To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The current study aimed to select the strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from forage cactus plants and silage and assess their effects on silage fermentation and aerobic stability. Forty wild isolates from plant and cactus silage, classified as LAB, were evaluated for metabolite production and identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. These wild isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa and Weissella paramesenteroides and the LAB populations differed among the silage. The use of microbial inoculants did not influence gas or effluent losses in forage cactus silage. The silage inoculated with the microbial strain GP15 showed the highest number of LAB populations. The amounts of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ammonia nitrogen differed among the silage. The silage inoculated with the GP1 strain presented the highest WSC. Populations of enterobacteria and yeasts and moulds were below the minimum detection limit (<2.0 log cfu/g silage) in all the silage studied. The predominant action of inoculants was to maximize dry matter recovery of the silage, which could be the criterion adopted to select the strains of LAB for use as inoculants in Opuntia silage.
To understand the production factors that affect conclusive parameters of sow herd performance can improve the use of the resources and profitability of farm. The objective of this study was to identify associations and quantify the effects of a set of factors related to piglet weight at weaning (PWW), kilograms of piglets weaned per sow per year (kgPWSY) and sow feed conversion (SFC). Data from 150 farms were collected, for a total study population of 135 168 sows, including gilt replacement, breeding (mating), gestation and farrowing/lactation phases. A questionnaire focusing on reproductive performance, management, facilities, feeding, health and biosafety was administered. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess associations among factors with each of the three dependent variables. Increased duration of lactation was positively associated with PWW, kgPWSY and SFC. The increase in the number of live born pigs per litter was positively associated with kgPWSY and with SFC. Farms with higher PWW had farrowing room humidifiers, did not surgically castrate male piglets and used quaternary ammonia compounds for farrowing room disinfection. Farms with higher kgPWSY used lined ceilings in farrowing rooms and winter feeds with higher CP percentages in gestation; they also had more farrowings per sow per year. Sow feed conversion was worse in farms with partly slatted floors during gestation, in farms feeding lactating sows six times a day or ad libitum and farms with a higher sow-handler ratio. This study indicates that farms can increase PWW and kgPWSY and improve the SFC by changing one or more management, biosafety and feeding practices or facilities as well as by focusing on improving several performance parameters, particularly increasing the duration of lactation and the number of live born pigs per litter.
The University of São Paulo Twin Panel (Painel USP de Gêmeos), based at the Institute of Psychology of the University of São Paulo, started formally in 2017. Our registry is new, but in only two years of formal existence, it comprises a volunteer sample of 4826 registered individuals (98% twins and 2% higher-order multiples), recruited at the University of São Paulo and by social media campaigns. Our main aim is to conduct and promote research with twins on psychological processes and behavior. The University of São Paulo is the largest higher education and research institution in South America, and the Painel USP de Gêmeos has great potential for fostering research on twin-related issues from a psychological perspective in Brazil and South America.
Reduced plasma vitamin D (VD) levels may contribute to excessive white adipose tissue, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidaemia. We evaluated the effect of chronic oral VD supplementation on adiposity and insulin secretion in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated rats. During their first 5 d of life, male neonate rats received subcutaneous injections of MSG (4 g/kg), while the control (CON) group received saline solution. After weaning, groups were randomly distributed into VD supplemented (12 µg/kg; three times/week) and non-supplemented (NS) rats, forming four experimental groups (n 15 rats/group): CON-NS, CON-VD, MSG-NS and MSG-VD. At 76 d of life, rats were submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 2 g/kg), and at 86 d, obesity, IR and plasma metabolic parameters were evaluated. Pancreatic islets were isolated for glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS), cholinergic insulinotropic response and muscarinic 3 receptor (M3R), protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) expressions. Pancreas was submitted to histological analyses. VD supplementation decreased hyperinsulinaemia (86 %), hypertriacylglycerolaemia (50 %) and restored insulin sensibility (89 %) in MSG-VD rats, without modifying adiposity, OGTT or GIIS, compared with the MSG-NS group. The cholinergic action was reduced (57 %) in islets from MSG-VD rats, without any change in M3R, PKA or PKC expression. In conclusion, chronic oral VD supplementation of MSG-obese rats was able to prevent hyperinsulinaemia and IR, improving triacylglycerolaemia without modifying adiposity. A reduced cholinergic pancreatic effect, in response to VD, could be involved in the normalisation of plasma insulin levels, an event that appears to be independent of M3R and its downstream pathways.
