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This article responds to King and Persily’s (2019) proposal for a new model of industry–academic partnership using an independent third party to mediate between firms and academics. We believe this is a reasonable proposal for highly sensitive individual-level data, but it may not be appropriate for all types of data. We explore alternative options to their proposal, including Administrative Data Research Facilities, Data Collaboratives at GovLab, and Tech Data for Social Good Initiative at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. We believe social scientists should continue to explore, evaluate, and scale a variety of industry–academic data-sharing models.
The current study aimed to evaluate breeding effect on nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), its components and some agronomic traits and disease resistance in barley by using extensive germplasm covering 72 landraces and 123 cultivars released since 1910. Trials were established in southern Finland with a modified strip-plot experimental design. Prior to sowing, blocks were placement fertilized with compound nitrogen : phosphorus : potassium (NPK) fertilizer (N-P-K: 20–3–8) at the rate of 35 and 70 kg N/ha and unfertilized plots were placed at the other end of the fertilization block. The germplasm collection was genotyped with 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and phenotyped during a 2-year field experiment in 2011/12. Independent of row type, a positive breeding effect was evident in NUE and for other plant N traits, except that grain N slightly decreased. Breeding has improved NUE by 0·08 kg/year (26% over the century). Nitrogen utilization and N uptake efficiencies were also improved by breeding as were straw length, lodging tolerance, grain yield and yield components, without any sign of levelling-off. Bred cultivars were more resistant to leaf-damaging diseases, especially to net blotch. The SNP data indicated no reduction in overall genetic diversity. However, genetic diversity differed along the barley chromosomes showing either reduced or increased diversity in certain regions when landraces were compared with modern varieties.
This paper discusses the survey evidence from the Orientalizing and Archaic settlement and funerary sites at Nepi (ancient Nepet), one of the first Latin colonies outside Latium adiectum. The comparison of its pre-Roman, pre-colonial developments to the Roman patterns from the Nepi Survey Project and the trends from other Latin colonies in southern Etruria allows the examination of the local effects of Roman colonialism. The evidence shows that Nepi seemed to develop as an independent city state in the Orientalizing period, peaked in the Archaic period and weakened before the capture of Veii in 396 bc, making it easier to defeat. Rural settlement all but disappeared afterwards with similar hiatus apparent at the sister colony at Sutri as well. In the third century bc the first few villas near the town appeared as a sign of the establishment of a Roman settlement pattern. The extensive ‘rural colonization’ at Nepi, similarly to Sutri and Cosa, started only in the second century bc when all southern Etruria had entered a colonial phase and could develop alongside Rome. Thus, Latin colonization disrupted earlier patterns and the colonies appear to have been originally outposts set up to secure new territory.
This article discusses the evidence for the concentration and centralization of late prehistoric settlement in central Italy, using the territory of Nepi as an example of settlement aggregation in southern Etruria. This example helps to explain the regional developments leading to urbanization and state formation in Etruria from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. The article also publishes new sites with late prehistoric ceramic material from the Neolithic or Epineolithic to the Iron Age in the territory of Nepi found during the Nepi Survey Project. This new evidence is discussed together with previously published material, and presented as further evidence that the developments leading to the occupation of naturally defended sites in the Final Bronze Age had their origins in the Middle Bronze Age. Similarly, the analysis, aided by agricultural and GIS modelling, suggests that the hiatus in the settlement and its dislocation after an apparent break between the Final Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age may have been caused by population pressure. After the settlement aggregated in one centre at Nepi, there are signs of further expansion in the Iron Age.
Rates of commercial certified seed (CCS) use are low, but comprehensive upgrading of farm-saved seed (FSS) is also often neglected in northern Europe, represented in the present paper by Finland. In general, available growth resources are particularly underutilized in the northern and eastern parts of Europe, in contrast with the prime agricultural areas of western Europe. The present paper demonstrates the potential of increasing CCS use, and/or upgrading FSS, to boost yields at regional and national level. The assessment indicated that a substantial increase in CCS use in Finland, to correspond with that of Sweden and Denmark, is a basic, readily available and easily applicable means of sustainably intensifying northern European barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production. Yield benefits averaged 440 kg/ha, corresponding to a 13% increase at national scale. Cultivar change contributed to about one-third of the benefit. At the national scale, an additional 20 000 tonnes of nitrogen (c. 8% increase) would be removed with the yields that would considerably exceed 2000 Gg annually compared with the present c. 1900 Gg total production of barley. Higher use of CCS represents a win–win situation for farmers, plant breeding companies and industry.
