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The amplification of reward-seeking behavior under uncertainty described by Anselme & Güntürkün is based on the animal literature. However, this phenomenon could provide valuable information for the understanding of several dysfunctional human behaviors such as overeating and gambling. Therefore, we formulated some considerations on how the “incentive hope” hypothesis could be tested on a human population.
Evidence-based parenting support (EBPS) programs derived from social learning theory, cognitive behavioural principles, and developmental theory are among the most successful innovations in the entire field of psychological intervention. EBPS programs have been at the cutting edge of global dissemination efforts to increase community access to evidence-based parenting programs. Despite the widely recognised success of these efforts, existing models of parenting intervention are not a panacea, and much can be done to improved outcomes. Efforts to improve outcomes have included the emergence of a population-based approach to increase reach of intervention. This has included the development of flexible delivery modalities, including online parenting interventions, the incorporation of strategies to enhance cultural relevance and acceptability of programs, and more recently, applications with parents in very low resource settings. Further enhancements of outcomes are likely to be forthcoming as we gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that explain positive intervention effects and non-response to interventions. More cost-effective online professional training models are needed to disseminate and promote the sustained use of EBPS programs. New interventions are required for the most vulnerable parents when parenting concerns are complicated by other problems such as trauma, addictions, relationship conflict, family violence, mental health problems and intergenerational poverty. However, to scale effective programs, Commonwealth and state government policies and funding priorities need to respond to evidence about what works and make sustained investments in the implementation of parenting programs. Possible strategies to enhance the policy impact of intervention research are discussed.
Following pioneering work in Norway, cirque glaciers have widely been viewed as rigidly rotating bodies. This model is incorrect for basin-filling cirque glaciers, as we have demonstrated at West Washmawapta Glacier, a small glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Here we report observations at the same glacier that assess whether complex temporal variations of flow also occur. For parts of three summers, we measured daily displacements of the glacier surface. In one year, four short-duration speed-up events were recorded. Three of the events occurred during the intervals of warmest weather, when melt was most rapid; the fourth event occurred immediately following heavy rain. We interpret the speed-up events as manifestations of enhanced water inputs to the glacier bed and associated slip lubrication by increased water volumes and pressures. No further speed-ups occurred in the final month of the melt season, despite warm temperatures and several rainstorms; the dominant subglacial water system likely transformed from one of poorly connected cavities to one with an efficient channel network. The seasonal evolution of hydrology and flow resembles behaviors documented at other, larger temperate glaciers and indicates that analyses of cirque erosion cannot rely on simple assumptions about ice dynamics.
The antiquity of iron meteorites and the inferred early intense heating by the decay of 26Al suggest that many planetesimals were molten beneath a thin insulating cap at the same time as chondrules were being made. As those planetesimals were colliding and merging, it seems inevitable that impact plumes of droplets from their liquid interiors would have been launched into space and cooled to form chondrules. We call the process splashing; it is quite distinct from making droplets by jetting during hypervelocity impacts. Evidence both for the existence of molten planetesimals, and for the cooling of chondrules within a plume setting, is strong and growing. Detailed petrographic and isotopic features of chondrules, particularly in carbonaceous chondrites (that probably formed beyond the orbit of Jupiter), suggest that the chondrule plume would have been ‘dirty’ and the otherwise uniform droplets would have been contaminated with earlier-formed dust and larger grains from a variety of sources. The contamination possibly accounts for relict grains, for the spread of oxygen isotopes along the primitive chondrule mineral (PCM) line in carbonaceous chondrites, and for the newly recognized nucleosynthetic isotopic complementarity between chondrules and matrix in Allende.
The purpose of this formative study was to explore current knowledge and attitudes towards physical activity, as well as perceived barriers, facilitators and opportunities for physical activity participation among older adults living in the community. The findings have subsequently informed the design, delivery and recruitment strategies of a local community physical activity intervention programme which forms part of Sport England’s national Get Healthy, Get Active initiative.
There is a growing public health concern regarding the amount of time spent in sedentary and physical activity behaviours within the older adult population.
Between March and June 2016, 34 participants took part in one of six focus groups as part of a descriptive formative study. A homogenous purposive sample of 28 community dwelling white, British older adults (six male), aged 65–90 years (M=78, SD=7 years) participated in one of five focus group sessions. An additional convenience pragmatic sub-sample of six participants (three male), aged 65–90 years (M=75, SD=4 years), recruited from an assisted living retirement home participated in a sixth focus group. Questions for focus groups were structured around the PRECEDE stage of the PRECEDE–PROCEDE model of health programme design, implementation and evaluation. Questions addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards physical activity, as well as views on barriers and opportunities for physical activity participation. All data were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was then conducted with outcomes represented as pen profiles.
