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This article considers the transcultural dynamic between English Catholicism and mainland Europe in the early 1840s through the lens of the reception of two famous Tyrolean women bearing the stigmata. After the publication of the account of their supernatural qualities by John Talbot, sixteenth Earl of Shrewsbury, Waterford, and Wexford they became the controversial subject of the heated debates on the nature of English and universal Catholicism, and by extension on the nature of religiosity at large. This article argues that adopting a transnational approach to the study of supernatural phenomena within Catholicism in the 1830s and 1840s allows us to look beyond the history of institutions and key figures in the polemic, and to shed light on more nuanced religious and devotional interactions between the British Isles and the Continent. As such this article also argues for the inclusion of supernatural phenomena in the transnational history of English Catholicism.
Free-ranging grey wolves (Canis lupus), which are presently recolonizing Italy, can be parasitized by a diversity of helminths, but have rarely been subject to studies of their parasites. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of road-killed grey wolves from the Piedmont region of Italy. Forty-two wolves were collected and examined for the presence of helminths. We recorded 12 helminth species: nine Nematoda and three Cestoda. The nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (7.1%), Capillaria sp. (2.4%), Molineus sp. (2.4%), Pterygodermatites affinis (11.9%), Physaloptera sibirica (9.5%), Toxocara canis (9.5%), Toxascaris leonina (2.4%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (26.2%); the cestodes were: Dipylidium caninum (4.8%), Mesocestoides sp. (4.8%) and Taenia multiceps (76.2%). Physaloptera sibirica had the highest mean intensity and T. multiceps had the highest prevalence. Based on age and sex, no differences in the intensity or prevalence of helminth species were found among the hosts. Molineus sp. was recorded for the first time in wolves from the Palearctic region; P. affinis and P. sibirica are respectively reported for the first time in wolves from Europe and Italy.
Fibropapillomatosis (FP) can be an important conservation threat to green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) due to its widespread distribution and complex aetiology. Thus, understanding the impacts of FP in sea turtle populations is a research priority towards conservation efforts. The body condition index (BCI), based on straight carapace length (SCL) and body mass (BM), is an accurate indicator of body-nutritional condition that can be used in routine green turtle health evaluations. This study aimed to compare BCI in FP-free (N = 369) and FP-affected (N = 518) green turtles from Brazilian feeding areas. Body condition indices were evaluated in terms of the South-west Atlantic Fibropapillomatosis Score – FPSSWA (mild, moderate and severe), study sites (five Brazilian states), origin (intentional capture, fishery, stranding and afloat) and sex (when known). Curved and straight carapace lengths, and body mass were recorded in order to calculate BCI. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in BCI among green turtles from different study areas (P = 0.02), and lower BCI values in FP-free than in FP-positive individuals (P < 0.0001). With regards to origin, the highest BCI was found in the intentional capture group (N = 245; 1.47 ± 0.16), followed by fishery (N = 180; 1.46 ± 0.20). Analysis according to sex revealed a higher mean BCI among females than males (P < 0.017). This study provides relevant data on the health and nutritional status of green turtles along the Brazilian coast, in important feeding areas for this species.
We consider direct numerical simulations of turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection inside two-dimensional square cells. For Rayleigh numbers
and Prandtl numbers
, two types of flow regimes are observed intermittently: consecutive flow reversals (CR), and extended cessations (EC). For each regime, we combine proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and statistical tools on long-term data to characterise the dynamics of large-scale structures. For the CR regime, centrosymmetric modes are dominant and display a coherent dynamics, while non-centrosymmetric modes fluctuate randomly. For the EC regime, all POD modes follow Poissonian statistics and a non-centrosymmetric mode is dominant. To explore further the differences between the CR and EC regimes, an analysis based on a cluster partition of the POD phase space is proposed. This data-driven approach confirms the successive mechanisms of the generic reversal cycle in CR as proposed in Castillo-Castellanos et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 808, 2016, pp. 614–640). However, these mechanisms may take one of multiple paths in the POD phase space. Inside the EC regime, this approach reveals the presence of two types of coherent time sequences (weak reversals and actual cessations) and more rarely intense plume crossings. Finally, we analyse within a range of Rayleigh numbers up to turbulent flow, the relation between dynamical regimes and the POD energetic contents as well as the residence time in each cluster.