With the aim to visualize the span of time since the formation of our Universe we have set up a nature and hiking trail called ‘Time Trek’. The 13.7 km length of the trail corresponds to the age of the Universe, and portrays its history including events important for Earth and life. One kilometre corresponds to a billion years, and one metre to a million years of time. The trek combines astronomical, physical, geological and biological time lines, and presents a holistic view of the history of time. It helps people to comprehend the causal and temporal connections of different phenomena. To the trekker, it offers a concrete experience of the lengths and proportions of different time periods, which otherwise are very difficult to understand.
This paper explores the ceramic assemblage of the Nepi Survey Project from the third century bc to the seventh century ad. The surface collection allows the detailed characterization of chronology, ware, fabric supply and functional characteristics. The assemblage shows a settlement explosion in the early second century bc, with another major rise from the Augustan period. The sharp decline in the late second to early third centuries ad is visible here, as it is throughout the region. The later peaks of the late fourth to mid-fifth and the mid-sixth centuries ad conform to the late Roman sequence from Mola di Monte Gelato. The dominant pottery class is oxidized coarse-wares, at 73%. The distribution of the different fabrics, including some of regional supply, suggests a number of different marketing mechanisms. Fine-wares and terra sigillata combined at 3% is what would be expected in the fringes of the Empire. The amphora class makes up over 5% of the assemblage, with the most variety exhibited at large villas and suburban halos. The most important supply originated from North Africa, with fish sauce as the main import. The functional analysis allows the definition of a ritual structure in the proximity of the cemeteries of the Massa area with highly varied types related to eating and drinking. The ceramic building material shows the importance of Campanian contacts, although the lack of imbrices suggests that many tile scatters derive from reused material.
Selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) has received increasing attention in recent years owing to global concerns over agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs and development of antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of SDCT on milk yield and somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy herds in the USA. Cows in four Ohio dairy herds were categorized into two groups (low-SCC and high-SCC) at dry-off based on their SCC and clinical mastitis (CM) history during the lactation preceding the dry-off. Low-SCC cows were randomly assigned to receive or not to receive intramammary antibiotics at dry-off. Milk yield and SCC of these cows during the following lactation were compared using linear mixed effects models, adjusting for parity, calving season, stage of lactation, previous lactation milk yield and herd. Milk yield of untreated and treated low-SCC cows at dry-off did not differ significantly during the following lactation. Overall, treated low-SCC cows had 16% lower SCC (approximately 35 000 cells/ml, P=0·0267) than the untreated cows during the following lactation; however, the effect was variable in different herds. Moreover the impact of treatment, or the lack thereof, on milk yield varied considerably between herds. The results suggested that in some herds treating all cows at dry-off may be beneficial while in other herds leaving healthy cows without antibiotic dry cow treatment has no negative impact on milk yield or milk quality (SCC), and in fact, may be beneficial. Further studies are needed to identify characteristics of herds where treating all cows routinely at dry-off may be needed for maintaining good udder health and where switching to selective treatment of cows at dry-off would be the optimal approach to achieve best results.
Agriculture must provide sustainable food security and economic development to meet future challenges; new cultivars and the use of quality seed will be key components of this. The use of farm-saved seed may increase due to imbalances between income and expenditure associated with farming. The present study characterized the quality of commonly used, and thereby easily available, farm-saved seed in Finland. Farmers provided 657 seed lot samples of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that they intended to use for sowing. Germination, seed weight, seedling elongation and within-seed-lot variability were analysed. Information was available on region, number of seed generations and cultivar. The specific aims were to identify how many generations of farm-saved seed are generally used by farmers, whether there is any safe generation threshold and the variability of quality of the seed lots. It was found that 0·80–0·84 of barley seed lots exceeded the 0·85 minimum germination requirement for certified seed, but only 0·60 of wheat. The risk of poor establishment was higher in wheat if the seed was not tested: 0·13 of wheat seed lots had germination of ⩽0·65 and 0·06 of ⩽0·50, while for barley the proportions with inadequate germination were 0·03–0·05. At most, >0·30 abnormal seedlings were recorded for barley and >0·50 for wheat. Variation in seed size and seedling length within seed lots was important, and increase in the latter was associated with reduced germination. In combination with up to 0·14 lethal fungus-infected seed, this emphasizes the need for seed upgrading measures. No safe threshold for farm-saved seed generations was determined.
We study conical density properties of general Borel measures on Euclidean spaces. Our results are analogous to the previously known result on the upper density properties of Hausdorff and packing-type measures.