Consistent views regarding both the potential physical and psychosocial benefits of physical activity were noted regardless of living status. The themes of, opportunities and awareness for physical activity participation, cost, transport, location and season/weather varied between participants living in an assisted living retirement home and community dwelling older adults. Further comparative research on the physical activity requirements of older adults living in assisted living versus community settings are warranted.
We aimed to explore multiple perspectives regarding barriers to and facilitators of advance care planning (ACP) among African Americans to identify similarities or differences that might have clinical implications.
Qualitative study with health disparities experts (n = 5), community members (n = 9), and seriously ill African American patients and caregivers (n = 11). Using template analysis, interviews were coded to identify intrapersonal, interpersonal, and systems-level themes in accordance with a social ecological framework.
Participants identified seven primary factors that influence ACP for African Americans: religion and spirituality; trust and mistrust; family relationships and experiences; patient-clinician relationships; prognostic communication, care preferences, and preparation and control. These influences echo those described in the existing literature; however, our data highlight consistent differences by group in the degree to which these factors positively or negatively affect ACP. Expert participants reinforced common themes from the literature, for example, that African Americans were not interested in prognostic information because of mistrust and religion. Seriously ill patients were more likely to express trust in their clinicians and to desire prognostic communication; they and community members expressed a desire to prepare for and control the end of life. Religious belief did not appear to negate these desires.
Significance of results
The literature on ACP in African Americans may not accurately reflect the experience of seriously ill African Americans. What are commonly understood as barriers to ACP may in fact not be. We propose reframing stereotypical barriers to ACP, such as religion and spirituality, or family, as cultural assets that should be engaged to enhance ACP. Although further research can inform best practices for engaging African American patients in ACP, findings suggest that respectful, rapport-building communication may facilitate ACP. Clinicians are encouraged to engage in early ACP using respectful and rapport building communication practices, including open-ended questions.
Previously known to form only under high pressure synthetic conditions, here we report that the T′-type 214-structure cuprate based on the rare earth atom Tb is stabilized for ambient pressure synthesis through partial substitution of Pd for Cu. The new material is obtained in purest form for mixtures of nominal composition Tb1.96Cu0.8Pd0.2O4. The refined formula, in orthorhombic space group Pbca, with a = 5.5117(1) Å, b = 5.5088(1) Å, and c = 11.8818(1) Å, is Tb2Cu0.83Pd0.17O4. An incommensurate structural modulation is seen along the a axis by electron diffraction and high resolution imaging. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal long-range antiferromagnetic ordering at 7.9 K, with a less pronounced feature at 95 K; a magnetic moment reorientation transition is observed to onset at a field of approximately 1.1 T at 3 K. The material is an n-type semiconductor.
Pepper & Nettle overstate cross-domain evidence of present-oriented thinking among lower-socioeconomic-status (SES) groups and overlook key social and contextual drivers of temporal decision making. We consider psychological research on climate change – a quintessential intertemporal problem that implicates inequities and extrinsic mortality risk – documenting more future-oriented thinking among low- compared to high-SES groups.
To investigate the subsurface hydrological characteristics of an overdeepened cirque glacier, nine boreholes were drilled to the bed of West Washmawapta Glacier, British Columbia, Canada, in summer 2007. All holes were surveyed with a video camera, and four were subsequently instrumented with a combination of pressure transducers, thermistors and conductivity sensors. Diurnal pressure and temperature records indicate the presence of a hydraulically connected subglacial drainage system towards the northern glacier margin. Hydraulic jacking in the overdeepening, controlled by changing water volume in the marginal zone, potentially impacts basal ice flow and erosion. The presence of a sediment layer underlying the glacier also likely impacts hydrology and ice dynamics. Influx of warm groundwater into the basal system raises subglacial water temperatures above the pressure-melting point (pmp) and induces diurnal water temperature fluctuations of as much as 0.8°C; water temperatures above the pmp could affect basal melt rates and the development of subglacial drainage systems. These observations suggest that the characteristics of the subglacial drainage system substantially affect patterns of flow and erosion by this small cirque glacier.
