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The Nilgiri tahr Nilgiritragus hylocrius is an Endangered species of mountain ungulate endemic to the Western Ghats of India, a biodiversity hotspot. Habitat fragmentation, hunting and a restricted range are the major threats to this species. Although several surveys have assessed the species’ status, a population estimate based on a scientifically robust method is needed. We used the double-observer method to estimate the population of the Nilgiri tahr in the Anamalai Tiger Reserve, a protected area in the Western Ghats. We walked 257 km of transects across the Reserve, covering 36 grassland blocks (i.e. clusters of montane grasslands that were relatively separate from each other). We counted a minimum of 422 individuals in 28 groups, and estimated the tahr population in the study area to be 510 individuals (95% CI 300–858) in 35 groups. The male:female ratio was 0.71 and the young:female ratio was 0.56. Comparing our estimate with previous surveys suggests that the Nilgiri tahr population in Anamalai Tiger Reserve is stable. We found the double-observer survey method to be appropriate for population estimation and long-term monitoring of this species, and make recommendations for improved field protocols to facilitate the implementation of the method in the tropical mountains of the Western Ghats. Our findings suggest that the Reserve harbours 20–25% of the global population of the Nilgiri tahr, highlighting the area's importance for the conservation of this species.
Kawasaki disease is a leading cause of acquired heart disease in children with serious repercussions of coronary artery lesions. Recurrences of the disease are relatively rare in clinical practice. We present a case of recurrent Kawasaki disease, wherein the coronary artery lesions which were documented during the initial illness demonstrated complete regression over the following months, but reappeared with recurrence of the disease.
To compare endoscopic assisted powered adenoidectomy with conventional curettage adenoidectomy.
A randomised controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Fifty patients with a symptom complex pertaining to adenoid hypertrophy and requiring adenoidectomy were chosen and divided into 2 groups of 25 each. Patients in group A underwent conventional curettage adenoidectomy and those in group B underwent endoscopic assisted powered adenoidectomy. Comparison was based on the parameters of surgical time, intra-operative bleeding, post-operative pain and completeness of adenoid removal.
The surgical time was significantly longer with the powered instrument. Mean blood loss was greater in the powered group, but was statistically insignificant. The powered procedure fared significantly better, with lower pain scores and more instances of complete tissue resection.
A curved microdebrider blade can be used safely and precisely for adenoidectomy under endoscopic vision. It enables complete resection of adenoid tissue. This method also proves to be an excellent teaching aid.
Endophytes are microorganisms that colonise the internal compartments of host plants without harming the host. In many cases, endophytic bacteria have been shown to provide several beneficial effects to their host plant, including growth-promoting activity, modulation of plant metabolism and phytohormone signalling that leads to adaptation to environmental abiotic or biotic stresses. Endophytic bacterial community structure is influenced by plant genotype, soil type, abiotic and biotic factors, such as environmental conditions and microbe–microbe/plant–microbe interactions. In addition, agricultural management practices, such as soil tillage, crop rotation, and fertiliser and pesticide applications have a major effect on the function and structure of the soil, rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an important break crop in cereal crop rotation and can significantly reduce the rate of ‘take-all’ fungal disease (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) and, as a result, improves the yield of subsequent cereal crops. Additionally, oilseed rape is the world’s third largest source of vegetable oil used for human nutrition and as a source of oil for biodiesel production. Therefore, the promotion of agricultural practices that maintain the natural diversity of B. napus endophytic bacteria is receiving attention as an important element for a sustainable agricultural system that ensures crop productivity and quality while reducing inputs. This chapter reviews the existing literature on the role of endophytic bacteria in oilseed rape crop production, agricultural factors influencing oilseed rape bacterial diversity and discusses how meta-omics is enhancing our understanding of the endophytic bacteria and their function.
This study is based on crime mapping and crime analysis of property crimes in Jodhpur. The property crimes which were selected were house breaking, auto thefts and chain snatching. Data from police stations were used to generate the maps to locate hot spots of crimes. The profile of these hot spots was analyzed through observations supplemented with interviews of police officers and public 100 cases of house breaking and 100 cases of auto thefts were further analyzed to understand the contexts which lead to these crimes. These contexts are in consonance with situational crime prevention theories. This study may help to understand the environmental factors which may be responsible for certain places becoming hot spot areas of property crimes in Jodhpur.
Kα X-ray sources generated from the interaction of ultra-short laser pulses with solids are compact and low-cost source of ultra-short quasi-monochromatic X-rays compared with synchrotron radiation source. Development of collimated ultra-short Kα X-ray source by the interaction of 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser pulse with Cu wire target is presented in this paper. A study of the Kα source with laser parameters such as energy and pulse duration was carried out. The observed Kα X-ray photon flux was ~2.7 × 108 photons/shot at the laser intensity of ~2.8 × 1017 W cm−2. A model was developed to analyze the observed results. The Kα radiation was coupled to a polycapillary collimator to generate a collimated low divergence (0.8 mrad) X-ray beam. Such sources are useful for time-resolved X-ray diffraction and imaging studies.
