To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Cognitive Battery of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox (NIH-TB) is a collection of assessments that have been adapted and normed for administration across the lifespan and is increasingly used in large-scale population-level research. However, despite increasing adoption in longitudinal investigations of neurocognitive development, and growing recommendations that the Toolbox be used in clinical applications, little is known about the long-term temporal stability of the NIH-TB, particularly in youth.
The present study examined the long-term temporal reliability of the NIH-TB in a large cohort of youth (9–15 years-old) recruited across two data collection sites. Participants were invited to complete testing annually for 3 years.
Reliability was generally low-to-moderate, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging between 0.31 and 0.76 for the full sample. There were multiple significant differences between sites, with one site generally exhibiting stronger temporal stability than the other.
Reliability of the NIH-TB Cognitive Battery was lower than expected given early work examining shorter test-retest intervals. Moreover, there were very few instances of tests meeting stability requirements for use in research; none of the tests exhibited adequate reliability for use in clinical applications. Reliability is paramount to establishing the validity of the tool, thus the constructs assessed by the NIH-TB may vary over time in youth. We recommend further refinement of the NIH-TB Cognitive Battery and its norming procedures for children before further adoption as a neuropsychological assessment. We also urge researchers who have already employed the NIH-TB in their studies to interpret their results with caution.
Smoking rates in people with depression and anxiety are twice as high as in the general population, even though people with depression and anxiety are motivated to stop smoking. Most healthcare professionals are aware that stopping smoking is one of the greatest changes that people can make to improve their health. However, smoking cessation can be a difficult topic to raise. Evidence suggests that smoking may cause some mental health problems, and that the tobacco withdrawal cycle partly contributes to worse mental health. By stopping smoking, a person's mental health may improve, and the size of this improvement might be equal to taking antidepressants. In this article we outline ways in which healthcare professionals can compassionately and respectfully raise the topic of smoking to encourage smoking cessation. We draw on evidence-based methods such as cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and outline approaches that healthcare professionals can use to integrate these methods into routine care to help their patients stop smoking.
To estimate the prevalence of unmet needs for assistance among middle-aged and older adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in the US and to evaluate whether unmet needs were associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL).
US – 50 states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico
Community-dwelling adults aged 45 years and older who completed the Cognitive Decline module on the 2015-–2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System reported experiencing SCD and always, usually, or sometimes needed assistance with day-to-day activities because of SCD (n = 6,568).
We defined SCD as confusion or memory loss that was happening more often or getting worse over the past 12 months. Respondents with SCD were considered to have an unmet need for assistance if they sometimes, rarely, or never got the help they needed with day-to-day activities. We measured three domains of HRQOL: (1) mental (frequent mental distress, ≥14 days of poor mental health in the past 30 days), (2) physical (frequent physical distress, ≥14 days of poor physical health in the past 30 days), and (3) social (SCD always, usually, or sometimes interfered with the ability to work, volunteer, or engage in social activities outside the home). We used log-binomial regression models to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs). All estimates were weighted.
In total, 40.2% of people who needed SCD-related assistance reported an unmet need. Among respondents without depression, an unmet need was associated with a higher prevalence of frequent mental distress (PR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.12–2.13, p = 0.007). Frequent physical distress and social limitations did not differ between people with met and unmet needs.
Middle-aged and older adults with SCD-related needs for assistance frequently did not have those needs met, which could negatively impact their mental health. Interventions to identify and meet the unmet needs among people with SCD may improve HRQOL.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has necessitated almost exclusive National Health Service focus on emergency work and cancer care. There are concerns that increased hospital and community pressures will lead to decreased referrals and worse outcomes for head and neck cancer patients.
This is a retrospective review of all cases referred for suspected head and neck cancer to our institution in January and April 2020.
There was a 55 per cent decrease in referrals but diagnostic yield rose from 2.9 per cent in January to 8.06 per cent in April. In both months, 100 per cent of patients met the 31- and 62-day targets, with similar 14-day wait time success (97.83 per cent for January vs 98.33 per cent for April). Referrals for laryngopharyngeal reflux rose from 27.5 per cent to 41.9 per cent. Referrals for those aged over 60 years fell from 42 per cent to 26 per cent.
