To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A thesaurus of present-day vernacular English from Berwick-upon-Tweed to the Channel Islands, this unique record of everyday English celebrates established regional dialects, emerging new varieties and colloquial forms young and old. Based on a prestigious nationwide survey, BBC Voices Recordings, it documents the linguistic landscape of England, Wales and the Channel Islands in the 21st century, and includes over 3000 separate entries, drawn from over 200 locations across the country. Each entry contains information about the term's origins, location and the social distribution of its users. With links to original sound files and cross-references to complementary dictionary sources, it is an authoritative reference work for academic linguists, but its accessible presentation also makes it suitable for creative audiences and non-specialist language enthusiasts seeking authentic, up-to-date information on British English dialect and slang, and for English language teachers and learners as an invaluable educational tool.
To evaluate the role of procalcitonin (PCT) in antibiotic decisions for COVID-19 patients at hospital presentation.
Design, Setting and Participants:
Multicenter retrospective observational study of patients 18 years hospitalized due to COVID-19 at the Johns Hopkins Health system. Patients who were transferred from another facility with >24 hours stay and patients who died within 48 hours of hospitalization were excluded.
Elevated PCT values were determined based on each hospitals definition. Antibiotic therapy and PCT results were evaluated for patients with no evidence of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (bCAP) and patients with confirmed, probable, or possible bCAP. The added value of PCT to clinical criteria in detecting bCAP were evaluated with receiving operating curve characteristics (ROC).
64% (611/962) of patients received a PCT. ROC curves for clinical criteria and clinical criteria plus PCT were similar (at 0.5ng/ml and 0.25ng/ml). By bCAP group, median initial PCT values were 0.58 ng/mL (IQR 0.24, 1.14), 0.23 ng/mL (IQR 0.1, 0.63) and 0.15 ng/mL (IQR 0.09, 0.35) for proven/probable, possible, and no bCAP groups. Among patients without bCAP, an elevatedPCT was associated with 1.8 additional days of CAP therapy (95% CI 1.01 2.75, P<0.01) compared to patients with a negative PCT after adjusting for potential confounders. Duration of CAP therapy was similar between patients without a PCT ordered and a low PCT for no bCAP and possible bCAP groups.
PCT may be abnormal in COVID-19 patients without bCAP and may result in receipt of unnecessary antibiotics.
Questions remain regarding whether genetic influences on early life psychopathology overlap with cognition and show developmental variation.
Using data from 9,421 individuals aged 8–21 from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, factors of psychopathology were generated using a bifactor model of item-level data from a psychiatric interview. Five orthogonal factors were generated: anxious-misery (mood and anxiety), externalizing (attention deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorder), fear (phobias), psychosis-spectrum, and a general factor. Genetic analyses were conducted on a subsample of 4,662 individuals of European American ancestry. A genetic relatedness matrix was used to estimate heritability of these factors, and genetic correlations with executive function, episodic memory, complex reasoning, social cognition, motor speed, and general cognitive ability. Gene × Age analyses determined whether genetic influences on these factors show developmental variation.
Externalizing was heritable (h2 = 0.46, p = 1 × 10−6), but not anxious-misery (h2 = 0.09, p = 0.183), fear (h2 = 0.04, p = 0.337), psychosis-spectrum (h2 = 0.00, p = 0.494), or general psychopathology (h2 = 0.21, p = 0.040). Externalizing showed genetic overlap with face memory (ρg = −0.412, p = 0.004), verbal reasoning (ρg = −0.485, p = 0.001), spatial reasoning (ρg = −0.426, p = 0.010), motor speed (ρg = 0.659, p = 1x10−4), verbal knowledge (ρg = −0.314, p = 0.002), and general cognitive ability (g)(ρg = −0.394, p = 0.002). Gene × Age analyses revealed decreasing genetic variance (γg = −0.146, p = 0.004) and increasing environmental variance (γe = 0.059, p = 0.009) on externalizing.
