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The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in neuropsychological functioning after sports-related concussion using several approaches to assess cognition: mean performance, number of impaired scores, and intraindividual variability (IIV).
In the study, 152 concussed college athletes were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, on average, 10 days post-concussion (SD = 12.75; Mdn = 4 days; Range = 0–72 days). Mean performance was evaluated across 18 individual neuropsychological variables, and the total number of impaired test scores (>1.5 SD below the mean) was calculated for each athlete. Two measures of IIV were also computed: an intraindividual standard deviation (ISD) score and a maximum discrepancy (MD) score.
Analyses of covariance revealed that, compared with males, females had significantly more impaired scores and showed greater variability on both IIV indices (ISD and MD scores) after adjusting for time since injury and post-concussive symptoms. In contrast, no significant effects of sex were found when examining mean neuropsychological performance.
Although females and males demonstrated similar mean performance following concussion, females exhibited a greater level of cognitive impairment and larger inconsistencies in cognitive performance than males. These results suggest that evaluating cognitive indices beyond mean neuropsychological scores may provide valuable information when determining the extent of post-concussion cognitive dysfunction. (JINS, 2019, 00, 1–7)
The study examined (a) whether alcohol use subgroups could be identified among African Americans assessed from adolescence through early adulthood, and (b) whether subgroup membership was associated with the interaction between internalizing symptoms and antisocial behavior polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and environmental characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, community disadvantage). Participants (N = 436) were initially recruited for an elementary school-based prevention trial in a Mid-Atlantic city. Youths reported on the frequency of their past year alcohol use from ages 14–26. DNA was obtained from participants at age 21. Internalizing symptoms and antisocial behavior PRSs were created based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted by Benke et al. (2014) and Tielbeek et al. (2017), respectively. Parental monitoring and community disadvantage were assessed at age 12. Four classes of past year alcohol use were identified: (a) early-onset, increasing; (b) late-onset, moderate use; (c) low steady; and (d) early-onset, decreasing. In high community disadvantaged settings, participants with a higher internalizing symptoms PRS were more likely to be in the early-onset, decreasing class than the low steady class. When exposed to elevated community disadvantage, participants with a higher antisocial behavior PRS were more likely to be in the early-onset, increasing class than the early-onset, decreasing and late-onset, moderate use classes.
It is generally recognized that rural constituents are critical for winning elections. Development economists also recognize the importance of pro-agricultural policies to economic growth. Yet, little attention has been paid to the effect of rural politics on regime stability. Against conventional wisdom, this article argues that leaders who support rural areas and suppress urban demands are better able to stabilize the state and avoid coups. Because Ghana was able to politically stabilize after a period of state decay and five coups, the article presents an in-depth analysis of the tactical decisions made by the Ghanaian head of state who presided over these changes, John Jerry Rawlings. Using process-tracing, the study illustrates the importance of rural coalitions to stability and regime success.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the largest cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Previous studies proposed that HUS risk varies across the E. coli O157:H7 phylogenetic tree (hypervirulent clade 8), but the role of age in the association is unknown. We determined phylogenetic lineage of E. coli O157:H7 isolates from 1160 culture-confirmed E. coli O157:H7 cases reported in Washington State, 2004–2015. Using generalised estimating equations, we tested the association between phylogenetic lineage and HUS. Age was evaluated as an effect modifier. Among 1082 E. coli O157:H7 cases with both phylogenetic lineage and HUS status (HUS n = 76), stratified analysis suggested effect modification by age. Lineages IIa and IIb, relative to Ib, did not appear associated with HUS in children 0–9-years-old. For cases 10–59-years-old, lineages IIa and IIb appeared to confer increased risk of HUS, relative to lineage Ib. The association reversed in ⩾60-year-olds. Results were similar for clade 8. Phylogenetic lineage appears to be associated with HUS risk only among those ⩾10-years-old. Among children <10, the age group most frequently affected, lineage does not explain progression to HUS. However, lineage frequency varied across age groups, suggesting differences in exposure and/or early disease manifestation.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Empower Lab was established in 2015 with the goal of providing students with hands-on research experience in sexual and gender-based violence and health. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Empower Lab consists of 10–12 undergraduate, graduate, and medical students at a time. Students undergo a rigorous application process, and agree to volunteer 8 hours per week for at least 1 year. Students are assigned to teams, and learn research skills such as literature searches, systematic reviews, research question generation, study design, IRB procedures, database creation and management, data collection and analysis, oral and poster presentation, manuscript preparation, team collaboration and communication, advocacy, and leadership. Students start as research assistants, and can be promoted to team leader, and associate director of research. Students mentor and teach each other, and are supervised by the principal investigator (PI). A survey skill self-assessment is administered to lab members on entry to the lab, every 4–6 months, and upon exit. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In total, 20 students have participated in the lab to date, and 12 are currently enrolled. Eighty percent of the lab members are women. The students are 45% undergraduates, 15% graduate (nursing, social work, public health), 20% medical students, and 10% not currently enrolled in school (gap year). Twenty students completed entry surveys, 11 students have completed interim surveys, and 5 students have completed exit surveys. Examination of current surveys indicates that students are gaining skills throughout the lab experience. Free-text feedback provided further insight. Currently, the lab has 5 IRB-approved studies actively recruiting participants, 4 manuscripts being written, and 3 studies in the development phase. Students have presented at three local and 2 national meetings to date. Changes have been made to the lab structure over time in order to provide clear expectations and feedback, and strengthen student performance. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The Empower Lab is an innovative public health lab that provides opportunities for real-world research experience for students. The teamwork, collaboration, and structure of the lab permit mentoring, support, and teaching from peers, as well as from the PI. The Lab increases the PI’s productivity. Students are encouraged to develop and implement their own research ideas, further encouraging independence and initiative. Although the number of surveys is limited to date, they indicate improvement in skills and confidence among lab members. The predominance of women in the lab suggests that this is a strong model for recruitment and retention of women in STEM.