It is suggested that further research be conducted into the reasons why fewer patients were referred, particularly elderly patients, and why laryngopharyngeal reflux is so prevalent in fast-track referrals.
In 2017, transgender woman Danica Roem stunned political observers in Virginia by unseating a long-time anti-LGBTQ legislator from a conservative district in the Virginia House of Delegates.1 She was the first openly transgender person elected and seated to a state legislature. Delegate Roem’s election was historic in LGBTQ political representation, but it also occurred in a period when backlash against the LGBTQ community seemed to be growing (Taylor, Lewis, and Haider-Markel 2018). These two threads led us to ask: How are LGBTQ candidates achieving historic successes even as forces seem mobilized against them?
We study direct numerical simulations of turbulence arising from the interaction of an initial background shear, a linear background stratification and an external body force. In each simulation the turbulence produced is spatially intermittent, with dissipation rates varying over orders of magnitude in the vertical. We focus analysis on the statistically quasi-steady states achieved by applying large-scale body forcing to the domain, and compare flows forced by internal gravity waves with those forced by vertically uniform vortical modes. By considering the turbulent energy budgets for each simulation, we find that the injection of potential energy from the wave forcing permits a reversal in the sign of the mean buoyancy flux. This change in the sign of the buoyancy flux is associated with large, convective density overturnings, which in turn lead to more efficient mixing in the wave-forced simulations. The inhomogeneous dissipation in each simulation allows us to investigate localised correlations between the kinetic and potential energy dissipation rates. These correlations lead us to the conclusion that an appropriate definition of an instantaneous mixing efficiency,
are the volume-averaged turbulent viscous dissipation rate and fluctuation density variance destruction rate respectively) in the wave-forced cases is independent of an appropriately defined local turbulent Froude number, consistent with scalings proposed for low Froude number stratified turbulence.
Results of in situ U–Pb dating of calcite spherulites, cone-in-cone (CIC) calcite and calcite fibres from a calcareous concretion of the upper Ediacaran of Finnmark, Arctic Norway, are reported. Calcite spherulites from the innermost layers of the concretion yielded a lower intercept age of 563 ± 70 Ma, which, although imprecise, is within uncertainty of the age of sedimentation based on fossil assemblages. Non-deformed CIC calcite from the bottom part of the concretion yielded an age of 475 ± 25 Ma, which is interpreted as the age of CIC calcite formation during a period of fluid overpressure induced during burial of the sediments. Deformed CIC calcite from the top part of the concretion yielded an age of 418 ± 23 Ma, which overlaps with a known Caledonian tectono-metamorphic event, and indicates a potential post-depositional overprint at this time. Calcite fibres that grew in small fissures along spherulite rims, which are interpreted as a recrystallization feature during deformation and formation of a cleavage, gave an imprecise age of 486 ± 161 Ma. Our results show that U–Pb dating of calcite can provide age constraints for ancient carbonates and syn- to post-depositional processes that operated during burial and metamorphic overprinting.
