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Developing and improving an antimicrobial stewardship program successfully requires evaluation of numerous factors. As technology progresses and our understanding of antimicrobial resistance grows, careful consideration should be taken to ensure that a program meets the needs of the institution and is achievable given the available resources. In this review, we explore fundamental initiatives and strategies for both new and established antimicrobial stewardship programs, including the specific areas to target and key elements required for sustainable implementation.
Background: We aimed to study the proportion of patients with DRE and pre-existing VNS device, who show improvement of at least one class in McHugh seizure outcome classification at last follow up after generator replacement with cardiac based VNS device. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed children with DRE with the older VNS model (102) who underwent battery replacement with the AspireSR®, model 106 since September 2016 at our institution. We assessed the seizure outcomes since the first VNS device insertion till the last follow up after AspireSR® (with cardiac-based seizure detection) using McHugh seizure outcome classification. Results: The study population was comprised of 15 patients. The mean age at seizure onset was 2.7 years old, with mean age of initial VNS1 placement being 10.1 years and mean age of replacement with VNS2 being 14.9 years of age. Three of the fifteen patients had reported status epilepticus prior to initial VNS insertion, and none reported episodes following insertion. Two patients showed at least one class improvement in McHugh seizure outcomes at last follow up after VNS2. Conclusions: Through our preliminary data at the present time, we note that the majority of our patients maintains their seizure control following replacement with VNS2 with a few showing improvement.
Background: Infantile spasms (IS) is an epileptic encephalopathy, characterized by epileptic spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and developmental regression. This is a retrospective case series detailing the experience in children with IS who have undergone epilepsy surgery at The Hospital for Sick Children (HSC). Methods: Records of 223 patients from HSC were reviewed. Patients were included if they had a current or previous history of IS with a lesion detected on MRI/PET scan who underwent epilepsy surgery. Results: Nineteen patients were included. The etiology of IS was encephalomalacia in six patients (32%), malformations of cortical development in 11 patients (58%), atypical hypoglycaemic injury in one patient (0.5%), and partial hemimegalencephaly in one patient (0.5%). The median age at the onset of IS was five months. The median age at surgery was 18 months. Nine patients (47%) underwent hemispherectomy and 10 patients (53%) underwent lobectomy/lesionectomy. Fifteen patients (79%) were considered ILAE Seizure Outcome Class 1. Developmental outcome was improved in 14/19 (74%) and stable in 5/19 (26%) patients. Conclusions: Even with a generalized EEG pattern such as hypsarrhythmia, patients should be considered for focal resective surgery. Early surgical intervention shortens the duration of active epilepsy thus limiting the potentially irreversible effects of on-going seizures.
Cyclosporiasis is an illness characterised by watery diarrhoea caused by the food-borne parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis. The increase in annual US cyclosporiasis cases led public health agencies to develop genotyping tools that aid outbreak investigations. A team at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed a system based on deep amplicon sequencing and machine learning, for detecting genetically-related clusters of cyclosporiasis to aid epidemiologic investigations. An evaluation of this system during 2018 supported its robustness, indicating that it possessed sufficient utility to warrant further evaluation. However, the earliest version of CDC's system had some limitations from a bioinformatics standpoint. Namely, reliance on proprietary software, the inability to detect novel haplotypes and absence of a strategy to select an appropriate number of discrete genetic clusters would limit the system's future deployment potential. We recently introduced several improvements that address these limitations and the aim of this study was to reassess the system's performance to ensure that the changes introduced had no observable negative impacts. Comparison of epidemiologically-defined cyclosporiasis clusters from 2019 to analogous genetic clusters detected using CDC's improved system reaffirmed its excellent sensitivity (90%) and specificity (99%), and confirmed its high discriminatory power. This C. cayetanensis genotyping system is robust and with ongoing improvement will form the basis of a US-wide C. cayetanensis genotyping network for clinical specimens.
In a survey of adult hospital providers regarding antibiotic use in the treatment of febrile neutropenia, clinical fellows, and pharmacists showed higher comfort levels with early antimicrobial de-escalation compared to hematology-oncology and transplant infectious diseases physicians. These frontline team members are ideal partners to champion antimicrobial stewardship interventions in febrile neutropenia.
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a classification system that seeks to organize psychopathology using quantitative evidence – yet the current model was established by narrative review. This meta-analysis provides a quantitative synthesis of literature on transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology to evaluate the validity of the HiTOP framework.
