To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Clinical case studies are fundamental in cementing theoretical training, especially for neurological disorders where diagnosis can be difficult. This book describes a variety of clinical scenarios associated with either the misdiagnosis or incorrect management of cognitive and behavioral neurological syndromes, identifying common pitfalls, which are discussed in detail. Each case emphasizes the importance of information derived from the patient's history and physical examination in forming a correct diagnosis. Focusing on disorders and presentations that are a frequent source of confusion, key diagnostic principles are illustrated clearly. Questions to the reader move the narrative along logically, whilst highlighting specific aspects of clinical presentation that lead to the correct diagnosis. Videos of patients connect readers to the cases and demonstrate how to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. An online version of the book can be accessed on Cambridge Core, via the code printed on the inside of the cover.
Arbitration enjoys a long tradition in Spain.2 It has been consistently recognized by and promoted throughout historical laws3 as an alternative method for dispute resolution. The recognition of arbitration in legal texts can be traced to Spanish medieval law.4Breviario de Alarico, or Lex Romana Visigothorum,5 promulgated on February 2, 506, and Liber Iudiciorum,6 among others, acknowledged that the value of arbitration was definitively enshrined in the fundamental Siete Partidas.7 Since then, a series of famous arbitral awards – Compromiso de Caspe 1321 and 1363 (the Covenant of Caspe), Sentencia Arbitral de Guadalupe 1486 (the Arbitral Award of Guadalupe) – and regal laws in Castile fostered the institution by ordering the enforcement of commitments agreed by the parties (Ordenanza de Madrid of 1502). These legal and arbitral decisions paved the way to the incorporation of the institution of arbitration into the Novísima Recopilación (1804).8 The resort to arbitration for solving disputes among merchants and guilds, as a response to their aversion to ordinary courts, gave a lot of impetus to arbitration during that period.
This chapter provides an outlook of the issues, born out of the material presented in the book, that will likely be at the center of future developments of the field. They are organized following the scheme set by the preceding chapters.
This chapter illustrates the implications of river network structure for the spread of waterborne diseases. Human mobility is also added as a driver and a network of interaction. The water-related (WR) diseases considered are epidemic cholera, endemic schistosomiasis, and proliferative kidney disease in fish. After reviewing the basic (space-implicit) epidemiological models for micro- and micro-parasites, general space-explicit models for both kinds of parasites are studied. Both the hydrologic and the human mobility network are included, and the general conditions for disease establishment are derived, including also the case of seasonal forcings. Conditions for transient (though possibly large) epidemics are also found. The microparasitic model is applied to several cholera epidemics, including the one that has been devastating Haiti. Spatially explicit macroparasitic models of schistosomiasis are then analyzed and applied to the cases of Senegal and Burkina Faso. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in salmonid fish, a pathology linked to global warming, is modeled. The space-explicit approach is used for the study of PKD spread in the basin of the river Wigger (Switzerland).
Three separate appendices, rather technical, compose this chapter. The first deals with the stability of dynamical systems and bifurcation analysis, the second with a background and rationale for optimal channel networks. The third deals with computational tools: Matlab code is explained and run, and results are highlighted. The source codes may be downloaded at www.epfl.ch/labs/echo/.
The chapter explores the problem of species spread in river systems. It introduces the basic quantitative tools for dealing with the topic: first advection-diffusion-reaction traditional equations, then more modern approaches via interacting particle systems and reaction random walks on graphs. The Mississippi-Missouri river system is once again taken as the epitomizing river network: the dramatic invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), seeded by the accidental discharge of ballast water from European cargo ships in the Great Lakes region, is studied via a multilayer network model, including not only hydrology but also the displacement due to anthropic activity. Advanced laboratory experiments are then described and modeled in which the response of the alga Euglena gracilis when exposed to controlled light fields is analyzed. This allows insight into the problem of how spatial resource availability shapes the invasion patterns of riverine populations. Finally, a thorough analysis of mixing and dispersion in river systems is the basic tool to tackle a problem of enormous interest, namely, estimating species distribution and abundance using environmental DNA.
The introductory chapter outlines the leit-motiv of the book – dendritic substrates for ecological interactions, chief and foremost river networks in our case, bear important consequences for a number of processes, from patterns of biodiversity to controls of spreading of waterborne disease. In this chapter we discuss important methodological aspects of spatially explicit ecology that are used throughout the book.
The chapter is not a complete review of the subject but rather contains a specific choice of topics relevant to the general concepts of biodiversity in river networks. It first explores the fish diversity of the Mississippi-Missouri river system via a hierarchical metacommunity model that includes river hydrology and habitat suitability. Illustrated is the role of the frequency distribution of shear stresses in determining the spatially explicit probability distribution functions of benthic invertebrate habitat suitability. The viewpoint is then broadened by addressing general metapopulation persistence in river networks; this is achieved by analyzing stage-structured populations that exploit different dispersal pathways, both alongstream and overland. Examples are given with reference to amphibians. Gradients of biodiversity in fluvial landscapes, as determined by changes in elevation, is the next topic. The characteristic features of hump-shaped patterns of species richness along elevational gradients are derived, using both idealized (but realistic) fluvial landscapes and real landscapes of the Swiss Alps. The approach allows also the outline of possible consequences of climate change.