The dry period plays an important role in maintenance of udder health. Cows are most susceptible to intramammary infections (IMI) after dry-off and near parturition and drying-off procedures may affect the likelihood of IMI at calving. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of milk yield and infection status at dry-off with the likelihood of IMI at calving by examining different drying-off methods. Cows (n=112) at the Ohio State University Waterman Dairy Teaching and Research Herd were randomly assigned to either an intermittent or a standard, twice-daily milking group 1 week prior to dry-off. All quarters of all cows in the herd were treated with an antibiotic dry-cow product after the last milking. Milk samples were collected 1 week prior to dry-off (pre-dry), on the day of dry-off, and within 3 d of parturition to determine infection status of the quarters. Association between IMI at calving and cumulative milk yield for the final week of lactation and drying-off method was examined using generalized estimation equations with logic link, accounting for potential confounders, such as pre-dry and dry-off infection status, and for the correlated data structure due to quarters clustered within cows. Intermittent milking significantly reduced milk yield at the end of lactation. Increasing cumulative milk yield during the last week of lactation was significantly associated with a greater probability of IMI at calving for quarters that were uninfected prior to dry-off: uninfected quarters of cows producing more than 115 kg during the last week of lactation were 7·1-times more likely to be infected at calving (P=0·0081) than uninfected quarters of cows producing less than 75 kg. Even though the overall cure rate over the dry period was relatively high at 84%, the odds of a quarter being infected at calving was 7·6- and 3·3-times higher if it was infected at dry-off with major pathogens (P<0·0001) or minor pathogens (P=0·028), respectively, compared with an uninfected quarter at dry-off. The results suggest that decreasing milk yield prior to dry-off may serve as an effective means to maintain good udder health in a herd.
Concentration of natural protective factors (NPFs) which have the ability to inhibit growth of mastitis-causing pathogens increase rapidly following the cessation of milking of dairy cows. One such NPF is lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein present in high concentrations in dry-cow secretions. Earlier studies have demonstrated that intermittent milking at the end of lactation increases levels of NPFs in milk and may decrease prevalence of intramammary infections at calving; however, most of these studies date back several decades and may not apply to current high-producing cows. The objective of this study was to assess whether an intermittent milking schedule prior to dry-off increases the concentration of lactoferrin in mammary secretions at the end of lactation and what other factors influence lactoferrin concentration at dry-off. One week prior to dry-off (pre-dry), cows were randomly assigned to an intermittent milking schedule or they continued to be milked twice daily. Duplicate quarter milk samples for microbiological culture were taken at pre-dry and at dry-off to determine infection status of quarters. Quarter somatic cell counts (SCC) were measured on the day of dry-off. Lactoferrin concentrations were quantified by ELISA. Intermittent milking, mean SCC for the last three months prior to dry-off, SCC at dry-off, lactoferrin concentration at pre-dry, quarter infection status at pre-dry and dry-off, days in milk at dry-off, breed, parity, cumulative milk yield for the final week of lactation and season were considered as potential explanatory variables. Their effect on lactoferrin concentration at dry-off was assessed using a mixed-effects linear regression model. Lactoferrin concentration increased significantly during the final week of lactation for cows on an intermittent milking schedule and was significantly associated with initial lactoferrin concentration and infection status at dry-off.
Interest in selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) has been increasing owing to concerns over development of antimicrobial resistance. Implementation of SDCT, however, requires a quick and cost-effective on-farm method for identifying cows for treatment and cows that can be left without treatment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of clinical mastitis (CM) history and somatic cell counts (SCC) from monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) records in identification of infected and uninfected cows at dry-off. A total of 647 Holstein cows were classified as uninfected or infected at dry-off based on CM history and varying number of monthly SCC records (with three different SCC cut-offs). Cows were considered uninfected based on the following criteria: (1) SCC <100 000 cells/ml and no CM during the lactation; (2) SCC <200 000 cells/ml and no CM during the lactation; (3) as criterion two, but additionally a cow was also considered uninfected if it experienced a case of CM during the first 3 months of the lactation and the SCC was <100 000 cells/ml for the rest of the lactation; (4) SCC <300 000 cells/ml and no CM during the lactation; otherwise they were considered infected. Infected and uninfected cows at dry-off were most efficiently identified using three months' SCC records with a threshold of 200 000 cells/ml for cows without CM during the lactation and a threshold of 100 000 cells/ml during the rest of lactation for cows with CM during the first 90 days in milk. Moreover, this criterion also most efficiently identified cows infected with major pathogens only at dry-off. The success of the criteria used for identifying infected and uninfected cows will, however, depend on herd characteristics, such as prevalence of infection and type of pathogens present in the herd.
We answer a question posed in  on exponential integrability of functions of restricted n-energy. We use geometric methods to obtain a sharp exponential integrability result for boundary traces of monotone Sobolev functions defined on the unit ball.