Serum protein distribution and concentration can be affected by different physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the concentration of serum protein fractions and haptoglobin in clinically healthy dairy buffaloes during late pregnancy and early lactation. Blood and milk samples were collected from 30 buffaloes at around 7 d before expected calving (blood only) and 7, 30 and 50 d after calving. In serum samples, the total protein, haptoglobin, albumin, α1-, α2-, β1-, β2-, γ-globulins, and albumin/globulin ratio (A/G) values were evaluated. In milk, fat%, protein%, lactose%, somatic cell score (SCS) were assessed, along with milk yield (MY) and daily milk production (DMP). The peripartum period significantly influenced (P < 0.005) total protein, albumin, haptoglobin, α2-, β2- and γ-globulins (P < 0.005). Milk yield, DMP and fat% changed significantly throughout the monitoring period (P < 0.005). Milk yield and DMP were positively correlated with total protein, albumin, β2-globulins and A/G ratio, and negatively correlated with haptoglobin and α2-globulins. These results provide new knowledge about the serum protein electrophoretic pattern in Italian Mediterranean Buffaloes during the last phase of pregnancy and early stages of lactation.
In last years, an increasing attention on environmental matters is registered. Companies face environmental matters to increase the environmental performances of their products, forced by numerous legislations, normative and protocols and induced to the growing attention of consumers toward environmentally friendly products. However, observing the industrial context, it emerges there are several barriers for implementation of eco-design strategies inside design departments. The paper presents a tool which aims at both providing a basic guide on environmental sustainability issues and favouring the knowledge sharing among the different actors of the product design process. The core of the tool is a repository in which company materials, organized and collected in different forms, are collected. The repository contains several parts: training, guidelines, knowledge and milestone, accordingly to the type, structure and form of materials stored. The eco-design tool functions, structure, and workflow are presented and then preliminary test cases are described.
Risk management (RM) in new product development (NPD) is often implemented as a standardized framework and ends up being carried out as a tick the box, non-value adding activity. To avoid this problem, RM needs to be tailored to the organization and NPD project. This paper identifies a gap in both understanding and facilitating tailoring, i.e. design of RM systems in NPD. To understand how to design RM systems, we must better understand how RM adds value to NPD activities. We applied Product Development Value Stream Mapping (PDVSM) to RM and conceptualized a Risk Value Stream Mapping (RVSM) framework to support design. Through a state-of-the-art literature review, we identified typical categories of value and waste in RM as well as approaches to model the RM in NPD. We developed and tested components of the RVSM framework based on PDVSM in three case companies. In this paper, results are presented regarding waste, value and potential ways to model the value stream in RM. The framework enables a diagnosis of the current state of RM in companies and supports future design activities pertaining to RM systems. This paper is positioned at the intersection of design, lean thinking and RM
Product customization aims to consider individual customers preferences in the design of new products, in order to directly involve them in the product development process and to maximize their satisfaction. It can be considered a key competitive factor and a “hot topic” in several industrial sectors, including luxury apparel goods and high-end footwear products. However, currently the design and manufacturing of customized shoes are carried out through artisanal and non-standardized processes, based on the individual expertise of operators.
The objective of this study is to define an innovative framework to support the different processes affected by customization. This framework is enabled by different digital technologies, as CAD-based tools, virtual/augmented reality systems, etc., opportunely integrated in the product development process. The main benefits related to the framework implementation in real industrial contexts are an increase of flexibility, the repeatability of processes, a higher efficiency in information exchange, a more effective involvement of final customers, and, as a consequence, the reduction of time to market and production costs for tailor-made shoes.
The 'ethical commonwealth', the central social element in Kant's account of religion, provides the church, as 'the moral people of God', with a role in establishing a cosmopolitan order of peace. This role functions within an interpretive realignment of Kant's critical project that articulates its central concern as anthropological: critically disciplined reason enables humanity to enact peacemaking as its moral vocation in history. Within this context, politics and religion are not peripheral elements in the critical project. They are, instead, complementary social modalities in which humanity enacts its moral vocation to bring lasting peace among all peoples.