A mother's nutritional choices while pregnant may have a great influence on her baby's development in the womb and during infancy. There is evidence that what a mother eats during pregnancy interacts with her genes to affect her child's susceptibility to poor health outcomes including childhood obesity, pre-diabetes, allergy and asthma. Furthermore, after what an infant eats can change his or her intestinal bacteria, which can further influence the development of these poor outcomes. In the present paper, we review the importance of birth cohorts, the formation and early findings from a multi-ethnic birth cohort alliance in Canada and summarise our future research directions for this birth cohort alliance. We summarise a method for harmonising collection and analysis of self-reported dietary data across multiple cohorts and provide examples of how this birth cohort alliance has contributed to our understanding of gestational diabetes risk; ethnic and diet-influences differences in the healthy infant microbiome; and the interplay between diet, ethnicity and birth weight. Ongoing work in this birth cohort alliance will focus on the use of metabolomic profiling to measure dietary intake, discovery of unique diet–gene and diet–epigenome interactions, and qualitative interviews with families of children at risk of metabolic syndrome. Our findings to-date and future areas of research will advance the evidence base that informs dietary guidelines in pregnancy, infancy and childhood, and will be relevant to diverse and high-risk populations of Canada and other high-income countries.
New therapeutic approaches are necessary to control strongyloidiasis due to the side effects of, and resistance to, currently available drugs thiabendazole, albendazole, and ivermectin. This study examined the anthelmintic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from Siparuna guianensis against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae, using the egg hatching test (EHT) and larval motility test (LMT). Albendazole (0.025 mg/ml) and ivermectin (0.316 mg/ml) were used as the positive controls for the EHT and LMT assays, respectively. Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs or larvae (±50 specimens) were treated with ethanol extract (0.05–1.0 mg/ml), ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (0.05–0.8 mg/ml), essential oil (0.2–1.0 mg/ml) and α-bisabolol (0.2–1.0 mg/ml) from S. guianensis, and analysed by optical microscopy after 48 h (EHT), or after 24, 48 and 72 h (LMT). All the tested compounds exhibited ovicidal activity equivalent to the positive control and changed the morphology of the eggs. The S. guianensis ethanol extract and aqueous fraction were as effective as the positive control. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract and fractions revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins and flavonoids. Therefore, S. guianensis is effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, and can be considered as a potential alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis.
Inclusion of legume in grass pastures optimizes protein values of the forage and promotes improved digestibility. Therefore, we hypothesized that finishing steers on a novel combination of legumes and grass pasture would produce carcasses with acceptable traits when compared to carcasses from steers finished in feedlot systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of finishing steers on three systems including: grazing legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover (PAST), grazing PAST plus supplementation with whole corn grain (14 g/kg BW (SUPP)), and on a feedlot-confined system with concentrate only (28 g/kg BW, consisting of 850 g/kg of whole corn grain and 150 g/kg of protein–mineral–vitamin supplement (GRAIN)) on growth performance of steers, carcass traits and digestive disorders. Eighteen steers were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments and finished for 91 days. Data regarding pasture and growth performance were collected during three different periods (0 to 28, 29 to 56 and 57 to 91 days). Subsequently, steers were harvested to evaluate carcass traits, presence of rumenitis, abomasitis and liver abscesses. The legume–grass pasture provided more than 19% dry matter of protein. In addition, pasture of paddocks where steers were assigned to SUPP and PAST treatments showed similar nutritional quality. When compared to PAST, finishing on SUPP increased total weight gain per hectare, stocking rate, daily and total weight gains. The increase of weight gain was high to GRAIN than SUPP and PAST. Steers finished on GRAIN had high hot carcass weight, fat thickness and marbling score when compared to PAST. However, these attributes did not differ between GRAIN and SUPP. Abomasum lesions were more prevalent in steers finished on GRAIN when compared to PAST. Results of this research showed that it is possible to produce carcasses with desirable market weight and fat thickness by finishing steers on legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover. Moreover, supplementing steers with corn when grazing on legume–grass pasture produced similar carcass traits when compared to beef fed corn only.