Ponderomotive non-linearities arising by propagation of a linearly polarized laser beam through high-density quantum plasma are studied. The intense laser beam sets the plasma electrons in quiver motion and consequently ponderomotive non-linearity sets in leading to electron density perturbation inside the plasma. The interaction formalism has been built using the quantum hydrodynamic model. Laser beam traversing through high-density quantum plasma acquires an additional focusing tendency due to the perturbation induced by ponderomotive force in the plasma density. The ponderomotive force causes the beam to focus and the quantum effects contribute in focusing. The transverse magnetization of quantum plasma enhances the self-focusing and increase in magnetic field limits the spot size.
Optimization is an important step in the design and development of a planar parallel manipulator. For optimization processes, workspace analysis is a crucial and preliminary objective. Generally, the workspace analysis for such manipulators is carried out using a non-dimensional approach. For planar parallel manipulators of two degrees of freedom (2-DOF), a non-dimensional workspace analysis is very advantageous. However, it becomes very difficult in the case of 3-DOF and higher DOF manipulators because of the complex shape of the workspace. In this study, the workspace shape is classified as a function of the geometric parameters, and the closed-form area expressions are derived for a constant orientation workspace of a three revolute–revolute–revolute (3-RRR) planar manipulator. The approach is also shown to be feasible for different orientations of a mobile platform. An optimization procedure for the design of planar 3-RRR manipulators is proposed for a prescribed workspace area. It is observed that the closed-form area expression for all the possible shapes of the workspace provides a larger solution space, which is further optimized considering singularity, mass of the manipulator, and a force transmission index.
This study is a sociophonetic investigation of dialect variation and change in the East African Asian community in Leicester, UK. The community differs from other strands of the British Asian diaspora because of its migration history: a two-stage journey (‘twice migration’) within a few generations, first from the Indian subcontinent to East Africa (late nineteenth century) and from there onward to Britain (early 1970s). We examine variation in the production of the foot, strut, and nurse vowels across two generations of East African Asian migrants with a focus on the usage of originally Indian English features, identity expression, changing sense of belonging, and desire to maintain the original culture from the East African homelands. Our sociolinguistic examination of the speakers’ migration history demonstrates that, despite a strong affiliation with East Africa, first-generation speakers have predominantly maintained Indian English patterns whereas second-generation subjects partake in accommodation to an (educated) variety of East Midlands English. (Twice migration, accommodation, identity, variation and change in the diaspora, foot, strut, and nurse vowels, Indian English, East African English, East Midlands English)*
We have studied the diffusion mechanism of lithium ions in glassy oxide-based solid state electrolytes using elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering. Samples of xLi2SO4-(1-x)(Li2O-P2O5) were prepared using conventional melt techniques. Elastic and inelastic scattering measurements were performed using the triple-axis spectrometer (TRIAX) at Missouri University Research Reactor at University of Missouri and High Flux Backscattering Spectrometer (HFBS) at NIST Center for Neutron Research, respectively. These compounds have a base glass compound of P2O5 which is modified with Li2O. Addition of Li2SO4 leads to the modification of the structure and to an increase lithium ion (Li+) conduction. We find that an increase of Li2SO4 in the compounds leads to an increase in the Lorentzian width of the fit for the quasielastic data, which corresponds to an increase in Li+ diffusion until an over-saturation point is reached (< 60% Li2SO4). We find that the hopping mechanism is best described by the vacancy mediated Chudley-Elliot model. A fundamental understanding of the diffusion process for these glassy compounds can help lead to the development of a highly efficient solid electrolyte and improve the viability of clean energy technologies.
Water stress is one of the main environmental stress conditions that adversely affect growth and yield of crops. Sulphydryl (-SH) compounds have been reported to induce tolerance to abiotic stress conditions. A two-year (2010 and 2011) experiment was conducted at Bikaner, Rajasthan, India to test whether the exogenous applications of thiourea (500, 750 and 1000 mg L−1) and thioglycolic acid (200, 300 and 400 mg L−1) as a foliar spray would alleviate deleterious effects of water stress on clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.). The -SH-treated plants showed higher membrane stability index, photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant enzyme activities and lower lipid peroxidation compared with untreated plants. Compared with untreated plants, the -SH-treated plants had 11–18, 18–30, 17–57, 25–47, 14–22% higher membrane stability index, total chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activities, net photosynthetic rate and seed yield, respectively; whereas the malondialdehyde content was 10–19% lower. These data suggest that under water deficit stress, exogenous -SH compound application improves photosynthesis by increasing photosynthetic pigment, protects plants against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species and minimizing lipid peroxidation by elevated antioxidant enzyme activities. These results indicated the role of -SH compounds in diminishing the negative effects of water deficit on clusterbean and suggest that -SH compounds could be used as a potential bioregulator to improve plant growth and yield under water deficit conditions.
Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at increased risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition. Outbreaks may be difficult to identify due in part to limitations in current molecular genotyping available in clinical practice. Comparison of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may identify epidemiologically distinct isolates among a population sample that appears homogenous when evaluated using conventional typing methods.
