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The vitality or, alternatively, vitiation of the international arbitral process is a pressing subject today. The explosion of inter-State, investor-State, and international commercial arbitration attest to the significant expansion of the field in recent years. This second edition combines the historical analysis of the first edition with a survey of the continued salience and contemporary developments for each of the three problems identified: (i) the severability of the arbitration agreement; (ii) denial of justice (and now other possible breaches of international law) by governmental negation of arbitration; and (iii) the authority of truncated international arbitral tribunals. The international arbitral process continues to be fortified against unilateral attempts to derail it, and this book will be an invaluable guide for today's practitioners and scholars alike.
United States Supreme Court justices make decisions that have a profound impact on American society. Empirical legal scholars have portrayed justices as either single-minded or strategic seekers of policy, and there is little room in these theories for things like law, reputation, or personality. This book offers a fresh perspective that will jar Supreme Court scholarship out of complacency. It argues that justices' personalities influence their behavior, which in turn influences legal development and the United States Constitution. This impressive group of authors exhaustively examine every part of the Court's decision-making process, and focus on the trait of conscientiousness and how it influences justices over nine different empirical contexts, from agenda setting to writing the Court's opinions. The Conscientious Justice is an important and comprehensive account of judging that restructures existing approaches to analyzing the High Court.
Modern engineering and technology have allowed us to connect with each other and even to reach the moon. But technology has also polluted vast areas of the planet and empowered surveillance and authoritarian governments with dangerous tools. There are numerous cases where engineers and other stakeholders routinely ask what they are capable of inventing, and what they actually should invent. Nuclear weapons and biotechnology are two examples. But when analyzing the transformations arising from less controversial modern socio-technological tools – like the Internet, smartphones, and connected devices, which augment and define our work and social practices – two very distinct areas of responsibility become apparent. On the one hand, a question arises around the values and practices of the engineers who create the technologies. What values should guide their endeavors and how can society promote good conduct? On the other hand, there are questions regarding the effects of people using these technologies. While engineering and design choices can either promote or hinder commendable social behavior and appropriate use, this chapter will focus on the first question.
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survivors have higher rates of shyness, a risk factor for poorer outcomes across the life span. Due to advances in fetal and neonatal medicine, the first generation of ELBW survivors have survived to adulthood and become parents. However, no studies have investigated the transmission of their stress vulnerability to their offspring. We explored this phenomenon using a population-based cohort of ELBW survivors and normal birth weight (NBW) controls. Using data from three generations, we examined whether the shyness and parenting stress of ELBW and NBW participants (Generation 2) mediated the relation between the parenting style of their parents (Generation 1) and shyness in their offspring (Generation 3), and the extent to which exposure to perinatal adversity (Generation 2) moderated this mediating effect. We found that among ELBW survivors, parenting stress (in Generation 2) mediated the relation between overprotective parenting style in Generation 1 (grandparents) and child shyness in Generation 3. These findings suggest that perinatal adversity and stress may be transmitted to the next generation in humans, as reflected in their perceptions of their children as shy and socially anxious, a personality phenotype that may subsequently place their children at risk of later mental and physical health problems.
Trauma is the fourth leading cause of death overall in the United States and the number one cause of death for ages 1 to 44 – second only to heart disease and cancer in those older than 45 (CDC).1 As the disease burden from infectious diseases declines and secondary prevention of chronic conditions improves, the relative importance of the practice of trauma care becomes even more apparent. Though safety engineering has improved across many industries (one need only consider examples such as crosswalk and bike lane planning, football helmet technology, and motor vehicle computerized improvements), trauma remains a significant threat to life and limb in emergency medicine.
Facilitating the application of machine learning (ML) to materials science problems requires enhancing the data ecosystem to enable discovery and collection of data from many sources, automated dissemination of new data across the ecosystem, and the connecting of data with materials-specific ML models. Here, we present two projects, the Materials Data Facility (MDF) and the Data and Learning Hub for Science (DLHub), that address these needs. We use examples to show how MDF and DLHub capabilities can be leveraged to link data with ML models and how users can access those capabilities through web and programmatic interfaces.
The diet of most adults is low in fish and, therefore, provides limited quantities of the long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3FAs), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA, DHA). Since these compounds serve important roles in the brain, we sought to determine if healthy adults with low-LCn-3FA consumption would exhibit improvements in neuropsychological performance and parallel changes in brain morphology following repletion through fish oil supplementation.
In a randomized, controlled trial, 271 mid-life adults (30–54 years of age, 118 men, 153 women) consuming ⩽300 mg/day of LCn-3FAs received 18 weeks of supplementation with fish oil capsules (1400 mg/day of EPA and DHA) or matching placebo. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery examining four cognitive domains: psychomotor speed, executive function, learning/episodic memory, and fluid intelligence. A subset of 122 underwent neuroimaging before and after supplementation to measure whole-brain and subcortical tissue volumes.
Capsule adherence was over 95%, participant blinding was verified, and red blood cell EPA and DHA levels increased as expected. Supplementation did not affect performance in any of the four cognitive domains. Exploratory analyses revealed that, compared to placebo, fish oil supplementation improved executive function in participants with low-baseline DHA levels. No changes were observed in any indicator of brain morphology.
In healthy mid-life adults reporting low-dietary intake, supplementation with LCn-3FAs in moderate dose for moderate duration did not affect neuropsychological performance or brain morphology. Whether salutary effects occur in individuals with particularly low-DHA exposure requires further study.