With increased regulations regarding the use of feed-grade antimicrobials in livestock systems, alternative strategies to enhance growth and immunity of feedlot cattle are warranted. Hence, this experiment compared performance, health and physiological responses of cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients during the initial 60 days in the feedlot. Angus×Hereford calves (63 steers+42 heifers) originating from two cow–calf ranches were weaned on day −3, obtained from an auction yard on day −2 and road-transported (800 km; 12 h) to the feedlot. Upon arrival on day −1, shrunk BW was recorded. On day 0, calves were ranked by sex, source and shrunk BW, and allocated to one of 21 pens. Pens were assigned to receive (7 pens/treatment) a free-choice total mixed ration containing: (1) lasalocid (360 mg/calf daily of Bovatec; Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ, USA)+chlortetracycline (350 mg/calf of Aureomycin at cycles of 5-day inclusion and 2-day removal from diet; Zoetis) from days 0 to 32, and monensin only (360 mg/calf daily of Rumensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN, USA) from days 33 to 60 (PC), (2) sodium saccharin-based sweetener (Sucram at 0.04 g/kg of diet dry matter; Pancosma SA; Geneva, Switzerland)+plant extracts containing eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum (800 mg/calf daily of XTRACT Ruminants 7065; Pancosma SA) from days 0 to 32 and XTRACT only (800 mg/calf daily) from days 33 to 60 (EG) or (3) no supplemental ingredients (CON; days 0 to 60). Calves were assessed for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) signs and dry matter intake was recorded from each pen daily. Calves were vaccinated against BRD pathogens on days 0 and 22. Shrunk BW was recorded on day 61, and blood samples collected on days 0, 6, 11, 22, 33, 43 and 60. Calf ADG was greater (P=0.04) in PC v. EG and tended (P=0.09) to be greater in PC v. CON. Feed efficiency also tended (P=0.09) to be greater in PC v. CON, although main treatment effect for this response was not significant (P=0.23). Mean serum titers against bovine respiratory syncytial virus were greater in EG v. PC (P=0.04) and CON (tendency; P=0.08). Collectively, the inclusion of alternative feed ingredients prevented the decrease in feed efficiency when chlortetracycline and ionophores were not added to the initial feedlot diet, and improved antibody response to vaccination against the bovine respiratory syncytial virus in newly weaned cattle.
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, a prevalent infection related to abortion, ocular diseases and encephalitis in immuno-compromised individuals. In the untreatable (and life-long) chronic stage of toxoplasmosis, parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs, containing T. gondii tachyzoites) transform into tissue cysts, containing slow-dividing bradyzoite forms. While acute-stage infection with tachyzoites involves global rearrangement of the host cell cytoplasm, focused on favouring tachyzoite replication, the cytoplasmic architecture of cells infected with cysts had not been described. Here, we characterized (by fluorescence and electron microscopy) the redistribution of host cell structures around T. gondii cysts, using a T. gondii strain (EGS) with high rates of spontaneous cystogenesis in vitro. Microtubules and intermediate filaments (but not actin microfilaments) formed a ‘cage’ around the cyst, and treatment with taxol (to inhibit microtubule dynamics) favoured cystogenesis. Mitochondria, which appeared adhered to the PV membrane, were less closely associated with the cyst wall. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles were intimately associated with folds in the cyst wall membrane. However, the Golgi complex was not preferentially localized relative to the cyst, and treatment with tunicamycin or brefeldin A (to disrupt Golgi or ER function, respectively) had no significant effect on cystogenesis. Lysosomes accumulated around cysts, while early and late endosomes were more evenly distributed in the cytoplasm. The endocytosis tracer HRP (but not BSA or transferrin) reached bradyzoites after uptake by infected host cells. These results suggest that T. gondii cysts reorganize the host cell cytoplasm, which may fulfil specific requirements of the chronic stage of infection.