Published studies estimating factor-analytic models from diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnoses were screened. A total of 120,596 participants from 35 studies assessing 23 DSM diagnoses were included in the meta-analytic models. Data were pooled into a meta-analytic correlation matrix using a random effects model. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted using the pooled correlation matrix. A hierarchical structure was estimated by extracting one to five factors representing levels of the HiTOP framework, then calculating congruence coefficients between factors at sequential levels.
Five transdiagnostic dimensions fit the DSM diagnoses well (comparative fit index = 0.92, root mean square error of approximation = 0.07, and standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.03). Most diagnoses had factor loadings >|0.30| on the expected factors, and congruence coefficients between factors indicated a hierarchical structure consistent with the HiTOP framework.
A model closely resembling the HiTOP framework fit the data well and placement of DSM diagnoses within transdiagnostic dimensions were largely confirmed, supporting it as valid structure for conceptualizing and organizing psychopathology. Results also suggest transdiagnostic research should (1) use traits, narrow symptoms, and dimensional measures of psychopathology instead of DSM diagnoses, (2) assess a broader array of constructs, and (3) increase focus on understudied pathologies.
Clinical research coordinators are increasingly tasked with a multitude of complex study activities critical to scientific rigor and participant safety, though more than half report not receiving appropriate training. To determine the reproducibility of an established clinical research workforce orientation program, collaborative partners across Clinical and Translational Science Award institutions seeded core principles and structure from Mayo Clinic’s Clinical Research Orientation program within Penn State University and the University of Mississippi Medical Center from 2019 to 2021. Training concepts were established and tied to those domains deemed critical by the Joint Task Force for Clinical Trial Competency for the conduct of clinical research at the highest levels of safety and quality possible. Significant knowledge and confidence gains and high overall program satisfaction were reported across participants and partner sites, despite programs being required to pivot from traditional, in-person formats to entirely virtual platforms as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The successful standardization and translation of foundational clinical research training has important efficiency and efficacy implications for research enterprises across the USA.
To examine patterns of taxed and untaxed food and beverage shopping across store types after Mexico’s sugary drink and non-essential food taxes, the nutritional quality of these patterns and the socio-economic characteristics associated with them.
We performed k-means cluster analyses using households’ percentage of food and beverage purchases from each store type (i.e. convenience stores, traditional shops (e.g. bodegas, tiendas, mom-and-pop shops), supermarkets, wholesalers and others). We calculated adjusted mean proportions of taxed and untaxed products (ml or g/capita per d) purchased in each pattern. We studied the associations between households’ SES and shopping patterns using multinomial logistic regressions. Within shopping patterns, we obtained mean volumes and proportions of taxed and untaxed food and beverage subgroups and calculated the proportion of products purchased at each store type.
Urban Mexican households (n 5493) from the Nielsen Mexico Consumer Panel Survey 2015.
We found four beverage shopping patterns and three food shopping patterns, driven by the store type where most purchases were made. For beverages, 48 % of households were clustered in the Traditional pattern and purchased the highest proportion of taxed beverages. Low-SES households had the highest probability of clustering in the Traditional beverage shopping pattern. For foods, 35 % of households were clustered into the Supermarket pattern. High-SES households had the highest probability of clustering in the Supermarket food shopping pattern.
The combination of store types where Mexican households purchase packaged foods and beverages varies. However, households in all shopping patterns and SES purchase taxed beverages mainly at traditional stores. Store-level strategies should be developed to intervene on traditional stores to improve the healthfulness of purchases.
In their chapter, Bach and Presnall-Shvorin (this volume) introduce guidelines for incorporating empirically-driven trait models of personality pathology, codified in the DSM-5 and ICD-11, into therapeutic practice. Though the authors of this commentary are supportive of the effort to bridge research with clinical practice, they suggest that a mechanistic model which accounts for personality processes underlying descriptive traits could offer greater precision than traits alone. Furthermore, they argue that clinical dysfunction can only be meaningfully defined and treated with an understanding of dynamic, contextualized aspects of personality. To illustrate how a mechanistic model could complement and extend Bach and Presnall’s recommendations, the authors present a case conceptualization using cybernetic theory. Finally, they review how idiographic data gleaned from ambulatory assessment methods provide insight into pathological processes ideal for therapeutic intervention. To achieve a generalizable approach flexible enough to adapt to the individual, they encourage the development of treatment models that go beyond traits to mechanistically link stable and dynamic personality features into a unified framework.
