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The flexible optical bronchoscope has unparalleled utility for difficult airway management and is part of every difficult airway management algorithm. The device can facilitate intubation for patients with airway tumours and bony or soft tissue abnormalities. It provides continuous visualisation of the airway during management, can be used to deliver local anaesthetics to the airway and is relatively less traumatic compared to other devices. Mastery of the device requires significant practice and the practitioner must use the device regularly to maintain skills. Several tips for success and pitfalls to be avoided are discussed.
To investigate the impact of cognitive impairment on spoken language produced by speakers with multiple sclerosis (MS) with and without dysarthria.
Sixty speakers comprised operationally defined groups. Speakers produced a spontaneous speech sample to obtain speech timing measures of speech rate, articulation rate, and silent pause frequency and duration. Twenty listeners judged the overall perceptual severity of the samples using a visual analog scale that ranged from no impairment to severe impairment (speech severity). A 2 × 2 factorial design examined main and interaction effects of dysarthria and cognitive impairment on speech timing measures and speech severity in individuals with MS. Each speaker group with MS was further compared to a healthy control group. Exploratory regression analyses examined relationships between cognitive and biopsychosocial variables and speech timing measures and perceptual judgments of speech severity, for speakers with MS.
Speech timing was significantly slower for speakers with dysarthria compared to speakers with MS without dysarthria. Silent pause durations also significantly differed for speakers with both dysarthria and cognitive impairment compared to MS speakers without either impairment. Significant interactions between dysarthria and cognitive factors revealed comorbid dysarthria and cognitive impairment contributed to slowed speech rates in MS, whereas dysarthria alone impacted perceptual judgments of speech severity. Speech severity was strongly related to pause duration.
The findings suggest the nature in which dysarthria and cognitive symptoms manifest in objective, acoustic measures of speech timing and perceptual judgments of severity is complex.
The Upper Triassic Tiki Formation of India has yielded several new cynodont taxa, which are described on the basis of multiple isolated teeth and a jaw fragment. A new species of dromatheriid, Rewaconodon indicus, is defined by a tri- and tetracuspid asymmetric crown, long anterior edge of the major cusp a, cingular cusps d and f, and marked constriction at the crown-root junction. Another new dromatheriid, Inditherium floris n. gen. n. sp., is characterized by a broad, flower-shaped pentacuspid crown, multiple cingular cusps, and a weak lingual cingulum is also described from the same horizon. In addition, a new mammaliamorph taxon, Tikiodon cromptoni n. gen. n. sp., is established on a tooth specimen, which has a shovel-shaped crown, three closely spaced main cusps, a pronounced lingual cingulum with multiple cingular cusps, and a root of incomplete root bifurcation. Such a tooth morphology occupies an intermediate position between the non-mammalian cynodonts and the early mammals, as is evident from the co-occurrence of various cynodont dental morphotypes in the Tiki Formation. Moreover, Late Triassic cynodonts occurred along narrow belts demarcated by paleolatitudes, though the Indian fauna shows both Laurasian and Gondwanan affinities.
Policymakers need to know if the structure of competition and the degree of banking market concentration change the incidence of financial crises. Previous studies have not always come to clear conclusions. We use a new dataset of 19 countries where we include capital adequacy and house price growth as factors affecting crisis incidence, and we find a positive role for bank concentration in reducing incidence. In addition, we look at New Industrial Economics indicators of market structure and find that increased market power also reduces crisis incidence. We conclude that attempts to increase competition in banking, although welcome for welfare reasons, should be accompanied by increases in capital standards.
New determinations of ocean tides are extracted from high-rate Global Positioning System (GPS) solutions at nine stations sitting on the Ross Ice Shelf. Five are multi-year time series. Three older time series are only 2–3 weeks long. These are not ideal, but they are still useful because they provide the only in situ tide observations in that sector of the ice shelf. The long tide-gauge observations from Scott Base and Cape Roberts are also reanalysed. They allow determination of some previously neglected tidal phenomena in this region, such as third-degree tides, and they provide context for analysis of the shorter datasets. The semidiurnal tides are small at all sites, yet M2 undergoes a clear seasonal cycle, which was first noted by Sir George Darwin while studying measurements from the Discovery expedition. Darwin saw a much larger modulation than we observe, and we consider possible explanations - instrumental or climatic - for this difference.
