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In this engaging and innovative history of the communist movement in colonial India, Ali Raza reveals the lives, geographies, and anti-colonial struggles of Indian revolutionaries and how they sought to remake the world. Driven by the utopian visions of Communist Internationalism, Indian revolutionaries yearned and struggled for a global upheaval that would overthrow European imperialisms and radically transform India and the world. In an age marked by political upheavals, intellectual ferment, collapsing empires, and global conflicts, Indian revolutionaries stood alongside countless others in the colonized world and beyond in their desire to usher in a future liberated from colonialism and capitalism. Drawing from a wealth of archival materials, Raza demonstrates how Communist Internationalism was a crucial project in the struggle for national liberation and inaugurates a new approach to the global history of communism and decolonization.
The family Tephritidae (order: Diptera), commonly known as fruit flies, comprises a widely distributed group of agricultural pests. The tephritid pests infest multiple species of fruits and vegetables, resulting in huge crop losses. Here, we summarize the composition and diversity of tephritid gut-associated bacteria communities and host intrinsic and environmental factors that influence the microbiome structures. Diverse members of Enterobacteriaceae, most commonly Klebsiella and Enterobacter bacteria, are prevalent in fruit flies guts. Roles played by gut bacteria in host nutrition, development, physiology and resistance to insecticides and pathogens are also addressed. This review provides an overview of fruit fly microbiome structure and points to diverse roles that it can play in fly physiology and survival. It also considers potential use of this knowledge for the control of economically important fruit flies, including the sterile insect technique and cue-lure baiting.
Machine learning-based approach is desired for accelerating materials design, development and discovery in combination with high-throughput experiments and simulation. In this work, we propose to apply a Bayesian optimization method to design ultrathin multilayer tungsten-silicon carbide (W-SiC) nanocomposite absorber for high-temperature solar power generation. Based on a semi-analytical scattering matrix method, the design of spectrally selective absorber is optimized over a variety of layer thicknesses to maximize the overall solar absorptance. Our nanofabrication and experimental characterization results demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach for accelerated development of refractory light-absorbing materials. Comparison with other global optimization methods, such as random search, simulated annealing and particle swarm optimization, shows that the Bayesian optimization method can expedite the design of multilayer nanocomposite absorbers and significantly reduce the development cost. This work sheds light on the discovery of novel materials for solar energy and sustainability applications.
Inadequate public transportation was recognized as a barrier to social participation, especially for older adults in rural communities and with mobility issues. Older adults will not benefit from opportunities to engage with their community and maintain social networks if they are unable to access them. The purpose of this scoping review was to make recommendations for further research and to summarize areas for improvement identified in the literature that will aid in the development of public transportation initiatives that can better address social isolation for older adults (≥ 55 years of age). Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria, identifying themes of access to rural public transportation, issues with public transportation, and mobility. In practice, older adults need to prepare for driving cessation and mobility transitions; sound policy requires input to tailor transportation initiatives to an aging population, and future research should explore older adults’ transportation needs and potential solutions in urban and rural communities.
Prehospital emergency care is a vital and integral component of health systems, particularly in resource-constrained countries like Uganda. It can help to minimize deaths, injuries, morbidities, disabilities, and trauma caused by road traffic incidents (RTIs). This study identifies the weaknesses and capacities affecting the prehospital emergency care for the victims of RTIs in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA).
A cross-sectional study was conducted in the GKMA using a three-part structured questionnaire. Data related to the demographics, nature of RTIs and victims’ pre-hospital experience and existing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) were collected from victims and EMS specialists in 3 hospitals and 5 EMS institutions, respectively. Data were descriptively analyzed, and a principal component analysis was employed to identify the most influential weaknesses and capacities affecting the prehospital emergency care for the victims of RTI in the GKMA.
From 459 RTI victims (74.7% males and 25.3% females) and 23 EMS specialists (91.3% males and 8.7% females) who participated in the study between May and June 20164. key weaknesses and 5 key capacities were identified to affect the prehospital emergency care for RTI victims in the GKMA. Although some strengths exist, (e.g., ambulance facilitation, EMS structuring, and coordination), the key weaknesses affecting the pre-hospital care for victims were noted to relate to the absence of predefined EMS systems, particularly in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole. They were identified to involve poor quality first aid treatment, insufficient skills/training of the first responders, inadequate EMS resources, and avoidable delays to respond and transport RTI victims to medical facilities.
Though some strengths exist, the weaknesses affecting prehospital care for RTI victims primarily emanate from the absence of predefined and well-organized EMS systems in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole.