Cognitive impairment may be a useful endophenotype of externalizing psychopathology and, therefore, help elucidate its pathophysiological underpinnings. Decreasing genetic variance suggests that gene discovery efforts may be more fruitful in children than adolescents or young adults.
The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has amplified the role of hospitals in infectious disease response and capacity building. In efforts to respond to the growing volume of cases, hospitals have become a microcosm for U.S. pandemic response. The COVID-19 outbreak has highlighted that hospital preparedness for biological events, like a pandemic, are often inadequate and dependent on leadership investment in biopreparedness. This article discusses the proactive decision, prior to COVID-19, that a Phoenix-based hospital system made to invest in high-consequence disease (HCD) preparedness. Within these efforts, a gap analysis was performed, which led to creation of a high-consequence disease subcommittee and corresponding efforts to address vulnerabilities and opportunities for improvement. From establishing enhanced personal protective equipment (PPE) and infectious disease training for frontline staff, to building an outbreak tracking mechanism for travel alerts within the electronic medical record, the HCD efforts of this hospital system created a stronger foundation to respond to biological events like the COVID-19 pandemic.
To identify a posteriori dietary patterns among women planning pregnancy and assess the reproducibility of these patterns in a subsample using two dietary assessment methods.
A semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was administered to women enrolled in the S-PRESTO study. Dietary patterns from the FFQ were identified using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In a subsample of women (n=289), 3-day food diaries (3DFD) were also completed and analyzed. Reproducibility of the identified patterns was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the subsample and goodness of fit of the CFA models were examined using several fit indices. Subsequently, EFA was conducted in the subsample and dietary patterns of the FFQ and the 3DFD were compared.
1007 women planning pregnancy (18 to 45 years)
Three dietary patterns were identified from the FFQ: the ‘Fish, poultry/meat and noodles’ pattern was characterised by higher intakes of fish, poultry/meat and noodles in soup; ‘Fast food and sweetened beverages’ pattern was characterised by higher intakes of fast food, sweetened beverages and fried snacks; ‘Bread, legumes and dairy’ pattern was characterised by higher intakes of buns/ethnic breads, nuts/legumes and dairy products. The comparative fit indices from the CFA models were 0.79 and 0.34 for the FFQ and 3DFD of the subsample, respectively. In the subsample, three similar patterns were identified in the FFQ while only two for the 3DFD.
Dietary patterns from the FFQ are reproducible within this cohort, providing a basis for future investigations on diet and health outcomes.
In April 2019, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released its recovery plan for the jaguar Panthera onca after several decades of discussion, litigation and controversy about the status of the species in the USA. The USFWS estimated that potential habitat, south of the Interstate-10 highway in Arizona and New Mexico, had a carrying capacity of c. six jaguars, and so focused its recovery programme on areas south of the USA–Mexico border. Here we present a systematic review of the modelling and assessment efforts over the last 25 years, with a focus on areas north of Interstate-10 in Arizona and New Mexico, outside the recovery unit considered by the USFWS. Despite differences in data inputs, methods, and analytical extent, the nine previous studies found support for potential suitable jaguar habitat in the central mountain ranges of Arizona and New Mexico. Applying slightly modified versions of the USFWS model and recalculating an Arizona-focused model over both states provided additional confirmation. Extending the area of consideration also substantially raised the carrying capacity of habitats in Arizona and New Mexico, from six to 90 or 151 adult jaguars, using the modified USFWS models. This review demonstrates the crucial ways in which choosing the extent of analysis influences the conclusions of a conservation plan. More importantly, it opens a new opportunity for jaguar conservation in North America that could help address threats from habitat losses, climate change and border infrastructure.
Principled methods for analyzing missing values, based chiefly on multiple imputation, have become increasingly popular yet can struggle to handle the kinds of large and complex data that are also becoming common. We propose an accurate, fast, and scalable approach to multiple imputation, which we call MIDAS (Multiple Imputation with Denoising Autoencoders). MIDAS employs a class of unsupervised neural networks known as denoising autoencoders, which are designed to reduce dimensionality by corrupting and attempting to reconstruct a subset of data. We repurpose denoising autoencoders for multiple imputation by treating missing values as an additional portion of corrupted data and drawing imputations from a model trained to minimize the reconstruction error on the originally observed portion. Systematic tests on simulated as well as real social science data, together with an applied example involving a large-scale electoral survey, illustrate MIDAS’s accuracy and efficiency across a range of settings. We provide open-source software for implementing MIDAS.