Maternal smoking has known adverse effects on fetal development. However, research on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring intellectual disability (ID) is limited, and whether any associations are due to a causal effect or residual confounding is unknown.
Cohort study of all Danish births between 1995 and 2012 (1 066 989 persons from 658 335 families after exclusions), with prospectively recorded data for cohort members, parents and siblings. We assessed the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (18.6% exposed, collected during prenatal visits) and offspring ID (8051 cases, measured using ICD-10 diagnosis codes F70–F79) using logistic generalised estimating equation regression models. Models were adjusted for confounders including measures of socio-economic status and parental psychiatric diagnoses and were adjusted for family averaged exposure between full siblings. Adjustment for a family averaged exposure allows calculation of the within-family effect of smoking on child outcomes which is robust against confounders that are shared between siblings.
We found increased odds of ID among those exposed to maternal smoking in pregnancy after confounder adjustment (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.28–1.42) which attenuated to a null effect following adjustment for family averaged exposure (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.78–1.06).
Our findings are inconsistent with a causal effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring ID risk. By estimating a within-family effect, our results suggest that prior associations were the result of unmeasured genetic or environmental characteristics of families in which the mother smokes during pregnancy.
The Interdisciplinary Network for Dementia Using Current Technology, INDUCT, is a Marie Sklodowska Curie funded International Training Network that aims to develop a multi-disciplinary, inter-sectorial educational research framework for Europe to improve technology and care for people with dementia, and to provide the evidence to show how technology can improve the lives of people with dementia. Within INDUCT (2016-2020) 15 Early Stage Researchers worked on projects in the areas of Technology to support every day life; technology to promote meaningful activities; and health care technology.
Three transversal objectives were adopted by INDUCT: 1) To determine the practical, cognitive and social factors needed to make technology more useable for people with dementia; 2) To evaluate the effectiveness of specific contemporary technology; and 3) To trace facilitators and barriers for implementation of technology in dementia care.
The main recommendations resulting from the research projects are integrated in a web-based digital Best Practice Guidance on Human Interaction with Technology in Dementia which will be presented at the congress. The recommendations are meant to be helpful for different target groups, i.e. people with dementia, their formal and informal carers, policy makers, designers and researchers, who can easily select the for them relevant recommendations in the Best Practice Guidance by means of a selection tool. The main aim of the Best Practice Guidance is to improve the development, usage and implementation of technology for people with dementia in the three mentioned technology areas.
This Best Practice Guidance is the result of the intensive collaborative partnership of INDUCT with academic and non-academic partners as well as the involvement of representatives of the different target groups throughout the INDUCT project.
Acknowledgements: The research presented was carried out within the Marie Sklodowska Curie International Training Network (ITN) action, H2020-MSCA-ITN-2015, grant agreement number 676265.
Background: Hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia (HOB) may be a preventable hospital-acquired condition and a potential healthcare quality measure. We developed and evaluated a tool to assess the preventability of HOB and compared it to a more traditional consensus panel approach. Methods: A 10-member healthcare epidemiology expert panel independently rated the preventability of 82 hypothetical HOB case scenarios using a 6-point Likert scale (range, 1= “Definitively or Almost Certainly Preventable” to 6= “Definitely or Almost Certainly Not Preventable”). Ratings on the 6-point scale were collapsed into 3 categories: Preventable (1–2), Uncertain (3–4), or Not preventable (5–6). Consensus was defined as concurrence on the same category among ≥70% expert raters. Cases without consensus were deliberated via teleconference, web-based discussion, and a second round of rating. The proportion meeting consensus, overall and by predefined HOB source attribution, was calculated. A structured HOB preventability rating tool was developed to explicitly account for patient intrinsic and extrinsic healthcare-related risks (Fig. 1). Two additional physician reviewers independently applied this tool to adjudicate the same 82 case scenarios. The tool was iteratively revised based on reviewer feedback followed by repeat independent tool-based adjudication. Interrater reliability was evaluated using the Kappa statistic. Proportion of cases where tool-based preventability category matched expert consensus was calculated. Results: After expert panel round 1, consensus criteria were met for 29 cases (35%), which increased to 52 (63%) after round 2. Expert consensus was achieved more frequently for respiratory or surgical site infections than urinary tract and central-line–associated bloodstream infections (Fig. 2a). Most likely to be rated preventable were vascular catheter infections (64%) and contaminants (100%). For tool-based adjudication, following 2 rounds of rating with interim tool revisions, agreement between the 2 reviewers was 84% for cases overall (κ, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64–0.88]), and 87% for the 52 cases with expert consensus (κ, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65–0.94). Among cases with expert consensus, tool-based rating matched expert consensus in 40 of 52 (77%) and 39 of 52 (75%) cases for reviewer 1 and reviewer 2, respectively. The proportion of cases rated “uncertain“ was lower among tool-based adjudicated cases with reviewer agreement (15 of 69) than among cases with expert consensus (23 of 52) (Fig. 2b). Conclusions: Healthcare epidemiology experts hold varying perspectives on HOB preventability. Structured tool-based preventability rating had high interreviewer reliability, matched expert consensus in most cases, and rated fewer cases with uncertain preventability compared to expert consensus. This tool is a step toward standardized assessment of preventability in future HOB evaluations.