A third of patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Relatively few pharmacological agents have established efficacy for TRD. Therefore, the evaluation of novel treatments for TRD is a pressing priority. Statins are pleiotropic agents and preclinical studies as well as preliminary clinical trials have suggested that these drugs may have antidepressant properties.
To report on a protocol for a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of add-on treatment with simvastatin for patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD who have failed to respond to at least two adequate trials with approved antidepressants. The trial has been registered with Clinicaltrials.gov in (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03435744).
After screening and randomisation to the two parallel arms of the trial, 75 patients will receive simvastatin and 75 patients will receive placebo as adjuncts to treatment as usual. The primary outcome is change in Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores from baseline to week 12 and secondary outcomes include changes in scores on the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Clinical Global Impression scale, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale and change in body mass index from baseline to week 12. Assessments will take place at screening, baseline, and weeks 2, 4, 8 and 12. Checklists for adverse effects will be undertaken at each visit. Simvastatin (20 mg) will be given once daily. Other secondary outcomes include C-reactive protein and plasma lipids measured at baseline and week 12.
This trial will assess simvastatin's efficacy and tolerability as an add-on treatment option for patients with TRD and provide insights into its putative mechanisms of action.
As the first trial investigating the use of simvastatin as an augmentation strategy in patients with TRD, if the results indicate that adjuvant simvastatin is efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms, it will deliver immediate clinical benefit.
Declaration of interest
I.B.C. and N.H. have given lectures and advice to Eli Lilly, Bristol Myers Squibb, Lundbeck, Astra Zeneca and Janssen pharmaceuticals for which they or their employing institution have been reimbursed. R.R. and M.M.H. have received educational grants and support for academic meetings from Pfizer, Roche, Novartis and Nabiqasim. A.H.Y. has been commissioned to provide lectures and advice to all major pharmaceutical companies with drugs used in affective and related disorders. A.H.Y. has undertaken investigator-initiated studies from Astra Zeneca, Eli Lilly, Lundbeck and Wyeth. None of the companies have a financial interest in this research.
The water and energy sectors of an economy are inextricably linked. Energy is required in water production, distribution, and recycling, while water is often used for energy generation. In many geographical locations, the energy-water nexus is exacerbated by the shortage of both fresh water resources and energy generation infrastructure. New materials, including metamaterials, are now emerging to address the challenges of providing renewable energy and fresh water, especially to off-the-grid communities struggling with water shortages. Novel nanomaterials have fueled recent technology breakthroughs in solar water desalination, fog and dew collection, and cloud seeding. Materials for passive thermal management of buildings and individuals offer promising strategies to reduce the use of energy and water for heating and cooling. While many challenges remain, emerging materials and technologies improve sustainable management of water and energy resources.
The current work studied the effects of butyric acid (BA) supplementation on the growth performance, carcase characteristics, immunity, gut histology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicken. Four experimental diets were formulated: control, 20 mg bacitracin methylene di-salicylate/kg diet (BMD-supplemented), 3 g BA/kg diet and 4 g BA/kg diet. The results revealed higher body weight gain (BWG) in BA and BMD-supplemented groups. Only BMD supplementation increased the feed intake (FI) of birds, whereas BA supplementation improved feed efficiency. Expression of glucose transporter (GLUT5), sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1) and peptide transporter (PepT1) were up-regulated due to BMD and BA supplementation. However, at 21 days post-hatching SGLT1 expression in the BMD-supplemented group was down-regulated with respect to the BA-supplemented groups. The 4 g BA/kg diet yielded better humoral and cell-mediated immune responses than the other groups. No dietary effects were observed on carcase characteristics and histomorphometry of jejunum at 7 days post-hatching. However, at 42 days old, the 4 g BA/kg diet increased villus length and width significantly. There was a significant increase in serum protein, albumin, creatinine, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), phosphorus and calcium due to BA supplementation. However, the reverse trend was observed in serum uric acid and cholesterol, where BA supplementation decreased both and BMD supplementation decreased uric acid levels only. Based on the results it was concluded that 4 g BA/kg diet supplementation in feed is optimal for desirable broiler production.
Control of equine nematodes has relied on benzimidazoles (BZs), tetrahydropyrimidines and macrocyclic lactones. The intensive use of anthelmintics has led to the development of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in equine cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum. Field studies indicate that BZ and pyrantel resistance is widespread in cyathostomins and there are also increasing reports of resistance to macrocyclic lactones in cyathostomins and P. equorum. The unavailability of reliable laboratory-based techniques for detecting resistance further augments the problem of nematode control in horses. The only reliable test used in horses is the fecal egg count reduction test; therefore, more focus should be given to develop and validate improved methodologies for diagnosing AR at an early stage, as well as determining the mechanisms involved in resistance development. Therefore, equine industry and researchers should devise and implement new strategies for equine worm control, such as the use of bioactive pastures or novel feed additives, and control should increasingly incorporate alternative and evidence-based parasite control strategies to limit the development of AR. This review describes the history and prevalence of AR in equine nematodes, along with recent advances in developing resistance diagnostic tests and worm control strategies in horses, as well as giving some perspective on recent research into novel control strategies.