Urban slums provide suitable conditions for infestation by rats, which harbour and shed a wide diversity of zoonotic pathogens including helminths. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with the probability and intensity of infection of helminths of the digestive tract in an urban slum population of Rattus norvegicus. Among 299 rats, eleven species/groups of helminths were identified, of which Strongyloides sp., Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and, the human pathogen, Angiostrongylus cantonensis were the most frequent (97, 41 and 39%, respectively). Sex interactions highlighted behavioural differences between males and females, as eg males were more likely to be infected with N. brasiliensis where rat signs were present, and males presented more intense infections of Strongyloides sp. Moreover, rats in poor body condition had higher intensities of N. brasiliensis. We describe a high global richness of parasites in R. norvegicus, including five species known to cause disease in humans. Among these, A. cantonensis was found in high prevalence and it was ubiquitous in the study area – knowledge which is of public health importance. A variety of environmental, demographic and body condition variables were associated with helminth species infection of rats, suggesting a comparable variety of risk factors for humans.
Depression is a major mental illness affecting the elderly. About 15% of the elderly have some depressive symptoms and about 2% have severe depression. This study was conducted in an Extension Program of the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO) and the aims are: to identify the prevalence of depression in the elderly attended by the community center “Project Rebirth” in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, and discuss strategies developed in consultation to care the depression.
The elderly are registered in the program and accompanied by a multidisciplinary team. In nursing consultations, whose base is in the realization of Nursing Process, there is the application of the Geriatric Depression Scale named Yesavage – reduced version (GDS-15) held by students under the supervision of the teacher. After classification of the patient on the scale, they develop the care plan based in the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), and the nursing diagnoses that have among their factors related to depression and its symptoms.
Results and conclusions
In addition to interventions carried out in consultation, involving recovery of self-esteem, encouragement of leisure and recreational activities, and supported self-care, the program staff (psychologists, doctors, nurses and occupational therapists) works in partnership in support group health education, encouraging the integration of the elderly. The well-being and self-esteem of the elderly, thus, reduce the triggers of depression, with the integration of participants, students and professionals.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Anxiety in elderly can be diagnosed based on a detailed history and cognitive examination using various instruments. These instruments aim to obtain information that supports both the syndromic and etiological diagnosis and the planning and execution of therapeutic and rehabilitation measures to be used in each case. During the nursing consultation with elderly people in the Federal University of State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), many patients with cognitive impairment showed anxious behavior. The study objectives to describe the factors related to the nursing diagnose anxiety in elderly patients attended in the nursing consultation. The consultations are based in the application of the nursing process. After the symptoms analysis, the nursing diagnosis anxiety is complemented with the related factors. The principals are death threat (64%), stressors (19%) and not needs met (17%). The data found are associated with cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment in the elderly can lead to anxiety, depression and hopelessness, according to many studies.