A catalyst layer of Pt-Sn/C (Pt:Sn 1:1 atomic ratio) was deposited on commercial carbon cloth electrodes by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The Pt-Sn/C nanocatalyst was synthesized by the polyol method. Three current signals were applied: i) continuous direct current (CDC); ii) positive pulsed current (PPC); and iii) asymmetric alternating current (AAC). The chemical composition analysis showed the effect of the applied signal on species transferred onto the carbon cloth to form the catalyst layers. Evaluation by SEM confirmed the effect of deposition-signal on the morphology of the catalyst layer. The CDC signal formed spherical agglomerates with irregular distribution along with carbon fibers over the electrode, showing some cracks. A cross-cut view of the electrode showed that the catalyst penetrated the carbon cloth. Meanwhile, the PPC signal promoted a better deposition of the catalyst layer over the carbon cloth surface, with a thicker and more homogeneous rough layer than CDC. In contrast, the layer developed by the AAC signal showed a morphology similar to that by CDC, suggesting the formation of a layer with low metal loading. The cross-cut view of the AAC electrode showed the formation of a highly rough layer having large areas with limited contact with the carbon cloth fibers. The electro-catalytic activity of the electrodes for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction (EOR) was studied in acid media. The CDC electrode showed an enhanced performance for the EOR by delivering the highest current density (272 mA mg-1Pt) with the more negative onset potential (341 mV) relative to the PPC and AAC electrodes.
Non-noble metal bifunctional nanocatalysts based on CoFe2O4/C were synthetized by the electrospinning method and evaluated for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) and the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). The effect of annealing at different temperatures (T=300, 600 and 900°C) on their morphological and structural features was characterized by XRD, EDS, Raman, FESEM, HRTEM and XPS. The nanofibers annealed at 300 °C (CoFe2O4-300) showed a cubic spinel structure and an average diameter of 42 nm. The CoFe2O4-300/C nanocatalyst demonstrated the highest catalytic activity towards the OER, outperforming the benchmark commercial 20 wt. % Pt/C. Meanwhile all CoFe2O4-based nanocatalysts showed fair catalytic activity for the ORR (Eonset ≈ 0.801 V/RHE, n≈ 3.56, %HO2- ≈ 21-39). In addition, the CoFe2O4/C nanocatalysts demonstrated a higher electrochemical stability than Pt/C for both the ORR and the OER.
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have emerged as a promising alternative for energy storage. In this work, it has been synthesized a nanocomposite material of SbxSbySz/Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using low-cost synthesizing methods. First, CNFs have been obtained by electrospinning method with subsequent carbonation at 700°C. Afterward, a SbxSbySz thin coating is deposited on the CNFs by chemical bath deposition technique to obtain the SbxSbySz/CNFs. In order to obtain the SnSb2S4 crystalline phase, the composite is heated at 300°C in nitrogen atmosphere. The evaluation of this nanocomposite as the anode for SIBs has a reversible discharge capacity of 180 mAh g-1 and a columbic efficiency of 61.4% after 9 cycles. On the other hand, the resistance associated to the charge transfer to the CNFs decreases from 115.03 Ω to 77.86 Ω due to the incorporation of SnxSbySz. Finally, an easy and inexpensive route has been proposed for the synthesis of SbxSbySz/CNFs composite with great potential to be used as anode material for SIBs.
Herein, we report a methodology that leads to the formation of Ru metallic sites, followed by the development and anchorage of Pt-Ru alloyed nanoparticles on the surface of Ordered Mesoporous Hollow Carbon Spheres (OMHCS). Along with the Ru sites, it is demonstrated that the functionalization promotes the formation of functional groups on the surface of the OMHCS. In a first stage, OMHCS are functionalized with the [(η6-C6H5OCH2CH2OH)RuCl2]2 (Ru-dim) and [(η6-C6H4CH(CH3)2CH3)RuCl2]2 (Ru-cym) organometallic compounds. Afterwards, Pt nanoparticles are dispersed by the microwave-assisted polyol method over the functionalized supports obtaining the low-metal content 5 wt. % Pt/OMHCSRu-dim and Pt/OMHCSRu-cym nanocatalysts. The degree of Ru alloyed is found to be around 35%. The low-Pt content Pt/OMHCSRu-cym and Pt/OMHCSRu-dim exhibit a higher catalytic activity for the Oxygen (OER) and the Hydrogen (HER) Evolution Reactions than the Pt/C benchmark and the Pt/OMHCS nanocatalysts. The overpotential for the OER at 10 mA cm-2 (ηOER) is 300 mV and 210 mV smaller at Pt/OMHCSRu-cym and Pt/OMHCSRu-dim compared to Pt/C, respectively. The corresponding values of the HER at -10 mA cm-2 (ηHER) are 14 and 18 mV smaller, respectively. The high catalytic activity of Pt/OMHCSRu-cym and Pt/OMHCSRu-dim has been attributed in part to the presence of Ru0 and RuO2 species from organometallic functionalization, and the modification of the d-valence band of Pt. Their high performance for the OER and the HER opens new lines of research for the design of nanocatalysts for alkaline electrochemical water splitting.