Telemedicine has become increasingly used by prison mental health services throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. In this editorial, we explore the benefits and risks of the remote provision of forensic mental healthcare, with consideration of the clinical, financial, ethical and legal consequences.
The early rulers of Western Han and Rome were faced with very different challenges in achieving the consolidation of one-man rule over vast territories and heterogeneous peoples. In Rome, the centre’s authority over peripheral territory was largely accepted, but the rule of one man was much derided. In the early Western Han, the opposite was true: while one-man rule had long been the norm, imperial authority over territory was tenuous, with portions of the empire under the rule of kings or regional lords (zhuhou), who ruled their lands and peoples autonomously, while acknowledging the emperor as the ritual centre of the empire. While the strategies undertaken by the early rulers in their respective territories to establish themselves as sole rulers, through the use of military and political means, differed greatly, there were also a number of similarities in the processes through which they consolidated their power, particularly in the ideological realm. One such similarity was that in both the Han and Roman empires, during these periods of consolidation, rulers initiated and completed reforms to the calendrical systems issued by the court. Despite the enormous differences between the two modes of calendrical computation, and the lack of direct contact between the two civilizations in this early period, there are a number of points where the processes through which they completed their calendar reforms look rather similar. Due to differences in the historiographical tradition and political circumstances, the scholars of Rome and the Han wrote about these reforms in very different ways, emphasizing or occluding information about the impact of these new calendars. By interrogating the Han sources with Roman questions of political importance, and the Roman sources with Han concerns over cosmic alignment and historical legitimacy, this chapter seeks to demonstrate some of the similarities between the calendrical reforms that a comparative approach reveals.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed was first confirmed in Ontario in 2010. GR horseweed interference can reduce soybean yield by up to 97%. Bromoxynil is a photosystem II–inhibiting herbicide that is primarily used for annual broadleaf weed control in monocot crops. The objective of this study was to determine the biologically effective dose (BED) of bromoxynil applied alone and when mixed with metribuzin applied preplant for control of GR horseweed in soybean in Ontario. Five field experiments were conducted over a 2-yr period (2019–2020) to determine the predicted dose of bromoxynil with or without metribuzin that would control GR horseweed 50%, 80%, and 95%. No soybean injury was observed. The predicted doses of bromoxynil to achieve 50% and 80% control of GR horseweed were 98 and 277 g ai ha−1, respectively, at 8 wk after application (WAA). When mixed with metribuzin (400 g ai ha−1), the predicted doses of bromoxynil for 50%, 80%, and 95% control of GR horseweed were 10, 25, and 54 g ai ha−1, respectively. Bromoxynil (280 g ai ha−1) plus metribuzin (400 g ai ha−1) controlled GR horseweed 97%, a finding that was similar to the industry standards of saflufenacil + metribuzin (99% control) and glyphosate/dicamba + saflufenacil (100% control) at 8 WAA. This study concludes that bromoxynil + metribuzin applied before planting provides excellent control of GR horseweed in soybean.
This chapter examines the construction and representation of borders in China under the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). It considers the spatial dimensions of the Mongol empire, which was the Ming dynasty’s immediate predecessor. It examines the Ming court’s efforts to conquer or coopt Mongol power-holders and their territories, its plans to establish lasting control over those regions and their peoples, and its discursive and administrative strategies to describe and regulate issues of diversity and distance. The chapter reviews changes in the Ming dynasty’s geopolitical engagement in eastern Eurasia, tracing the dynasty’s loss of territory and influence along the northern and western borders and simultaneously a steady expansion of state institutions into the southwestern frontier. The essay concludes with developments during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, including responses to early Western European agents of empire in East Asia and, more broadly, the expansion of Chinese interest into maritime Asia.
