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The aim of the study was to assess the impact of different lunchbox messages on parents’ intention to pack a healthy lunchbox.
This study employed an experimental design.
Parents of primary school-aged children were randomised to receive different messages to encourage the packing of healthy lunchboxes.
A series of messages were developed to align with the six constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM). Messages were also developed which were (and were not) personalised and varied based on the source of the information provided (university, school, dietitian, health promotion service). During a telephone survey, participants were read the content of each message, and asked about their intention to pack a healthy lunchbox.
The study was completed by 511 parents. Linear mixed regression analyses identified significant differences (p<0.05) in intention scores between variant messages targeting the same behavioural constructs for ‘susceptibility’, ‘severity’, ‘benefits’, and ‘barriers’ but not ‘cues to action’ or ‘self-efficacy’. The highest mean behavioural intention score was for ‘benefits’ whilst the lowest mean score was ‘barriers‘. There were no significant differences in intention scores of parents receiving messages from a dietitian, university, health promotion team or school (p=0.37). Intention scores did not differ in which messages were personalised based on child’s name (p=0.84) or grade level (p=0.54)
The findings suggest that messages that focus on the benefits of packing healthy lunchboxes may be particularly useful in improving intentions of parents to pack healthy foods for their children to consume at school.
Tok stori is a Melanesian form of dialogical engagement. Although it has been generally associated with informal activities, this article points to the potential of tok stori as a pedagogical or teaching process. Set in a school leadership programme spread across the Solomon Islands, the discussion illustrates the value of approaching the education of school leaders through their own experiences and in a manner to which they are accustomed. Data are drawn from the stories of programme mentors. Of particular relevance are the relational implications of tok stori as these frame learning, the kinds of learning facilitated by tok stori, gender and the restricted nature of some knowledge, and the openness of tok stori to encourage and promote learning beyond the initial scope of a programme. Although tok stori can be informal, the data suggest that effective professional learning can take place through tok stori as pedagogy. As one amongst a number of traditional oral forms across the region and beyond, the claims made for tok stori in this context provide further support for the inclusion of Indigenous approaches to development work in and beyond Solomon Islands. This is important if development aid is to move to a new level of efficacy.
Agricultural intensification within forage systems has reduced grassland floral diversity by promoting ryegrass (Lolium spp.), damaging soil functionality which underpins critical ecosystem services. Diverse forage mixtures may enhance environmental benefits of pastures by decreasing nutrient leaching, increasing soil carbon storage, and with legume inclusion, reduce nitrogen fertilizer input. This UK study reports on how species-rich forage mixtures affect soil carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen at dry, medium and wet soil moisture sites, compared to ryegrass monoculture. Increasing forage mixture diversity (from 1 to 17 species) affected soil carbon at the dry site. No effect of forage mixture on soil phosphorus was found, while forage mixture and site did interact to affect soil nitrate/nitrite availability. Results suggest that forage mixtures could be used to improve soil function, but longer-term studies are needed to conclusively demonstrate environmental and production benefits of high-diversity forages.
Intentional facial disfigurement is documented in archaeological contexts around the world. Here, the authors present the first archaeological evidence for intentional facial mutilation from Anglo-Saxon England—comprising the removal of the nose, upper lip and possible scalping—inflicted upon a young adult female. The injuries are consistent with documented punishments for female offenders. Although such mutilations do not appear in the written record until the tenth century AD, the instance reported here suggests that the practice may have emerged a century earlier. This case is examined in the context of a wider consideration of the motivations and significance of facial disfigurement in past societies.
This introduction surveys the state of contemporary Irish and Northern Irish literature and culture from the close of the twentieth century to the present day, exploring how Irish writing reflects and intervenes in rapidly changing contemporary cultural conditions, both local and global. It helps to explain the national and international significance of Irish contemporary writing in the twenty-first century and focuses on the increasing authority of formerly marginalized voices, particularly those of women, LGBTQ, and migrant artists. It homes in on how durable artistic and cultural legacies are reshaped by contemporary writers, how the altered cultural conditions of a socially progressive Republic and a post-Troubles Northern Ireland are represented by writers in a variety of genres, and how Irish writers and artists invoke new aesthetic forms and practices to depict the contemporary moment.