New information on acritarchs from the Duolbagáisá Formation, Digermulen Peninsula, Arctic Norway, enable recognition of the three Cambrian Series 2 acritarch-based zones: the Skiagia ornata–Fimbriaglomerella membranacea, Heliosphaeridium dissimilare–Skiagia ciliosa and Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana Assemblage zones. Acritarchs of the Skiagia ornata–Fimbriaglomerella membranacea Zone (Cambrian Stage 3) appear near the base of the unit, close to an undetermined trilobite. In the Upper Member of the Duolbagáisá Formation, in levels with Kjerulfia n. sp. and Elliptocephala n. sp., appears an assemblage with abundant Skiagia ciliosa, indicative of the Heliosphaeridium dissimilare–Skiagia ciliosa Zone. A few metres higher appear Liepaina plana, Heliosphaeridium notatum and Retisphaeridium dichamerum, which indicate the Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana Zone (Cambrian Stage 4). The transition between the Duolbagáisá Formation and the overlying Kistedalen Formation is marked by the appearance of Comasphaeridium longispinosum, Multiplicisphaeridium llynense and Eliasum llaniscum, diagnostic of the Miaolingian Series. This coincides with the disappearance of Skiagia; occurrences of Skiagia in Miaolingian strata consist of reworked material related to the Hawke Bay regression at the Cambrian Stage 4–Wuliuan transition. The absence of Skiagia in higher levels of the Duolbagáisá Formation and Kistedalen Formation suggests that no unconformity formed during the Hawke Bay regression in this area. The chronostratigraphical significance of the Skiagia ornata–Fimbriaglomerella membranacea, Heliosphaeridium dissimilare–Skiagia ciliosa and Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana zones is critically analysed. Correlation of the Duolbagáisá Formation with peri-Gondwanan terrains of Avalonia and Iberia is established. The Digermulen Peninsula has great potential as a reference section for establishing a Cambrian chronostratigraphy based on acritarchs.
At present, analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross-validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study, including data from eighteen case–control and one nested case–cohort study, compromising 8320 BC cases out of 31 551 participants. Dietary data, on the eleven main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook, and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance, beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC-related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.
The volume of evidence from scientific research and wider observation is greater than ever before, but much is inconsistent and scattered in fragments over increasingly diverse sources, making it hard for decision-makers to find, access and interpret all the relevant information on a particular topic, resolve seemingly contradictory results or simply identify where there is a lack of evidence. Evidence synthesis is the process of searching for and summarising a body of research on a specific topic in order to inform decisions, but is often poorly conducted and susceptible to bias. In response to these problems, more rigorous methodologies have been developed and subsequently made available to the conservation and environmental management community by the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence. We explain when and why these methods are appropriate, and how evidence can be synthesised, shared, used as a public good and benefit wider society. We discuss new developments with potential to address barriers to evidence synthesis and communication and how these practices might be mainstreamed in the process of decision-making in conservation.
To investigate trends in health-related quality of life and health service use associated with diabetes and/or major depression in South Australia from 1998 to 2008.
Data analyzed were from 9,059 persons aged ≥15 years who participated in representative surveys of the South Australian population in 1998, 2004 and 2008. Major depression was determined using the mood module of the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD). Diagnosed diabetes and health service use was determined by self-report. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the 15-item Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) instruments. Weighted age-standardized and multiple-adjusted means of dependent measures were computed.
The prevalence of diabetes only, major depression only, and comorbid diabetes and major depression increased by 74%, 36% and 53% from 1998 to 2008. Mean health-related quality of life scores were 9% to 41% lower (worse), and health service use was 49% higher for persons with comorbid diabetes and major depression than for those with diabetes only (all P-values < 0.05), consistently over the 10-year period.
If past trends continue, our results suggest that the population health and economic burden of comorbid diabetes and major depression will grow similarly over the next decade or so. These trends have important implications for making health policy and resource allocation decisions.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI) in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have observed functional abnormalities in fronto-striatal and temporo-parietal brain regions during tasks of inhibitory and attention control. However, hardly any modern functional imaging studies have investigated functions of interference inhibition or attention control in adult ADHD.
We used fMRI combined with a variant of the Simon task that measures interference inhibition as well as attention allocation to compare 11 medication-naïve adults (26-30 yrs) with inattentive/hyperactive behaviours and 15 age-matched healthy controls. Patients were followed up from childhood ADHD, recruited from a 20-year prospective longitudinal epidemiological study. All met criteria for inattentive/hyperactive behaviours on an Adult Hyperactive Interview, but only 8 met clinical diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Correlation analyses were furthermore conducted within patients to correlate symptoms with brain activation. Functional connectivity analyses for group differences in fronto-striatal connectivity will be presented at the conference.