Background: Pneumonia (PNA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among nursing home residents. The McGeer surveillance definitions were revised in 2012 to help NHs better monitor infections for quality improvement purposes. However, the concordance between surveillance definitions and clinically diagnosed PNA has not been well studied. Our objectives were to identify nursing home residents who met the revised McGeer PNA definition, to compare them with residents with clinician documented PNA, and determine whether modifications to the surveillance criteria could increase concordance. Methods: We analyzed respiratory tract infection (RTI) data from 161 nursing homes in 10 states that participated in a 1-day healthcare-associated infection point-prevalence survey in 2017. Trained surveillance officers from the CDC Emerging Infections Program collected data on residents with clinician documentation, signs, symptoms, and diagnostic testing potentially indicating an RTI. Clinician-documented pneumonia was defined as any resident with a diagnosis of pneumonia identified in the medical chart. We identified the proportion of residents with clinician documented PNA who met the revised McGeer PNA definition. We evaluated the criteria reported to develop 3 modified PNA surveillance definitions (Box), and we compared them to residents with clinician documented PNA.
Results: Among the 15,296 NH residents surveyed, 353 (2%) had >1 signs and/or symptoms potentially indicating RTI. Among the 353 residents, the average age was 76 years, 105 (30%) were admitted to postacute care or rehabilitation, and 108 (31%) had clinician-documented PNA. Among those with PNA, 28 (26%) met the Revised McGeer definition. Among 81 residents who did not meet the definition, 39 (48%) were missing the chest x-ray requirement, and among the remaining 42, only 3 (7%) met the constitutional criteria requirement (Fig. 1). Modification of the constitutional criteria requirement increased the detection of clinically documented PNA from 28 (26%) to 36 (33%) using modified definition 1; to 51 (47%) for modified definition 2; and to 55 (51%) for modified definition 3. Conclusions: Tracking PNA among nursing home residents using a standard definition is essential to improving detection and, therefore, informing prevention efforts. Modifying the PNA criteria increased the identification of clinically diagnosed PNA. Better concordance with clinically diagnosed PNA may improve provider acceptance and adoption of the surveillance definition, but additional research is needed to test its validity.