Though they became ubiquitous only after The Crying of Lot 49 (1966), drugs can be found in all of Thomas Pynchon’s novels. In connection with hippies, however, the hemp-smoking George Washington in Mason & Dixon (1997) and the many mentions of those fin de siècle drugs opium, laudanum, and absinthe in Against the Day (2006) must remain outside the picture, as the periods in which those two novels are set come well before the 1967 “Summer of Love.” Even The Crying of Lot 49, though it features Mucho Maas’ “therapeutic” use of LSD, is more attuned to mock-Hemingwayesque alcohol-abuse (Oedipa’s motel night with Metzger, for example) than the systematic, almost encyclopedic, use of psychotropic substances one finds in Inherent Vice (2009). The latter, with its “companion piece” Vineland (1990), may be read as Pynchon’s hippie (rather than “freak,” insofar as one can find freaks in virtually every page of his fictions) diptych, a sort of subset of the so-called California Trilogy (which also includes The Crying of Lot 49). Here the connection between the hippie lifestyle and drugs is not just in the foreground but acutely anatomized, especially in Inherent Vice. A survey of drugs and hippies in Pynchon’s oeuvre should thus start with Vineland, and then proceed through his 2009 hard-boiled narrative (or noir, as both definitions may apply to it).
This study gives details of a rare case of petrous apicitis that presented as Gradenigo's syndrome and was managed surgically.
This study presents a case report and review of the literature.
A four-year-old female was admitted for failure to thrive following recent sinusitis. Physical examination was positive for right sided facial pain, photophobia and right abducens nerve palsy. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1.3 × 1.7 × 1.4 cm abscess encompassing the right Meckel's cave. A computed tomography scan showed petrous apicitis and otomastoiditis, confirming Gradenigo's syndrome. The patient was taken to the operating theatre for right intact canal wall mastoidectomy with myringotomy and tube placement. She was discharged on six weeks of ceftriaxone administered by a peripherally inserted central catheter line. At a two-week post-operative visit, she showed notable improvement in neuropathic symptoms.
This study presents a rare case of petrous apicitis managed surgically without the need for a craniotomy or transcochlear procedure.
We estimated the incidence of first-episode psychosis over a 3-year period in a Brazilian catchment area comprising the region's main city, Ribeirão Preto (1 425 306 persons-years at risk), and 25 other municipalities with a total of 1 646 556 persons-years at risk. The incidence rates were estimated and adjusted by gender and age, using the direct standardisation method to the world population as reference. The incidence of psychosis was higher in the younger groups, men, and among Black and minority ethnic Brazilians. Psychosis incidence was lower in Ribeirão Preto (16.69/100 000 person-years at risk; 95% CI 15.68–17.70) compared with the average incidence in the remaining municipalities (21.25/100 000 person-years at risk; 95% CI 20.20–22.31), which have lower population density, suggesting a distinct role for urbanicity in the incidence of first-episode psychosis in low- and middle-income countries.
Inflammation is a possible biological mechanism underlying the association between childhood maltreatment and psychosis. Previous investigations on this regard were mainly conducted on chronic schizophrenia and lacked control for confounders. We aim to investigate the role of familial liability, childhood maltreatment and recent stress in determining cytokine abnormalities at the onset of psychosis.
We recruited 114 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, 57 unaffected biological siblings of FEP patients, and 251 community-based controls. Plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β) were measured and differences across the groups analysed after adjusting for potential confounders.
FEP had a higher pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine profile (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β), which was not observed in unaffected siblings. Siblings presented decreased IL-1β when compared with patients and controls. Childhood maltreatment was associated with higher levels of TGF-β in both patients and siblings when compared with controls. Physical childhood abuse was associated with increased levels of TGF-β in FEP patients but with decreased levels in controls. Other childhood maltreatment subtypes or recent stressors did not affect cytokine levels in any of the groups.
Normal or reduced cytokines in siblings represent possibly a protective factor and suggest that the identified inflammatory profile in FEP can be a real pathophysiological component of psychosis. Experience of childhood maltreatment may contribute as long-term immune priming for the TGF-β pathway, and increased levels of this cytokine in both patients and siblings exposed to childhood maltreatment point to a possible biological candidate of familial risk for psychosis.
