describe PTSD, the role of memory in PTSD, its effects on the brain, and the limitations of current treatment methods. Then, the state of the art of the neuroscience of MMTs is presented. Within this realistic scientific framework the authors will discuss the ethical, legal and social implications of MMTs for the treatment of war-induced PTSD, especially in a military population. Three major sets of issues will be focused on: safety and social justice concerns, concerns about threats to authenticity and identity, and the possible legal and moral duties to retain certain memories. Finally, the article concludes that within scientific reality, concerns are limited and do not outweigh the potential benefits of developing treatments for patients.
A low resting heart rate across development from infancy to young adulthood relates to greater aggression/hostility. Adult aggression and a high heart rate relate to health risk. Do some aggressive individuals retain low heart rate and less health risk across development while others show high heart rate and more risk? A longitudinal sample of 203 men assessed as teens (age 16.1) and adults (mean age 32.0) permitted us to assess (a) stability of heart rate levels and reactivity, (b) stability of aggression/hostility, and (c) whether change or stability related to health risk. Adults were assessed with Buss–Perry measures of aggression/hostility; teens with the Zuckerman aggression/hostility measure. Mean resting heart rate, heart rate reactivity to speech preparation, and aggression/hostility were moderately stable across development. Within age periods, mean heart rate level, but not reactivity, was negatively related to hostility/aggression. Maintaining low heart rate into adulthood was related to better health among aggressive individuals relative to those with increasing heart rate into adulthood. Analyses controlled for weight gain, socioeconomic status, race, health habits, and medication. Low heart rate as a characteristic of hostile/aggressive individuals may continue to relate to better health indices in adulthood, despite possible reversal of this relationship with aging.
The Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) provides Disinhibition, Boldness, and Meanness scales for assessing the three trait domains of the triarchic model. Here we examined the genetic and environmental etiology of these three domains, including evaluation of potential sex differences.
A total of 1016 men and women ages 19–20 years were drawn from the University of Southern California Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior twin study.
Scores for the three TriPM scales were correlated to differing degrees, with the strongest phenotypic correlation between Disinhibition and Meanness. No sex differences were found in the genetic and environmental influences underlying these three domains, suggesting that the same genes and life experiences contribute to these traits in young men and women. For TriPM Disinhibition and Boldness, genetic factors explained about half or less of the variance, with the rest of the variance being explained by non-shared environmental factors. For TriPM Meanness, on the other hand, genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental factors accounted for the variance. The phenotypic correlation between Disinhibition and Meanness was explained in part by common genes (26%), with the remainder attributable about equally to common shared (39%), and non-shared environmental influences (35%).
These findings contribute to our understanding of psychopathic personality traits by demonstrating the importance of heritable factors for disinhibition and boldness facets of psychopathy, and the importance of shared environmental influences for the meanness facet.
While studies suggest that nutritional supplementation may reduce aggressive behavior in children, few have examined their effects on specific forms of aggression. This study tests the primary hypothesis that omega-3 (ω-3), both alone and in conjunction with social skills training, will have particular post-treatment efficacy for reducing childhood reactive aggression relative to baseline.
In this randomized, double-blind, stratified, placebo-controlled, factorial trial, a clinical sample of 282 children with externalizing behavior aged 7–16 years was randomized into ω-3 only, social skills only, ω-3 + social skills, and placebo control groups. Treatment duration was 6 months. The primary outcome measure was reactive aggression collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, with antisocial behavior as a secondary outcome.
Children in the ω-3-only group showed a short-term reduction (at 3 and 6 months) in self-report reactive aggression, and also a short-term reduction in overall antisocial behavior. Sensitivity analyses and a robustness check replicated significant interaction effects. Effect sizes (d) were small, ranging from 0.17 to 0.31.
Findings provide some initial support for the efficacy of ω-3 in reducing reactive aggression over and above standard care (medication and parent training), but yield only preliminary and limited support for the efficacy of ω-3 in reducing overall externalizing behavior in children. Future studies could test further whether ω-3 shows promise in reducing more reactive, impulsive forms of aggression.
In engaging the popularity of “free speech” as a conservative battle cry in recent years, this article poses two questions: What particular conception of that demand does the right defend, and how should the left respond? Finding that conservatives have moved from a “negative” to a “positive” understanding of this freedom selectively applied, this article presents the consistent application of that positive understanding of free speech as a challenge to concentrations of power that conspire to privilege some speech over others. Turning to recent attempts by graduate students on North American campuses to unionize, the article attempts to ground a reading of union rights as free speech rights. Free speech is presented as a useful frame through which to think about political struggles more generally, though the article cautions against treating free speech as an invariably desirable principle.
be an elliptic curve over a field
. There is a functor
from the category of finitely presented torsion-free left
-modules to the category of abelian varieties isogenous to a power of
, and a functor
in the opposite direction. We prove necessary and sufficient conditions on
for these functors to be equivalences of categories. We also prove a partial generalization in which
is replaced by a suitable higher-dimensional abelian variety over
The oomycete Aphanomyces astaci, the causative agent of crayfish plague, is listed as one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world, destroying the native crayfish populations throughout Eurasia. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of selected mitochondrial (mt) genes to track the diversity of the crayfish plague pathogen A. astaci. Two sets of primers were developed to amplify the mtDNA of ribosomal rnnS and rnnL subunits. We confirmed two main lineages, with four different haplogroups and five haplotypes among 27 studied A. astaci strains. The haplogroups detected were (1) the A-haplogroup with the a-haplotype strains originating from Orconectes sp., Pacifastacus leniusculus and Astacus astacus; (2) the B-haplogroup with the b-haplotype strains originating from the P. leniusculus; (3) the D-haplogroup with the d1 and d2-haplotypes strains originating from Procambarus clarkii; and (4) the E-haplogroup with the e-haplotype strains originating from the Orconectes limosus. The described markers are stable and reliable and the results are easily repeatable in different laboratories. The present method has high applicability as it allows the detection and characterization of the A. astaci haplotype in acute disease outbreaks in the wild, directly from the infected crayfish tissue samples.
Evaluations of primary healthcare co-located welfare advice services have been methodologically limited.
To examine the impact and cost-consequences of co-located benefits and debt advice on mental health and service use.
Prospective, controlled quasi-experimental study in eight intervention and nine comparator sites across North Thames. Changes in the proportion meeting criteria for common mental disorder (CMD, 12-item General Health Questionnaire); well-being scores (Shortened Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), 3-month GP consultation rate and financial strain were measured alongside funding costs and financial gains.
Relative to controls, CMD reduced among women (ratio of odds ratios (rOR) = 0.37, 95% CI 0.20–0.70) and Black advice recipients (rOR=0.09, 95% CI 0.03–0.28). Individuals whose advice resulted in positive outcomes demonstrated improved well-being scores (β coefficient 1.29, 95% CI 0.25–2.32). Reductions in financial strain (rOR=042, 95% CI 0.23–0.77) but no changes in 3-month consultation rate were found. Per capita, advice recipients received £15 per £1 of funder investment.
Co-located welfare advice improves short-term mental health and well-being, reduces financial strain and generates considerable financial returns.