Background: With the emergence of antibiotic resistant threats and the need for appropriate antibiotic use, laboratory microbiology information is important to guide clinical decision making in nursing homes, where access to such data can be limited. Susceptibility data are necessary to inform antibiotic selection and to monitor changes in resistance patterns over time. To contribute to existing data that describe antibiotic resistance among nursing home residents, we summarized antibiotic susceptibility data from organisms commonly isolated from urine cultures collected as part of the CDC multistate, Emerging Infections Program (EIP) nursing home prevalence survey. Methods: In 2017, urine culture and antibiotic susceptibility data for selected organisms were retrospectively collected from nursing home residents’ medical records by trained EIP staff. Urine culture results reported as negative (no growth) or contaminated were excluded. Susceptibility results were recorded as susceptible, non-susceptible (resistant or intermediate), or not tested. The pooled mean percentage tested and percentage non-susceptible were calculated for selected antibiotic agents and classes using available data. Susceptibility data were analyzed for organisms with ≥20 isolates. The definition for multidrug-resistance (MDR) was based on the CDC and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control’s interim standard definitions. Data were analyzed using SAS v 9.4 software. Results: Among 161 participating nursing homes and 15,276 residents, 300 residents (2.0%) had documentation of a urine culture at the time of the survey, and 229 (76.3%) were positive. Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella spp, and Enterococcus spp represented 73.0% of all urine isolates (N = 278). There were 215 (77.3%) isolates with reported susceptibility data (Fig. 1). Of these, data were analyzed for 187 (87.0%) (Fig. 2). All isolates tested for carbapenems were susceptible. Fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility was most prevalent among E. coli (42.9%) and P. mirabilis (55.9%). Among Klebsiella spp, the highest percentages of non-susceptibility were observed for extended-spectrum cephalosporins and folate pathway inhibitors (25.0% each). Glycopeptide non-susceptibility was 10.0% for Enterococcus spp. The percentage of isolates classified as MDR ranged from 10.1% for E. coli to 14.7% for P. mirabilis. Conclusions: Substantial levels of non-susceptibility were observed for nursing home residents’ urine isolates, with 10% to 56% reported as non-susceptible to the antibiotics assessed. Non-susceptibility was highest for fluoroquinolones, an antibiotic class commonly used in nursing homes, and ≥ 10% of selected isolates were MDR. Our findings reinforce the importance of nursing homes using susceptibility data from laboratory service providers to guide antibiotic prescribing and to monitor levels of resistance.
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major global threat to patient safety. Systematic surveillance is crucial for understanding HAI rates and antimicrobial resistance trends and to guide infection prevention and control (IPC) activities based on local epidemiology. In India, no standardized national HAI surveillance system was in place before 2017. Methods: Public and private hospitals from across 21 states in India were recruited to participate in an HAI surveillance network. Baseline assessments followed by trainings ensured that basic microbiology and IPC implementation capacity existed at all sites. Standardized surveillance protocols for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) were modified from the NHSN for the Indian context. IPC nurses were trained to implement surveillance protocols. Data were reported through a locally developed web portal. Standardized external data quality checks were performed to assure data quality. Results: Between May 2017 and April 2019, 109 ICUs from 37 hospitals (29 public and 8 private) enrolled in the network, of which 33 were teaching hospitals with >500 beds. The network recorded 679,109 patient days, 212,081 central-line days, and 387,092 urinary catheter days. Overall, 4,301 bloodstream infection (BSI) events and 1,402 urinary tract infection (UTI) events were reported. The network CLABSI rate was 9.4 per 1,000 central-line days and the CAUTI rate was 3.4 per 1,000 catheter days. The central-line utilization ratio was 0.31 and the urinary catheter utilization ratio was 0.57. Moreover, 3,542 (73%) of 4,742 pathogens reported from BSIs and 868 (53%) of 1,644 pathogens reported from UTIs were gram negative. Also, 1,680 (26.3%) of all 6,386 pathogens reported were Enterobacteriaceae. Of 1,486 Enterobacteriaceae with complete antibiotic susceptibility testing data reported, 832 (57%) were carbapenem resistant. Of 951 Enterobacteriaceae subjected to colistin broth microdilution testing, 62 (7%) were colistin resistant. The surveillance platform identified 2 separate hospital-level HAI outbreaks; one caused by colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae and another due to Burkholderia cepacia. Phased expansion of surveillance to additional hospitals continues. Conclusions: HAI surveillance was successfully implemented across a national network of diverse hospitals using modified NHSN protocols. Surveillance data are being used to understand HAI burden and trends at the facility and national levels, to inform public policy, and to direct efforts to implement effective hospital IPC activities. This network approach to HAI surveillance may provide lessons to other countries or contexts with limited surveillance capacity.