We team teach an interdisciplinary political science and literature course titled “Violence and Reconciliation,” with case studies on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in South Africa and on debates about whether to develop a TRC in Northern Ireland. The course culminates in a two-week simulation in which students role play the experiences, strategies, and needs of victims, perpetrators, legal teams, government officials, and NGOs in the aftermath of a horrific event that has torn a society apart. We assessed the simulation through pre- and post-simulation writing exercises as well as observations of insights revealed by students during negotiations. We believe the simulation is an effective tool for helping students move from a scholarly engagement with the processes of restorative justice to employing them in response to hatred and violence. This article describes the simulation for use or adaptation in other courses.
In this paper, we focus on the disruption that the current pandemic has created within the US industrial food system. We suggest that the pandemic has provided an opening for small producers. Attending to small-scale responses to the pandemic can guide policy and public investments towards a more just and sustainable future for food.
Building on the IPES-Food Communique of April 2020, we examine the many ways in which the US industrial food system faltered during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Using Regime Theory as a guide, we suggest that such a catastrophic crisis may create significant opportunities for an emergent food regime. Drawing from our research and participant observation in the US Midwest, we examine changes in the food system occasioned by the pandemic that foreshadow a new food regime. We suggest several blockages and risks to this new regime and suggest policies that would make transition smoother to a more just and sustainable food system.
Social Media Summary (120 characters)
What will food be like after the pandemic? This new study outlines an alternative food system emerging in the American Midwest.
We applaud the goals and execution of the target article, but note that individual differences do not receive much attention. This is a shortcoming because individual differences can play a vital role in theory testing. In our commentary, we describe programs of research of this type and also apply similar thinking to the mechanisms proposed in the target article.
In this paper, a low profile 4 × 4 multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) antenna is proposed and designed for wireless local area network (WLAN) application using a square split-ring resonator. Initially, a single square-patch antenna is designed with square-shaped split-ring slot. Subsequently, the two-element MIMO antenna is designed and it is extended to four-element MIMO antenna. Finally, the defected ground structure (DGS) is implemented in order to enhance antenna performance. The antenna elements are placed opposite to each other. The mutual coupling between the antennas elements is reduced by DGS. The proposed single, two and four-element antennas operate at 5.8 GHz for WLAN. The overall performance is measured in terms of S parameter, radiation pattern, and envelope correlation coefficient. The simulated results are verified through measurements. The simulated and measured results demonstrate that the proposed 4 × 4 MIMO antenna is the most suitable for WLAN applications.
Responses to anticipateddiscrimination are common among mental health service users and can have adetrimental impact on their recovery. Since 2009, the Time to Change (TTC)anti-stigma program in England has aimed to improve service users’ empowerment,reducing public stigma and discrimination. In this paper, we aim to evaluatewhether service users’ awareness of TTC is associated with fewer responses toanticipated discrimination.
We used data collected for the evaluation of TTC from samples of mental health service users interviewed by telephone in annual surveys 2009-2014.
Five thousand and nine hundredand twenty-three participants completed the survey, mainly suffering from mooddisorders (depression, 28.4%, n = 1,681) and schizophrenia related disorders(15.4%, n = 915).
In 23.2% of cases,participants were aware of any aspects of the TTC program, while participationin TTC was reported by 2.6%. Being aware of the TTC program was notsignificantly associated with responses to anticipated discrimination, exceptfor those participating in the TTC campaign in 2013. Stopping oneself fromapplying for work was significantly associated with experienced discriminationin both finding (p < 0.001) and keeping (p < 0.001) a job.Concealing mental health problems was associated with a general experience ofbeing shunned (p < 0.001).
Awareness of a nationalanti-stigma program may not be sufficient to encourage people to seek work/educationor to be open about their illness in situations in which they currentlyanticipate discrimination. There is the need to identify new multi-levelstrategies for challenging anticipated discrimination, even focusing ondifferent target groups.