Working the cognitive needs, and reducing stressors are appropriate strategies to reduce the anxiety. The care with the health professionals is important to notice the related factors early and improve the strategies.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Leishmaniasis are diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of infected insects of the subfamily Phlebotominae. Current drug therapy shows high toxicity and severe adverse effects. Recently, two oligopeptidases (OPBs) were identified in Leishmania amazonensis, namely oligopeptidase B (OPB) and oligopeptidase B2 (OPB2). These OPBs could be ideal targets, since both enzymes are expressed in all parasite lifecycle and were not identified in human. This work aimed to identify possible dual inhibitors of OPB and OPB2 from L. amazonensis. The three-dimensional structures of both enzymes were built by comparative modelling and used to perform a virtual screening of ZINC database by DOCK Blaster server. It is the first time that OPB models from L. amazonensis are used to virtual screening approach. Four hundred compounds were identified as possible inhibitors to each enzyme. The top scored compounds were submitted to refinement by AutoDock program. The best results suggest that compounds interact with important residues, as Tyr490, Glu612 and Arg655 (OPB numbers). The identified compounds showed better results than antipain and drugs currently used against leishmaniasis when ADMET in silico were performed. These compounds could be explored in order to find dual inhibitors of OPB and OPB2 from L. amazonensis.
Clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis (AB) vary from minimal disease to severe respiratory failure. The response to respiratory viral infections is possibly influenced by genetic polymorphisms linked to the regulation of the inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) genetic variants are associated with the severity of AB. A group of Brazilian infants hospitalized with AB and a control group (infants with no or mild AB, without hospitalization) were genotyped for four IL-8/IL-17 variations. For replication, we studied an Argentinean population sample of infants with mild and severe AB. IL-8 polymorphism (rs 2227543) and IL-17 (rs2275913) variants showed significant associations with the severity of AB. The effect of the IL-8 variation could be replicated in the Argentinean sample. This finding suggests that IL-8 variations may influence the severity of AB in young infants. Further genetic association studies in low- or middle-income populations are necessary with the aim of expanding knowledge in this area.
The mechanical behavior of superconductor lamellar-like BaFe2As2 single crystals was investigated at nanoscale by instrumented indentation. The unique responses of the ab- and a(b)c-crystallographic planes were discussed based on their influence in hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E). The results allowed two main conclusions. (i) The choice of testing parameters strongly affected the scaling of mechanical properties on the lamellar surfaces. Lamellar cracking was the leading mechanism of deformation, featuring a brittle-like behavior and affecting considerably H and E. However, the plastic deformation history allowed different elastic–plastic responses on the ab-plane owing to the compaction of the material. Threshold loads for cracking depended on both loading rate and penetration velocity, pointing out to time-dependent plastic deformation mechanisms. (ii) Proper estimates were achieved for H in multiple loading tests [3.4 GPa for ab- and ∼1 GPa for a(b)c-planes], and for E under loads less than 3 mN (∼55 GPa for both planes).
Mephedrone is a synthetic cathinone derivative included in the class of “New-Novel Psychoactive Substances”. Synthetic cathinones are marketed as “bath salts” or “plant food” and gained notable popularity for similar effects to 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), or amphetamines. Mephedrone is commonly consumed simultaneously with alcohol.
Objectives and aims
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between mephedrone and ethanol in humans.
Twelve healthy male, recreational users of psychostimulants participated as outpatients in four experimental sessions. They received a single oral dose of mephedrone (200 mg) and alcohol (0.8 g/kg), mephedrone placebo and alcohol (0.8 g/kg), mephedrone (200 mg) and placebo alcohol, and both placebos. Design was double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, cross-over and controlled with placebo. Study variables included: vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and pupil diameter), subjective effects (visual analogue scales-VAS, ARCI-49 item short form, and VESSPA questionnaire).
The combination produced an increase in the cardiovascular effects of mephedrone and induced more intense feeling of euphoria and well-being in comparison to mephedrone and alcohol. Mephedrone reduced the drunkenness and sedation produced by alcohol.