Background: With an aging population, increasingly complex care, and frequent re-admissions, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in nursing homes (NHs) is a federal priority. However, few contemporary sources of HAI data exist to inform surveillance, prevention, and policy. Prevalence surveys (PSs) are an efficient approach to generating data to measure the burden and describe the types of HAI. In 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed its first large-scale HAI PS through the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) to measure the prevalence and describe the epidemiology of HAI in NH residents. Methods: NHs from several states (CA, CO, CT, GA, MD, MN, NM, NY, OR, & TN) were randomly selected and asked to participate in a 1-day HAI PS between April and October 2017; participation was voluntary. EIP staff reviewed available medical records for NH residents present on the survey date to collect demographic and basic clinical information and infection signs and symptoms. HAIs with onset on or after NH day 3 were identified using revised McGeer infection definitions applied to data collected by EIP staff and were reported to the CDC through a web-based system. Data were reviewed by CDC staff for potential errors and to validate HAI classifications prior to analysis. HAI prevalence, number of residents with >1 HAI per number of surveyed residents ×100, and 95% CIs were calculated overall (pooled mean) and for selected resident characteristics. Data were analyzed using SAS v9.4 software. Results: Among 15,296 residents in 161 NHs, 358 residents with 375 HAIs were identified. The most common HAI sites were skin (32%), respiratory tract (29%), and urinary tract (20%). Cellulitis, soft-tissue or wound infection, symptomatic UTI, and cold or pharyngitis were the most common individual HAIs (Fig. 1). Overall HAI prevalence was 2.3 per 100 residents (95% CI, 2.1–2.6); at the NH level, the median HAI prevalence was 1.8 and ranged from 0 to 14.3 (interquartile range, 0–3.1). At the resident level (Fig. 2), HAI prevalence was significantly higher in persons admitted for postacute care with diabetes, with a pressure ulcer, receiving wound care, or with a device. Conclusions: In this large-scale survey, 1 in 43 NH residents had an HAI on a given day. Three HAI types comprised >80% of infections. In addition to identifying characteristics that place residents at higher risk for HAIs, these findings provide important data on HAI epidemiology in NHs that can be used to expand HAI surveillance and inform prevention policies and practices.
Background:Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of joint infections. These infections may arise in native or prosthetic joints. Previous analysis of population-based surveillance has documented racial differences in incidence of invasive S. aureus bloodstream infections. We hypothesized that racial differences in incidence would not persist among of S. aureus joint infections. Methods: We utilized data from the Georgia Emerging Infections Program (GA EIP), which conducts CDC-funded active, population-based surveillance for iSA within the 8-county area of Atlanta. Cases were defined as residents of the surveillance area with S. aureus isolated during 2016–2018 from joint fluid or tissue, and cultures within a 30-day period after the initial culture date were considered a single case. Age- and race-specific incidence were calculated using US census data; incidence rate ratios (RR) and adjusted rate ratios (aRR) were calculated using the Mantel-Hanzel method. Results: Between 2016 and 2018, 500 iSA joint infections were identified (iMRSA, 28.2% and iMSSA, 71.8%): 34.4% occurred in black patients and 65.6% occurred in white patients. Also, 90 cases (18%) had a bloodstream infection (BSI) within 30 days of the joint infection. Incidence of iSA joint infections dropped 22% from 9.4 per 100,000 in 2016 to 7.5 per 100,000 in 2018 (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.7–0.9). Adjusting for year, incidence was 40% lower among blacks than whites (RR, 0.6,; 95% CI, 0.5–0.7); this finding was attributed to blacks having 60% lower incidence of iMSSA joint infections compared to whites (aRR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3–0.5) but similar MRSA incidence (aRR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8–1.6). The highest incidence was observed among whites aged >65 years with iMSSA infections (30.2 per 100,000) (Fig. 1). Among cases with a full chart review (n = 138), surgery in the prior 90 days was uncommon (n = 42, 30.4%), and a preceding major orthopedic procedure was even more rare (n = 13, 9.4%). Antecedent therapeutic injections and arthroscopic procedures are under investigation. Conclusions: Unlike S. aureus bacteremia, where previous analysis demonstrates higher incidences among blacks predominantly due to MRSA, our data demonstrate that the incidence of S. aureus joint infections is higher in whites, predominantly due to MSSA. Investigations in differential practices regarding orthopedic illness and injury should be pursued.
Disclosures: Scott Fridkin reports that his spouse receives consulting fees from the vaccine industry.