No differences were observed in task performance. During interference inhibition, adults with persistent inattentive/hyperactive compared to controls showed reduced activation in predominantly left orbitofrontal and medial cortex, caudate and putamen. During attention allocation adults with hyperactive behaviours showed dysfunction in left inferior/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and in right inferior and superior parietal areas. Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between inattentive/hyperactive behaviours and the parietal activation cluster during interference inhibition. The study demonstrates the continuity of the pattern of fronto-striatal and parietal neurofunctional abnormalities during tasks of interference inhibition and attention allocation from childhood to adult ADHD even with symptomatic improvement.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with functional abnormalities in fronto-striatal brain regions during tasks of inhibitory control. In adults with ADHD, however, no functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study has investigated the neurofunctional correlates of the most compromised cognitive functions of motor response inhibition or cognitive flexibility.
fMRI was used combined with a tracking Stop task of motor response inhibition and a cognitive Switch task to compare brain function between 11 medication-naïve adults (26-30 yrs) with inattentive/hyperactive behaviours and 14 age-matched healthy controls. Patients were followed up from childhood ADHD, recruited from a 20-year prospective longitudinal epidemiological study. All met criteria for inattentive/hyperactive behaviours on an Adult Hyperactive Interview, but only 8 met clinical diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Whole brain regression MR analyses were furthermore conducted within patients to correlate symptoms with brain activation. Functional connectivity analyses for group differences in fronto-striatal connectivity will be presented at the conference.
Despite comparable task performance, adults with persistent inattentive/hyperactive behaviours showed reduced activation compared to controls in inferior prefrontal cortex, caudate and thalamus during both tasks, as well as in parietal lobes during the Switch task. Regression analyses furthermore showed a linear negative correlation between behavioural symptoms and overlapping, but more extensive fronto-striatal, parietal and cerebellar brain dysfunction. The findings demonstrate for the first time the persistence of the typical childhood ADHD pattern of fronto-striatal dysfunction during tasks of cognitive control in adults with persisting behavioural symptoms, suggesting stability/continuity of neurofunctional abnormalities between childhood and early adulthood.
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is an effective psychological intervention for children and young people with anxiety disorders (James et al, 2013). This has led to interest in whether CBT programmes can be widely provided in schools to prevent or ameliorate anxiety symptoms in children.
Results from school based anxiety prevention trials are encouraging (Neil & Christensen 2009; Fisak, Richard, Mann 2011). Before the widespread use of school based preventive programmes can be advocated methodologically robust evaluations are required to demonstrate that they are effective when transported to everyday settings.
To undertake a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a universal school based CBT programme (Friends for Life) for children aged 9-10 years of age .
Three arm RCT comparing Friends for Life delivered by trained health or school leaders with usual school provision (Stallard et al,2012). Primary outcome the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) at 12 month follow-up.
A total of 1362 children from 40 schools participated with 1257 (92%) being re-assessed at follow-up. There was a difference in adjusted mean child report RCADS scores for health-led versus school-led FRIENDS (−3.94, 95%CI −6.41 to −1.47) and health-led FRIENDS versus usual school provision (2.66, 95%CI −5.22 to −0.09). Health-led CBT resulted in greater reductions in symptoms of anxiety than the other two arms (Stallard et al 2014),
Our pragmatic trial demonstrates that universally delivered anxiety prevention programmes can be effective when transported into schools. However, effectiveness varies depending upon who delivers them.
Research suggests that urbanicity and lower socio-economic status are risk factors for psychosis.
Aims and objectives:
To calculate the incidence and period prevalence of patients admitted with psychosis in Malta, and to examine differences between districts. To date, this is the first study of its kind carried out in the Maltese Islands.
One year prospective cross-sectional study, including all ICD-10 psychosis patients admitted to any one of the three psychiatric hospitals (n = 180).
Incidence of hospital admissions due to psychosis was 26.0 at risk per year per 100, 000 population. Period prevalence for 6 years was 41.9 per 100,000 person-years. Highest incidence: Southern-Harbour area (32.1, CI = 31.9–32.3), and lowest incidence: Western District (20.1, CI = 19.9–20.2). the period prevalence was highest in Gozo District (63.9, CI = 63.2–64.7). 5.2% of participants were irregular migrants, having an approximate estimate for incidence of psychosis of 400 per 100,000 person years at risk.