This brief coda considers the current state of the interdisciplinary field of Irish Studies, showing how literary criticism and pedagogy, in particular, might engage in fresh ways with contemporary conditions. It offers a short history of Irish Studies, situates the field amid current understandings of area studies, identifies possible new scholarly practices, and argues that a renewed Irish Studies, one still focused on the particularities of Irish culture, has much to offer the “global turn” in literary studies.
The New Irish Studies demonstrates how diverse critical approaches enable a richer understanding of contemporary Irish writing and culture. The early decades of the twenty-first century in Ireland and Northern Ireland have seen an astonishing rate of change, one that reflects the common understanding of the contemporary as a moment of acceleration and flux. This collection tracks how Irish writers have represented the peace and reconciliation process in Northern Ireland, the consequences of the Celtic Tiger economic boom in the Republic, the waning influence of Catholicism, the increased authority of diverse voices, and an altered relationship with Europe. The essays acknowledge the distinctiveness of contemporary Irish literature, reflecting a sense that the local can shed light on the global, even as they reach beyond the limited tropes that have long identified Irish literature. The collection suggests routes forward for Irish Studies, and unsettles presumptions about what constitutes an Irish classic.
To the readers of the weekly Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, Beethoven's death on March 26, 1827 was announced at the end of the monthly report from Vienna. The reviewer came to the end of his comments about a concert held on March 22, at which Beethoven's “Sanft, wie du lebtest,” a vocal quartet with string accompaniment, had premiered. He praised the harmonies of the work for breathing “the blessed peace of a better world,” and then quoted its text:
“Gentle, as you lived, have you completed, too holy for the pain! No eye cries at the heavenly spirit's homecoming!” Words such as this, with their deeply felt melancholy, must be doubly grasped in the blink of an eye, because we fear that we shall lose the creator of such melodies.—It has happened! On the evening of the 26th, at ten minutes before six, Beethoven went on to his eternal rest; painless, after hours of continual agony.
By the time this account was published in the April 25 issue, Beethoven had been buried for over three weeks, and the commemorative round of concerts and events was well underway. The extraordinary public response to Beethoven's death began in Vienna with the prescribed rituals of public grief, but these soon gave way to a year of organized tributes throughout Europe. Whether out of grief for his loss or from a desire to help define how he would be remembered, the tributes came from all corners of the artistic world: performers gave concerts (both public and private), sculptors chiseled, poets mused, critics expounded, publishers published, and composers composed.
My intent in examining how musicians and others in German-speaking lands and in England responded to Beethoven's death is not to chronicle the creation of the mythical Beethoven (though I will briefly examine some early manifestations of this), it is not to trace the reception history of early works as opposed to late (though issues of repertoire will figure prominently), and it is not to show how composers who survived Beethoven honored him with new compositions (though instances of musical citation and allusion will arise); rather, I hope to show how all of these issues were interrelated, how poets, performers, and composers had common responses to Beethoven's death and to life after Beethoven.
Lewin (1951) recognized that it “is usually easier to change individuals formed into a group than to change any one of them separately” (p. 228). More than sixty-five years later, social identity theory (SIT; Tajfel & Turner, 1979) and self‐categorization theory (SCT; Turner et al., 1987; collectively referred to as the social identity perspective/approach) offer many insights into why and how this is the case. At the heart of the social identity perspective is a comprehensive and systematic theory of the “group,” which generated a new view of the self-process where humans are both individuals and group members with both personal (“I”) and social (“we”) identities. Importantly, social and personal identities can change and, in turn, so too can behavior. An important part of the behavior change “puzzle”, often overlooked by researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, is that it is necessary to engage not only the “I” or “me” but also the “we.” This chapter outlines the potential of social identity processes, including in-group norms and social influence, in advancing understanding of behavior change. Taken together, research and practice applying the social identity approach to behavior change demonstrate considerable promise in promoting change in group contexts and for multiple behaviors in multiple domains such as work, education, and community settings.