Background: The CDC has performed surveillance for invasive Staphylococcus aureus (iSA) infections through the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) since 2004. SCCmec and spa typing for clonal complex (CC) assignment and genomic markers have been used to characterize isolates. In 2019, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of isolates began, allowing for high-resolution assessment of genomic diversity. Here, we evaluate the reliability of SCCmec typing, spa typing, and CC assignment using WGS data compared to traditional methods to ensure that backwards compatibility is maintained. Methods:S. aureus isolates were obtained from a convenience sample of iSA cases reported through the EIP surveillance system. Overall, 78 iSA isolates with diverse spa repeat patterns, CCs, SCCmec types, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were sequenced (MiSeq, Illumina). Real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing were used as the SCCmec and spa typing reference methods, respectively. spa-MLST mapping (Ridom SpaServer) served as the reference method for CC assignment. WGS assembly and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed using the CDC QuAISAR-H pipeline. WGS-based MLST CCs were assigned using eBURST and SCCmec types using SCCmecFinder. spa types were assigned from WGS assemblies using BioNumerics. For isolate subtyping, previously published and validated canonical single-nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNPs) as well as the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) virulence factor were assessed for all genome assemblies. Results: All isolates were assigned WGS-based spa types, which were 100% concordant (78 of 78) with Sanger-based spa typing. SCCmecFinder assigned 91% of isolates (71 of 78) SCCmec types, which were 100% concordant with reference method results. Also, 7 isolates had multiple cassettes predicted or an incomplete SCCmec region assembly. Using WGS data, 96% (75 of 78) of isolates were assigned CCs; 3 isolates had unknown sequence types that were single-locus variants of established sequence types. Overall, 70 isolates had CCs assigned by the reference method; 100% (70 of 70) concordance was observed with WGS-based CCs. Analysis of canSNPs placed 42% (33 of 78) of isolates into CC8, with 17 (52%) of these isolates classified as USA300. PVL and ACME were not accurate markers for inferring the USA300 subtype as 24% (4 of 17) of isolates did not contain these markers. Conclusions:S. aureus CCs, SCCmec, and spa types can be reliably determined using WGS. Incorporation of canSNP analysis represents a more efficient method for CC8 assignment than the use of genomic markers alone. WGS allows for the replacement of multiple typing methods for increased laboratory efficiency, while maintaining backward compatibility with historical typing nomenclature.
Background: Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in nursing homes; urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a frequent indication. Although there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of UTIs, various criteria have been developed to inform and standardize nursing home prescribing decisions, with the goal of reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Using different published criteria designed to guide decisions on initiating treatment of UTIs (ie, symptomatic, catheter-associated, and uncomplicated cystitis), our objective was to assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing among NH residents. Methods: In 2017, the CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) performed a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antibiotic use in 161 nursing homes from 10 states: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. EIP staff reviewed resident medical records to collect demographic and clinical information, infection signs, symptoms, and diagnostic testing documented on the day an antibiotic was initiated and 6 days prior. We applied 4 criteria to determine whether initiation of treatment for UTI was supported: (1) the Loeb minimum clinical criteria (Loeb); (2) the Suspected UTI Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation tool (UTI SBAR tool); (3) adaptation of Infectious Diseases Society of America UTI treatment guidelines for nursing home residents (Crnich & Drinka); and (4) diagnostic criteria for uncomplicated cystitis (cystitis consensus) (Fig. 1). We calculated the percentage of residents for whom initiating UTI treatment was appropriate by these criteria. Results: Of 248 residents for whom UTI treatment was initiated in the nursing home, the median age was 79 years [IQR, 19], 63% were female, and 35% were admitted for postacute care. There was substantial variability in the percentage of residents with antibiotic initiation classified as appropriate by each of the criteria, ranging from 8% for the cystitis consensus, to 27% for Loeb, to 33% for the UTI SBAR tool, to 51% for Crnich and Drinka (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Appropriate initiation of UTI treatment among nursing home residents remained low regardless of criteria used. At best only half of antibiotic treatment met published prescribing criteria. Although insufficient documentation of infection signs, symptoms and testing may have contributed to the low percentages observed, adequate documentation in the medical record to support prescribing should be standard practice, as outlined in the CDC Core Elements of Antibiotic Stewardship for nursing homes. Standardized UTI prescribing criteria should be incorporated into nursing home stewardship activities to improve the assessment and documentation of symptomatic UTI and to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.