These results are similar to those obtained with the combination of other psychostimulants as amphetamines and MDMA. Abuse liability of the combination is greater that induced by mephedrone.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Extracts and essential oils from plants are important natural sources of pesticides. These compounds are considered an alternative to control ectoparasites of veterinary importance. Schinus molle, an endemic species of Brazil, produces a high level of essential oil and several other compounds. The aim of this work was to determinate the chemical composition of extracts and essential oils of S. molle and further to evaluate the activity against eggs and adults of Ctenocephalides felis felis, a predominant flea that infests dogs and cats in Brazil. In an in vitro assay, the non-polar (n-hexane) extract showed 100% efficacy (800 µg cm−2; LD50 = 524·80 µg cm−2) at 24 and 48 h. Its major compound was lupenone (50·25%). Essential oils from fruits and leaves were evaluated, and had 100% efficacy against adult fleas at 800 µg cm−2 (LD50 = 353·95 µg cm−2) and at 50 µg cm−2 (LD50 = 12·02 µg cm−2), respectively. On the other hand, the essential oil from fruits and leaves was not active against flea eggs. This is the first study that reports the insecticidal effects of essential oils and extracts obtained from Schinus molle against Ctenocephalides felis felis.
Haemonchus contortus is one of the major gastrointestinal nematodes responsible for significant economic and production losses of sheep. Diseases caused by this species lack effective anthelmintic products, and the search for new compounds to replace synthetic anthelmintics has been extensive. The present investigation assesses the in vitro activity of the essential oil of melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia), both free (TTO) and nanostructured (nanoTTO), and terpinen-4-ol (terp-4-ol) on eggs and larvae of H. contortus. Tests of egg hatching (EHT) and inhibition of larval migration (LMIT) were used to assess the in vitro efficacy of TTO, nanoTTO and terp-4-ol. Using EHT, at a concentration of 3.5 mg/ml, 100% inhibition occurred using TTO and terp-4-ol, with LC50 values of 0.43 and 0.63 mg/ml, and LC90 values of 1.75 mg/ml and 3.12 mg/ml, respectively. NanoTTO had lower activity, with 82.6% inhibition at the same concentration. Using LMIT, TTO and nanoTTO had a similar activity with 88.0% and 84.8% inhibition, respectively, at a concentration of 56 mg/ml. Terp-4-ol had a greater effect on larvae, with 85.7% inhibition at a concentration of 56 mg/ml and 82.4% at 3.5 mg/ml, demonstrating high activity at the lowest concentration tested. Therefore, the results indicate that all substances tested showed ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H. contortus. TTO, terp-4-ol and, mainly, nanoTTO may be targeted in in vivo studies, besides being a promising line of research into the control and treatment of veterinary important helminths.
Soybean oil (SBO) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) and rumen bypass of SBO can contribute to increase the polyunsaturated FA proportion in milk fat. Citrus pulp (CPP) is a source of antioxidants but there is little information on the effects of CP administration on milk properties. This study was performed to determine the role of rumen microorganisms in the transfer of antioxidants from CPP into milk when cows receive SBO as a source of polyunsaturated FA. Four ruminally fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: (1) SBO administered in the rumen; (2) SBO infused in the abomasum; (3) SBO + CPP administered in the rumen; and (4) SBO + CPP infused in the abomasum. Product and site of administration had no effect on yield of milk components. Concentrations of total polyphenols and flavonoids, reducing power and production of conjugated diene (CD) hydroperoxides in milk were not affected by products, but infusion in the abomasum compared with administration in the rumen increased production of CD. Milk fat FA profile was not affected by products. However, cows infused in the abomasum compared with those administered in the rumen showed lower proportions of short-chain and monounsaturated FA and higher proportions of polyunsaturated, omega 3 and omega 6 FA in milk fat, which resulted in enhanced health-promoting index of milk. Administration of SBO and CPP (0·2 + 1·0 kg/d) in the rumen or the abomasum resulted in similar milk antioxidant properties, thus suggesting that the rumen microbes have little involvement in the metabolism of antioxidants from CPP.