To investigate a putative MRSA outbreak in a NICU utilizing whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis to identify recent transmission events.
Clinical and surveillance specimens collected during clinical care and outbreak investigation.
A total of 17 neonates hospitalized in a 43-bed level III NICU in northeastern Florida from December 2010 to October 2011 were included in this study.
We assessed epidemiological data in conjunction with 4 typing methods: antibiograms, PFGE, spa types, and phylogenetic analysis of genome-wide SNPs.
Among the 17 type USA300 isolates, 4 different spa types were identified using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Phylogenetic analysis identified 5 infants as belonging to 2 clusters of epidemiologically linked cases and excluded 10 unlinked cases from putative transmission events. The availability of these results during the initial investigation would have improved infection control interventions.
Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis are invaluable tools for epidemic investigation; they identify transmission events and exclude cases mistakenly implicated by traditional typing methods. When routinely applied to surveillance and investigation in the clinical setting, this approach may provide actionable intelligence for measured, appropriate, and effective interventions.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(7):777–785
The workspace is often a critical parameter for optimum design of parallel manipulators. Workspace shape and area are two important considerations under this. In this paper, 5-R and 3-RRR planar parallel manipulators having symmetric link lengths are considered for workspace analysis. Here, symmetric means that the lengths of the first and second links of the legs are the same in all branches. Workspace analysis for such manipulators is normally done in a nondimensional way. The determination of the workspace area is one of the important parameters in the optimum design of a manipulator, and the determination of the area in terms of nondimensional parameters is extremely difficult in the case of 3-DOF and higher-DOF manipulators. In this paper, a geometric method is presented to determine different workspace shapes and areas. Based on this, all possible shapes of workspace are presented for both 5-R and 3-RRR planar parallel manipulators. For each case, a geometrical relationship between the link lengths is determined. The geometric approach gives a closed-form expression for the area calculation, which is not possible when adopting a nondimensional approach. In addition, this approach provides relationships between workspace shape and area and link lengths.
The choice of an appropriate cropping system is critical to maintaining or enhancing agricultural sustainability. Yield, profitability and water use efficiency are important factors for determining suitability of cropping systems in hot arid region. In a two-year field experiment (2009/10–2010/11) on loam sandy soils of Bikaner, India, the production potential, profitability and water use efficiency (WUE) of five cropping systems (groundnut–wheat, groundnut–isabgol, groundnut–chickpea, cluster bean–wheat and mung bean–wheat) each at six nutrient application rate (NAR) i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75, 100% recommended dose of N and P (NP) and 100% NP + S were evaluated. The cropping systems varied significantly in terms of productivity, profitability and WUEs. Averaged across nutrient application regimes, groundnut–wheat rotation gave 300–1620 kg ha−1 and 957–3365 kg ha−1 higher grain and biomass yields, respectively, than other cropping systems. The mean annual net returns were highest for the mung bean–wheat system, which returned 32–57% higher net return than other cropping systems. The mung bean–wheat and cluster bean–wheat systems had higher WUE in terms of yields than other cropping systems. The mung bean–wheat system recorded 35–63% higher WUE in monetary terms compared with other systems. Nutrients application improved yields, profit and WUEs of cropping systems. Averaged across years and cropping systems, the application of 100% NP improved grain yields, returns and WUE by 1.7, 3.9 and 1.6 times than no application of nutrients. The results suggest that the profitability and WUEs of crop production in this hot arid environment can be improved, compared with groundnut–wheat cropping, by substituting groundnut by mung bean and nutrients application.
This study reports clinico-epidemiological features and viral agents causing acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in the eastern Indian region through hospital-based case enrolment during April 2011 to July 2012. Blood and CSF samples of 526 AES cases were investigated by serology and/or PCR. Viral aetiology was identified in 91 (17·2%) cases. Herpes simplex virus (HSV; types I or II) was most common (16·1%), followed by measles (2·6%), Japanese encephalitis virus (1·5%), dengue virus (0·57%), varicella zoster virus (0·38%) and enteroviruses (0·19%). Rash, paresis and cranial nerve palsies were significantly higher (P < 0·05) with viral AES. Case-fatality rates were 10·9% and 6·2% in AES cases with and without viral aetiology, respectively. Simultaneous infection of HSV I and measles was observed in seven cases. This report provides the first evidence on viral aetiology of AES viruses from eastern India showing dominance of HSV that will be useful in informing the public health system.
Botrytis grey mould (BGM), caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., is an important disease of chickpea causing economic losses across the world in chickpea-growing regions. There are no available resistance sources in cultivated chickpea against this disease. Cicer echinospermum and C. reticulatum, the only two compatible annual wild species, have been reported to have resistance to BGM. Hence, interspecific populations were developed with susceptible cultivars as female parents and C. echinospermum accession IG 73 074 and C. reticulatum accession IG 72 937 as the pollen donors to transfer and assess the nature of genetic control for BGM. Screening the progeny indicated that resistance to BGM was controlled by a single additive gene/allele (bgmr1cr and bgmr1ce), which can be introgressed through a backcross breeding programme.