The high incidence of psychosis may be explained by the fact that Malta is the eighth most densely populated country worldwide. the district with the lowest socio-economic groups were found to have the highest incidence of psychosis, followed by the most densely populated district. Cultural factors, small genetic pool or readily available services could account for the high period prevalence in the Gozo district -a more rural area. Higher education in the Western district area could partially explain the lower incidence. Multiple Stressors and trauma may partially be the reasons for the much higher incidence rate in the irregular immigrant group.
Double diffusion occurs when the fluid density depends on two components that diffuse at different rates (e.g. heat and salt in the ocean). Double diffusion can lead to an up-gradient buoyancy flux and drive motion at the expense of potential energy. Here, we follow the work of Lorenz (Tellus, vol. 7 (no. 2), 1955, pp. 157–167) and Winters et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 289, 1995, pp. 115–128) for a single-component fluid and define the background potential energy (BPE) as the energy associated with an adiabatically sorted density field and derive its budget for a double-diffusive fluid. We find that double diffusion can convert BPE into available potential energy (APE), unlike in a single-component fluid, where the transfer of APE to BPE is irreversible. We also derive an evolution equation for the sorted buoyancy in a double-diffusive fluid, extending the work of Winters & D’Asaro (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 317, 1996, pp. 179–193) and Nakamura (J. Atmos. Sci., vol. 53 (no. 11), 1996, pp. 1524–1537). The criterion we develop for a release of BPE can be used to analyse the energetics of mixing and double diffusion in the ocean and other multiple-component fluids, and we illustrate its application using two-dimensional simulations of salt fingering.
Cognitive difficulties are prevalent in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and are associated with poor long term functioning. They interfere with recovery so that people with more severe deficits have difficulty taking advantage of rehabilitation techniques.
Three approaches to improving outcomes are possible: (i) target cognition, (ii) adapt rehabilitation programmes, (iii) adapt the environment. A number of psychological therapies have been developed that target cognition. This symposium will discuss and evaluate the similarities and differences between such therapies.
A review of randomised controlled trials and a new meta-analysis.
The form of therapy targeting cognition might be in groups, individual or computer presentation. They may be based on a clear theory about the deficits in schizophrenia or they may have borrowed from work on brain injury. They can last for a few sessions to two years and use different types of teaching, such as practice or strategic problem solving. Despite all these differences 40 randomised controlled trials have shown that they can produce modest improvements in cognition and a new meta-analysis has shown that there is some homogeneity of effects across different therapies but that methodology does make a difference.
Improvement in functioning is best achieved by combining therapies and by the remediation approach being to teach strategies rather than only practicing skills. Metacognition which is the awareness of thinking skills and when certain strategies should be implemented seems to be the key issue in transferring skills from the cognitive domain to general functioning.
Non-epileptic seizures (NES) are a diverse group of disorders, whose paroxysmal events can be mistaken for epilepsy, although they are caused by a mental or psychogenic process rather than a neurological cause.
We present a case of a 45-year-old female patient with history of generalized seizures prior to Meningioma resection in August 2015, referred to the Liaison Psychiatry outpatient follow up clinic at the Royal London Hospital after has gone several times to emergency department complaining about flush and hot sensation that proceeded to corners of mouth turning down, teeth chattering, shaking of left arm and torso at first and then legs. During the episodes, she was awake with no consciousness loss. Her mood was low, with clinical evidence of depression and she had very high levels of health anxiety.
A diagnosis of non-epileptic attacks was made in the sequence of those episodes. A holistic and multidisciplinary approach was made, including pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy and domiciliary support. The clinical response was good regarding both mood, anxiety levels and NES.
Approximately 25% of patients who have a previous diagnosis of epilepsy and are not responding to drug therapy are found to be misdiagnosed and it is common that epileptic patients have both epileptic and non-epileptic seizures. Although distinguishing epileptic and non-epileptic seizures is not easy, there are some clinical clues that the physicians should look for, like age of onset, time of the day that episodes occur and presence or absence of postictal confusion.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.