There are significant challenges to retaining indigenous biodiversity and ecological infrastructure in African cities. These include a lack of formal protection and status for remnant ecologically functional patches rendering them open to ad hoc human settlement, which is in part linked to weak governance and management emerging from complex histories, and competing crisis-ridden demands. Persistent gaps in knowledge and practice mean that the social, economic, development and well-being benefits of ecological infrastructure are not understood or demonstrated. Addressing these challenges requires the adoption of multiple top-down government interventions and bottom-up community and neighbourhood actions. The development of detailed case studies that engage with knowledge generation and sharing at multiple scales through co-learning practices will also help create a much-needed deeper understanding of development options within this context.
Stone cist graves dating to the Bronze Age through to the late medieval period are well attested across Western Europe. In the Americas, such cist graves are found only on the island of Saba in the Dutch Caribbean. First starting in the colonial period, this funerary practice continues on Saba to the present day, representing a cultural continuity with rural seventeenth-century populations—probably settlers from the British Isles. This article discusses the recent excavation of several cist burials on Saba, their structural forms and their relevance for understanding cultural continuity in the Caribbean of the historical period.
Three new species of Cyphaspides are proposed: C. ammari, C. nicoleae, and C. pankowskiorum. These species are based on specimens obtained from Middle Devonian (Eifelian) strata of the Bou Tchrafine Group, near Erfoud, in the Province of Errachidia, southeastern Morocco. The present contribution enhances our knowledge of Cyphaspides by providing details of three new species that are based on well-preserved, complete, and articulated types. The genus Cyphaspides is discussed, and an emended diagnosis is provided. The paleobiogeography, ontogeny, and relationships of the genus are discussed.
Social outings can trigger influenza transmission, especially in children and elderly. In contrast, school closures are associated with reduced influenza incidence in school-aged children. While influenza surveillance modelling studies typically account for holidays and mass gatherings, age-specific effects of school breaks, sporting events and commonly celebrated observances are not fully explored. We examined the impact of school holidays, social events and religious observances for six age groups (all ages, ⩽4, 5–24, 25–44, 45–64, ⩾65 years) on four influenza outcomes (tests, positives, influenza A and influenza B) as reported by the City of Milwaukee Health Department Laboratory, Milwaukee, Wisconsin from 2004 to 2009. We characterised holiday effects by analysing average weekly counts in negative binomial regression models controlling for weather and seasonal incidence fluctuations. We estimated age-specific annual peak timing and compared influenza outcomes before, during and after school breaks. During the 118 university holiday weeks, average weekly tests were lower than in 140 school term weeks (5.93 vs. 11.99 cases/week, P < 0.005). The dampening of tests during Winter Break was evident in all ages and in those 5–24 years (RR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.22–0.41 vs. RR = 0.14; 95% CI 0.09–0.22, respectively). A significant increase in tests was observed during Spring Break in 45–64 years old adults (RR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.14–3.96). Milwaukee Public Schools holiday breaks showed similar amplification and dampening effects. Overall, calendar effects depend on the proximity and alignment of an individual holiday to age-specific and influenza outcome-specific peak timing. Better quantification of individual holiday effects, tailored to specific age groups, should improve influenza prevention measures.
Epistocratic arrangements are widely rejected because there will be reasonable disagreement about which citizens count as epistemically superior and an epistemically superior subset of citizens may be biased in ways that undermine their ability to generate superior political outcomes. The upshot is supposed to be that systems of democratic government are preferable because they refuse to allow some citizens to rule over others. We show that this approach is doubly unsatisfactory: although representative democracy cannot be defended as a form of government that prevents some citizens from ruling over others, it can be defended as a special form of epistocracy. We demonstrate that well-designed representative democracies can, through treatment and selection mechanisms, bring forth an especially competent set of individuals to make public policy, even while circumventing the standard objections to epistocratic rule. This has implications for the justification of representative democracy and questions of institutional design.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most acutely effective treatment for severe treatment-resistant depression. However, there are concerns about its cognitive side-effects and we cannot yet confidently predict who will experience these. Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes that maintain genomic integrity. In somatic cells, telomeres shorten with each cell division. Telomere length (TL) can thus provide a measure of ‘biological’ aging. TL appears to be reduced in depression, though results are mixed. We sought to test the following hypotheses: (1) that TL would be shorter in patients with depression compared to controls; (2) that TL would be a predictor of response to ECT; and (3) that shorter TL would predict cognitive side-effects following ECT.
We assessed TL in whole blood DNA collected from severely depressed patients (n = 100) recruited as part of the EFFECT-Dep Trial and healthy controls (n = 80) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mood and selected cognitive measures, including global cognition, re-orientation time, and autobiographical memory, were obtained pre-/post-ECT and from controls.
Our results indicate that TL does not differ between patients with depression compared to controls. TL itself was not associated with mood ratings and did not predict the therapeutic response to ECT. Furthermore, shorter baseline TL is not a predictor of cognitive side-effects post-ECT.
Overall, TL assessed by PCR does not represent a useful biomarker for predicting the therapeutic outcomes or risk for selected cognitive deficits following ECT.
We investigate the problem of cost-optimal planning in ASP. Current ASP planners can be trivially extended to a cost-optimal one by adding weak constraints, but only for a given makespan (number of steps). It is desirable to have a planner that guarantees global optimality. In this paper, we present two approaches to addressing this problem. First, we show how to engineer a cost-optimal planner composed of two ASP programs running in parallel. Using lessons learned from this, we then develop an entirely new approach to cost-optimal planning, stepless planning, which is completely free of makespan. Experiments to compare the two approaches with the only known cost-optimal planner in SAT reveal good potentials for stepless planning in ASP.