Anti-organic fouling performance of titanium dioxide (TiO2) can be enhanced by extending its light absorption and photocatalytic capability from ultra-violet to the visible range through hydrogenation. In this work, we aim at studying the impact of hydrogenation on the performance of both electron beam-deposited TiO2 thin films and hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanostructures on titanium substrates. Hydrogenation of these TiO2-deposited titanium substrates (TiO2/Ti) are achieved in relatively low-temperature low-pressure chemical vapor deposition chamber without any noble diatomic hydrogen dissociation catalyst, such as platinum. Our study shows that these hydrogenated TiO2/Ti have better light absorption ability and the titanium substrate itself serves as the active catalyst for hydrogen dissociation and diffusion. By applying hydrogenation to the TiO2 nanostructures, we can enhance photocatalytic performance by 50% through methylene blue degradation experiments. We have also evaluated the effect of hydrogenation on carrier density and mobility in TiO2/Ti. We recommend the hydrogenation of hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanostructure on titanium substrates for scalable photocatalytic applications.
Veteran politician, inveterate rebel, self-styled defender of progressive values; Mian Iftikhar-ud-Din remains one of the most intriguing individuals to have been associated with the Pakistan movement and the Muslim League. As an outspoken advocate of Muslim self-determination and Pakistan, the inclusion of Mian Iftikhar-ud-Din in this volume might seem like an odd choice indeed. And yet, his political journey reveals much about the tense political climate of the 1940s and the impossible choices that many were confronted with at the time. More importantly, though, his politics also provides an insight into the varied dreams and aspirations that were tied to the idea of Pakistan. In doing so, Mian Iftikhar-ud-Din's political trajectory also contributes to a deeper understanding of relatively neglected aspects of the Pakistan movement and the early years of the nascent post-colonial state when many of those utopian dreams turned sour.
Early political career
In the archival record, Mian Muhammad Iftikhar-ud-Din first emerges as a politician of note in 1936, when he joined the Indian National Congress. Aside from the most rudimentary details, not much is known about his earlier life. Born in 1907 into an affluent family in Baghbanpura, Lahore, Iftikhar-ud- Din obtained his primary and secondary education at the city's elite Aitchison College. He later obtained his higher education at Balliol College, Oxford. Not much is known about his political leanings or affiliations during his time at Oxford or his preoccupations after he returned to India in the early 1930s. After his entry into politics, Mian Iftikhar-ud-Din, like others belonging to his illustrious background, rose to occupy the highest ranks of the provincial Congress Party. He contested the 1937 elections on the Congress ticket and was duly elected as a member of the Punjab Legislative Assembly. In 1940 he was elected as the president of the Punjab Provincial Congress, a position he held until 1945. During this period, like other Congress leaders, he too was interned for civil disobedience and for participating in the Quit India Movement.
That Iftikhar-ud-Din was a prominent voice in the provincial Congress party provides some clues into the contours of the nationalist movement in Punjab. As in other provinces, the Congress, especially in the 1920s and 1930s, was a broad church of groups with varied political leanings. Unlike other major provinces though, the Congress party in the Punjab was a relatively weak political force.
Chinese older adults may be at increased risk of social isolation and loneliness, and a fragmented understanding exists about the challenges they face for social participation in their neighbourhoods and communities. A scoping review was undertaken to describe the current knowledge on social isolation and loneliness in urban-dwelling Chinese older adults living in Western societies to inform future research, practice, and policy in Canada. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. The World Health Organization’s age-friendly community framework contextualized the study findings. Studies identified issues related to (1) social participation; (2) community support and health services; (3) housing; (4) community and information; (5) respect and social inclusion; (6) outdoor spaces and public buildings; (7) civic participation and employment; and (8) transportation. Social isolation and loneliness is a growing concern in this population in Canada, and additional research is needed to identify its scope and effective interventions.
The purpose of this study is to examine inclusive leadership as a predictor of innovative work behavior with the mediating role of psychological safety. Data were collected from supervisors–subordinates dyads working in textile industry in Pakistan. Our findings suggest that inclusive leadership is a positively related with innovative work behavior, and psychological safety mediates the effect of inclusive leadership on innovative work behavior. The leader–member exchange theory was used to build our theoretical model. We have also discussed theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
Background: Understanding cost-drivers and estimating societal costs are important challenges for economic evaluation of health technologies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study assessed community experiences of health resource usage and perceived cost-drivers from a societal perspective to inform the design of an economic model for the Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) trials.