Most invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (iMRSA) infections have onset in the community but are associated with healthcare exposures. More than 25% of cases with healthcare exposure occur in nursing homes (NHs) where facility-specific iMRSA rates vary widely. We assessed associations between nursing home characteristics and iMRSA incidence rates to help target prevention efforts in NHs. Methods: We used active, laboratory- and population-based surveillance data collected through the Emerging Infections Program during 2011–2015 from 25 counties in 7 states. NH-onset cases were defined as isolation of MRSA from a normally sterile site in a surveillance area resident who was in a NH within 3 days before the index culture. We calculated MRSA incidence (cases per NH resident day) using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) skilled nursing facility cost reports and described variation in iMRSA incidence by NH. We used Poisson regression with backward selection, assessing variables for collinearity, to estimate adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) for NH characteristics (obtained from the CMS minimum dataset) associated with iMRSA rates. Results: Of 590 surveillance area NHs included in analysis, 89 (15%) had no NH-onset iMRSA infections. Rates ranged from 0 to 23.4 infections per 100,000 resident days. Increased rate of NH-onset iMRSA infection occurred with increased percentage of residents in short stay ≤30 days (aRR, 1.09), exhibiting wounds or infection (surgical wound [aRR, 1.08]; vascular ulcer/foot infection [aRR, 1.09]; multidrug-resistant organism infection [aRR, 1.13]; receipt of antibiotics [aRR, 1.06]), using medical devices or invasive support (ostomy [aRR, 1.07]; dialysis [aRR, 1.07]; ventilator support [aRR, 1.17]), carrying neurologic diagnoses (cerebral palsy [aRR, 1.14]; brain injury [aRR, 1.1]), and demonstrating debility (requiring considerable assistance with bed mobility [aRR, 1.05]) (Table). iMRSA rates decreased with increased percentage of residents receiving influenza vaccination (aRR, 0.96) and with the presence of any patients in isolation for any active infection (aRR, 0.83). Conclusions: iMRSA incidence varies greatly across nursing homes, with many NH patient and facility characteristics associated with NH-onset iMRSA rate differences. Some associations (short stay, wounds and infection, medical device use and invasive support) suggest that targeted interventions utilizing known strategies to decrease transmission may help to reduce infection rates, while others (neurologic diagnoses, influenza vaccination, presence of patients in isolation) require further exploration to determine their role. These findings can help identify NHs in other areas more likely to have higher rates of NH-onset iMRSA who could benefit from interventions to reduce infection rates.
Background: Contamination of healthcare workers and patient environments likely play a role in the spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms. The mechanisms that contribute to the distribution of organisms within and between patient rooms are not well understood, but they may include movement patterns and patient interactions of healthcare workers. We used an innovative technology for tracking healthcare worker movement and patient interactions in ICUs. Methods: The Kinect system, a device developed by Microsoft, was used to detect the location of a person’s hands and head over time, each represented with 3-dimensional coordinates. The Kinects were deployed in 2 intensive care units (ICUs), at 2 different hospitals, and they collected data from 5 rooms in a high-acuity 20-bed cardiovascular ICU (unit 1) and 3 rooms in a 10-bed medical-surgical ICU (unit 2). The length of the Kinect deployment varied by room (range, 15–48 days). The Kinect data were processed to included date, time, and location of head and hands for all individuals. Based on the coordinates of the bed, we defined events indicating bed touch, distance 30 cm (1 foot) from the bed, and distance 1 m (3 feet) from the bed. The processed Kinect data were then used to generate heat maps showing density of person locations within a room and summarizing bed touches and time spent in different locations within the room. Results: The Kinect systems captured In total, 2,090 hours of room occupancy by at least 1 person within ~1 m of the bed (Table 1). Approximately half of the time spent within ~1 m from the bed was at the bedside (within ~30 cm). The estimated number of bed touches per hour when within ~1 m was 13–23. Patients spent more time on one side of the bed, which varied by room and facility (Fig. 1A, 1B). Additionally, we observed temporal variation in intensity measured by person time in the room (Fig. 1C, 1D). Conclusions: High occupancy tends to be on the far side (away from the door) of the patient bed where the computers are, and the bed touch rate is relatively high. These results can be used to help us understand the potential for room contamination, which can contribute to both transmission and infection, and they highlight critical times and locations in the room, with a potential for focused deep cleaning.