Foodborne salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the United States. In the summer of 2017, we investigated four multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with Maradol papayas imported from four Mexican farms. PulseNet initially identified a cluster of Salmonella Kiambu infections in June 2017, and early interviews identified papayas as an exposure of interest. Investigators from Maryland, Virginia and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected papayas for testing. Several strains of Salmonella were isolated from papayas sourced from Mexican Farm A, including Salmonella Agona, Gaminara, Kiambu, Thompson and Senftenberg. Traceback from two points of service associated with illness sub-clusters in two states identified Farm A as a common source of papayas, and three voluntary recalls of Farm A papayas were issued. FDA sampling isolated four additional Salmonella strains from papayas sourced from Mexican Farms B, C and D. In total, four outbreaks were identified, resulting in 244 cases with illness onset dates from 20 December 2016 to 20 September 2017. The sampling of papayas and the collaborative work of investigative partners were instrumental in identifying the source of these outbreaks and preventing additional illnesses. Evaluating epidemiological, laboratory and traceback evidence together during investigations is critical to solving and stopping outbreaks.
Background: Continuous electroencephalographic (cEEG) monitoring is essential to diagnosing non-convulsive seizures (NCS), reported to occur in 7-46% of at-risk critically ill patients. However, cEEG is labour-intensive, and given scarcity of resources at most centres cEEG is feasible in only selected patients. We aim to evaluate the clinical utility of cEEG at our centre in order to optimize further cEEG allocation among critically ill patients. Methods: Using a clinical database, we identified critically ill children who underwent cEEG monitoring in 2016, 2017 and 2018. We abstracted underlying diagnoses, indication for cEEG monitoring, cEEG findings, and associated changes in management. Results: Over this three year period, 928 cEEGs were performed. Among the 100 studies analyzed to date, primary indications for monitoring were characterization of events of unclear etiology (32%), diagnosis of NCS (30%), and monitoring of therapy for seizures (17%). Seizures were captured in 31% of patients (22% subclinical only, 5% electroclinical only, 4% both), which resulted in a treatment change in 90% of cases. Non-epileptic events were captured in 26% of patients. Conclusions: cEEG yielded clinically meaningful information in 57% of cases, frequently resulting in management changes. Subgroup analyses by cEEG indication and ICU location will be presented.
It is known that tungsten oxide may be reacted with selenium sources to form WSe2 but literature reports include processing steps that involve high temperatures, reducing atmospheres, and/or oxidative pre-treatments of tungsten oxide. In this work, we report a non-vacuum process for the fabrication of compositionally high quality WSe2 thin films via the selenization of tungsten oxide under milder conditions. Tungsten source materials were various hydrated WO3 and WO2.9 compounds that were prepared using chemical solution techniques. Resulting films were selenized using a two-stage heating profile (250 °C for 15 minutes and 550 °C for 30 minutes) under a static argon atmosphere. Effects of the starting tungsten oxide phase on WSe2 formation after single and double selenization cycles were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After two selenization cycles, hydrated WO3 was converted to (002)-oriented WSe2 that exhibits well-resolved peaks for E12g and A1g phonon modes. Only a single selenization cycle was required to convert amorphous WO2.9 to WSe2. All selenizations in this work were achieved in non-reducing atmospheres and at lower temperatures and shorter times than any non-laser-assisted processes reported for WO3-to-WSe2 conversions.
Diurnal preference (e.g., being an owl or lark) has been associated with several psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder (BP), major depressive disorder, and substance use disorders. Previous large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aimed at identifying genetic influences on diurnal preference have exclusively included subjects of European ancestry. This study examined the genetic architecture of diurnal preference in two minority samples: a young adult sample of Mexican Americans (MAs), and a family-based sample of American Indians (AIs). Typed or imputed variants from exome chip data from the MA sample and low pass whole-genome sequencing from the AI cohort were analyzed using a mixed linear model approach for association with being an owl, as defined by a usual bedtime after 23:00 hrs. Genetic risk score (GRS) profiling detected shared genetic risk between evening preference and related disorders. Four variants in KIAA1549 like (KIAA1549L), a gene previously associated with attempted suicide in bipolar patients, were suggestively associated with being an owl at p < 1.82E-05; post hoc analyses showed the top variant trending in both the MA and AI cohorts at p = 2.50E-05 and p = .030, respectively. Variants associated with BP at p < .03 from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium nominally predicted being an owl in the MA/AI cohort at p = .012. This study provides some additional evidence that genetic risk factors for BP also confer risk for being an owl in MAs/AIs and that evening preference may be a useful endophenotype for future studies of BP.