Methods: Qualitative research was undertaken alongside the CLIP trial in two districts of Sindh province, Pakistan. Nine focus groups were conducted with a wide range of stakeholders, including pregnant women, mothers-in-law, husbands, fathers-in-law, healthcare providers at community and health facility-levels, and health decision/policy makers at district-level. The societal perspective included out-of-pocket (OOP), health system, and program implementation costs related to CLIP. Thematic analysis was performed using NVivo software.
Results: Most pregnant women and male decision makers reported a large burden of OOP costs for in- and out-patient care, informal care from traditional healers, self-medication, childbirth, newborn care, transport to health facility, and missed wages by caretakers. Many healthcare providers identified health system costs associated with human resources for hypertension risk assessment, transport, and communication about patient referrals. Health decision/policy makers recognized program implementation costs (such as the mobile health infrastructure, staff training, and monitoring/supervision) as major investments for the health system.
Conclusions: Our investigation of care-seeking practices revealed financial implications for families of pregnant women, and program implementation costs for the health system. The societal perspective provided comprehensive knowledge of cost drivers to guide an economic appraisal of the CLIP trial in Sindh, Pakistan.
Poultry can be exposed to different kinds of immunosuppressive agents that impair health and welfare by destroying innate and acquired immunity leading to diminished genetic potential of poultry for efficient production. Immunosuppression is a condition characterised by humoral and cellular immune dysfunction that leads to increased susceptibility to secondary infections and vaccine failure. Immune dysfunction at the humoral level is largely due to change in soluble factors mediated by complement or chemokines for innate immunity or due to alterations in antibodies or cytokines for adaptive immunity. In contrast, immune dysfunctions at cellular levels include alterations in neutrophils, monocyte/macrophage, and natural killer cells for innate immunity or changes in B or T lymphocytes for adaptive immunity. In poultry, stress-induced immunosuppression is manifested by failure in vaccination, and increased morbidity and mortality of flocks. Immunosuppressive agents can have cytolytic effects on lymphocyte populations leading to atrophied and depleted lymphoid organs. Immunosuppression can be due to infectious agents or non-infectious agents or due to a combination of them. At present, several modern cellular and molecular approaches are being used to determine the status of the immune system during stress and disease. Comprehensive methodologies for the evaluation of immunosuppression by combined non-infectious and infectious aetiologies have not found general application. Currently, investigations are being developed in order to detect genetic expression of immunologic mediators and receptors by microarray technology. It is likely that this new technique will initiate the development of new strategies for the control and prevention of immunosuppression in poultry. A long term immunosuppression preventive approach involves genetic selection for resistance to immunosuppressive diseases. In general, intervention approaches for immunosuppressive diseases largely rely on minimising stress, reducing exposure to infectious agents through biosecurity, and increasing immune responses by vaccination against immunosuppressive agents.
The poultry industry is currently facing a serious problem of controlling coccidiosis, owing to the development of drug resistance against commonly available anticoccidials. Furthermore, an increasing demand in the consumers for drug residue free poultry and poultry products has led to the development of alternative strategies for the treatment and control of avian coccidiosis. In response to the invasion of Eimeria species in coccidiosis, oxidative stress is created by host cellular response which imparts pathology to the host tissue besides damaging the parasite. Hence, in order to alleviate the damage caused by oxidative stress during coccidiosis, the use of essential oils (EOs) rich in antioxidant compounds is being considered as an appealing approach. However, results are very divergent and often not as satisfactory as expected. Essential oils, as natural products, obtained from aromatic plants have the potential to serve as an alternate to anticoccidials. The present work aims to review the current state of knowledge, informative collection of results obtained over the years and to attain a critical decision in aspects of the use of EOs as anticoccidials.
The effect of sodium butyrate on various bodily parameters of broilers such as performance, gut microflora, gut morphology, and immunity is reviewed in order to highlight its importance as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. Sodium butyrate is used as a source of butyric acid, which is known for its beneficial effects in the gut in monogastrics. Sodium butyrate is available in uncoated and enteric-coated forms protected with fat or fatty acid salts. Varying results in productive performance, gut microbes, and gut morphology have been reported in the literature in response to supplementation of broiler diets with uncoated and fat-coated types of sodium butyrate. However, sodium butyrate has shown pronounced effects on immunity of chickens that are not fully understood yet. Although there are contrasting results of sodium butyrate in chicken, further research is needed using the sodium butyrate coated with the salts of fatty acids.