Studies of frailty have tended to focus on adverse outcomes. This study aims to develop a short instrument that identifies a positive outcome, namely, the level of well-being in older adults at risk of frailty.
871 older adults (49.4% women; mean age 75.72 years; SD = 8.05) with a frailty risk profile participated in the first wave of the D-SCOPE study. The possible domains of well-being were identified using a bottom-up approach. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) and multidimensional Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis of 17 items in 4 domains measuring well-being was performed on a calibration sample (n = 435) to develop the instrument. The instrument was subsequently corroborated by confirmatory factor analysis and convergent/divergent relations with relevant external measures in a validation sample (n = 436).
The ESEM three-factor solution, with the subdimensions of sense of mastery, meaning in life, and life satisfaction, displayed good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.070). For each dimension, the three best discriminating items were retained for the instrument following IRT analysis. Internal consistency of these dimensions was good in the validation sample (sense of mastery α = 0.864, meaning in life α = 0.715, and life satisfaction α = 0.782). The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) three-factor model also showed good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.064). Small to large zero-order correlations with the external measures were as expected.
Using a bottom-up approach, this study developed a short instrument to identify levels of well-being in vulnerable or frail older adults. The instrument can be applied in primary care and prevention programs.
Modern free-electron lasers (FEL) operating in XUV (extreme ultraviolet) or X-ray range allow an access to novel research areas. An example is the ultrafast ionization of a solid by an intense femtosecond FEL pulse in XUV which consequently leads to a change of the complex index of refraction on an ultrashort timescale. The photoionization and subsequent impact ionization resulting in electronic and atomic dynamics are modeled with our hybrid code XTANT(X-ray thermal and non-thermal transitions) and a Monte Carlo code XCASCADE(X-ray-induced electron cascades). The simulations predict the temporal kinetics of FEL-induced electron cascades and thus yield temporally and spatially resolved information on the induced changes of the optical properties. In a series of experiments at FERMI and LCLS, single shot measurements with spatio-temporal encoding of the ionization process have been performed by a correlation of the FEL pump pulse with an optical femtosecond probe pulse. An excellent agreement between the experiment and the simulation has been found. We also show that such kind of experiments forms the basis for pulse duration and arrival time jitter monitoring as currently under development for XUV-FELs.
Coffee consumption is inversely associated with the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A gap in the literature still exists concerning the intestinal mechanisms that are involved in the protective effect of coffee consumption towards NAFLD. In this study, twenty-four C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups each receiving a standard diet, a high-fat diet (HFD) or an HFD plus decaffeinated coffee (HFD+COFFEE) for 12 weeks. Coffee supplementation reduced HFD-induced liver macrovesicular steatosis (P < 0·01) and serum cholesterol (P < 0·001), alanine aminotransferase and glucose (P < 0·05). Accordingly, liver PPAR- α (P < 0·05) and acyl-CoA oxidase-1 (P < 0·05) as well as duodenal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily A1 (ABCA1) and subfamily G1 (ABCG1) (P < 0·05) mRNA expressions increased with coffee consumption. Compared with HFD animals, HFD+COFFEE mice had more undigested lipids in the caecal content and higher free fatty acid receptor-1 mRNA expression in the duodenum and colon. Furthermore, they showed an up-regulation of duodenal and colonic zonulin-1 (P < 0·05), duodenal claudin (P < 0·05) and duodenal peptide YY (P < 0·05) mRNA as well as a higher abundance of Alcaligenaceae in the faeces (P < 0·05). HFD+COFFEE mice had an energy intake comparable with HFD-fed mice but starting from the eighth intervention week they gained significantly less weight over time. Data altogether showed that coffee supplementation prevented HFD-induced NAFLD in mice by reducing hepatic fat deposition and metabolic derangement through modification of pathways underpinning liver fat oxidation, intestinal cholesterol efflux, energy metabolism and gut permeability. The hepatic and metabolic benefits induced by coffee were accompanied by changes in the gut microbiota.