Prenatal hurricane exposure may be an increasingly important contributor to poor reproductive health outcomes. In the current literature, mixed associations have been suggested between hurricane exposure and reproductive health outcomes. This may be due, in part, to residual confounding. We assessed the association between hurricane exposure and reproductive health outcomes by using a difference-in-difference analysis technique to control for confounding in a cohort of Florida pregnancies.
We implemented a difference-in-difference analysis to evaluate hurricane weather and reproductive health outcomes including low birth weight, fetal death, and birth rate. The study population for analysis included all Florida pregnancies conceived before or during the 2003 and 2004 hurricane season. Reproductive health data were extracted from vital statistics records from the Florida Department of Health. In 2004, 4 hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne) made landfall in rapid succession; whereas in 2003, no hurricanes made landfall in Florida.
Overall models using the difference-in-difference analysis showed no association between exposure to hurricane weather and reproductive health.
The inconsistency of the literature on hurricane exposure and reproductive health may be in part due to biases inherent in pre-post or regression-based county-level comparisons. We found no associations between hurricane exposure and reproductive health. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:407–411)
Oxyspirura petrowi is a heteroxenous parasitic nematode that has been reported in high prevalences from birds in the Order Galliformes experiencing population declines in the USA. There is a paucity of information regarding the natural history O. petrowi, including the life cycle and effects of infection on wild bird populations. In order to study the life cycle of this parasite, we collected plains lubber grasshoppers (Brachystola magna) from a field location in Mitchell County, Texas. We found third-stage larvae (L3) in 37.9% (66/174) B. magna. We determined that they were O. petrowi through morphological comparison of L3 from experimentally infected Acheta domesticus and by sequence analysis. Then, we showed that B. magna are a potential intermediate hosts for O. petrowi infections in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) in a laboratory setting by experimental infection. We first detected shedding of eggs in feces using a fecal float technique 52 days post infection. In addition, we recovered 87 O. petrowi from experimentally infected northern bobwhites. Although we detected shedding in feces, recovery of eggs was low (>5 eggs/g). Future work is needed to understand shedding routes and shedding patterns of northern bobwhites infected with O. petrowi.
We compare first-order (refractive) ionospheric effects seen by the MWA with the ionosphere as inferred from GPS data. The first-order ionosphere manifests itself as a bulk position shift of the observed sources across an MWA field of view. These effects can be computed from global ionosphere maps provided by GPS analysis centres, namely the CODE. However, for precision radio astronomy applications, data from local GPS networks needs to be incorporated into ionospheric modelling. For GPS observations, the ionospheric parameters are biased by GPS receiver instrument delays, among other effects, also known as receiver DCBs. The receiver DCBs need to be estimated for any non-CODE GPS station used for ionosphere modelling. In this work, single GPS station-based ionospheric modelling is performed at a time resolution of 10 min. Also the receiver DCBs are estimated for selected Geoscience Australia GPS receivers, located at Murchison Radio Observatory, Yarragadee, Mount Magnet and Wiluna. The ionospheric gradients estimated from GPS are compared with that inferred from MWA. The ionospheric gradients at all the GPS stations show a correlation with the gradients observed with the MWA. The ionosphere estimates obtained using GPS measurements show promise in terms of providing calibration information for the MWA.
GLEAM, the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA survey, is a survey of the entire radio sky south of declination + 25° at frequencies between 72 and 231 MHz, made with the MWA using a drift scan method that makes efficient use of the MWA’s very large field-of-view. We present the observation details, imaging strategies, and theoretical sensitivity for GLEAM. The survey ran for two years, the first year using 40-kHz frequency resolution and 0.5-s time resolution; the second year using 10-kHz frequency resolution and 2 s time resolution. The resulting image resolution and sensitivity depends on observing frequency, sky pointing, and image weighting scheme. At 154 MHz, the image resolution is approximately 2.5 × 2.2/cos (δ + 26.7°) arcmin with sensitivity to structures up to ~ 10° in angular size. We provide tables to calculate the expected thermal noise for GLEAM mosaics depending on pointing and frequency and discuss limitations to achieving theoretical noise in Stokes I images. We discuss challenges, and their solutions, that arise for GLEAM including ionospheric effects on source positions and linearly polarised emission, and the instrumental polarisation effects inherent to the MWA’s primary beam.