Between 1013 - 1017 Hz the continua of all PG quasars can be described in the most general terms by a model consisting of two broad peaks of thermal radiation. There is no evidence for energetically significant nonthermal radiation in this frequency range in the continua of the PG quasars. We have compiled continuum observations for PG quasars from 6 cm to 2 KeV, including IRAS data for all these objects and new ground-based infrared data at 10 μm for many of these quasars. Sixty-three of the PG quasars were detected by IRAS in at least one band. The overall energy distributions for these sixty-three PG quasars are shown in Figure 1.
Stellar orbits in the plane of a strong bar potential demonstrate the breakdown of the second integral of motion well inside corotation (Sanders(1980) and more recently Contopoulos (1982), Athanassoula et. al. (1983), Sanders and Teuben (1982)).
One purpose for studying the gas flow in barred spiral galaxies is to use the observed distribution and kinematics of the gas as a tracer of the underlying gravitational field. By comparing model hydrodynamical calculations with observations of actual systems, one would like to define three basic properties of barred galaxies:
1)The bar strength. How significant is the deviation from axial symmetry in the region of the bar, measured by some parameter such as qt, maximum aximuthal force in terms of the mean radial force (Sanders and Tubbs, 1980).
2)The mean radial distribution of matter. Clearly in a system with large deviations from circular motion, the “rotation curve” gives no direct information on the radial mass distribution.
3)The angular velocity of the bar. Where is the co-rotation radius (or Lagrange points) with respect to the bar axes? Are other principal resonances present?
Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are the most advanced stage in the evolution of the most massive stars. The strong feedback provided by these objects and their subsequent supernova (SN) explosions are decisive for a variety of astrophysical topics such as the cosmic matter cycle. Consequently, understanding the properties of WR stars and their evolution is indispensable. A crucial but still not well known quantity determining the evolution of WR stars is their mass-loss rate. Since the mass loss is predicted to increase with metallicity, the feedback provided by these objects and their spectral appearance are expected to be a function of the metal content of their host galaxy. This has severe implications for the role of massive stars in general and the exploration of low metallicity environments in particular. Hitherto, the metallicity dependence of WR star winds was not well studied. In this contribution, we review the results from our comprehensive spectral analyses of WR stars in environments of different metallicities, ranging from slightly super-solar to SMC-like metallicities. Based on these studies, we derived empirical relations for the dependence of the WN mass-loss rates on the metallicity and iron abundance, respectively.
Although financing represents a critical component of health system strengthening and also a defining concern of efforts to move towards universal health coverage, many countries lack the tools and capacity to plan effectively for service scale-up. As part of a multi-country collaborative study (the Emerald project), we set out to develop, test and apply a fully integrated health systems resource planning and health impact tool for mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders.
A new module of the existing UN strategic planning OneHealth Tool was developed, which identifies health system resources required to scale-up a range of specified interventions for MNS disorders and also projects expected health gains at the population level. We conducted local capacity-building in its use, as well as stakeholder consultations, then tested and calibrated all model parameters, and applied the tool to three priority mental and neurological disorders (psychosis, depression and epilepsy) in six low- and middle-income countries.
Resource needs for scaling-up mental health services to reach desired coverage goals are substantial compared with the current allocation of resources in the six represented countries but are not large in absolute terms. In four of the Emerald study countries (Ethiopia, India, Nepal and Uganda), the cost of delivering key interventions for psychosis, depression and epilepsy at existing treatment coverage is estimated at US$ 0.06–0.33 per capita of total population per year (in Nigeria and South Africa it is US$ 1.36–1.92). By comparison, the projected cost per capita at target levels of coverage approaches US$ 5 per capita in Nigeria and South Africa, and ranges from US$ 0.14–1.27 in the other four countries. Implementation of such a package of care at target levels of coverage is expected to yield between 291 and 947 healthy life years per one million populations, which represents a substantial health gain for the currently neglected and underserved sub-populations suffering from psychosis, depression and epilepsy.
This newly developed and validated module of OneHealth tool can be used, especially within the context of integrated health planning at the national level, to generate contextualised estimates of the resource needs, costs and health impacts of scaled-up mental health service delivery.
Shaakirrah R. Sanders, teaches Constitutional Law, Criminal Procedure, and the First Amendment at the University of Idaho College of Law.,
Aníbal Rosario Lebrón, Assistant Professor of Lawyering Skills at Howard University School of Law.
United States v. Morrison involved the constitutionality of the private cause of action authorized by the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA). The District Court and the Fourth Circuit en banc dismissed Christy Brzonkala's complaint against James Crawford, Antonio Morrison, and Virginia Polytechnic Institution. The U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the dismissal and held that: (1) VAWA's private cause of action exceeded congressional authority under Article I's Commerce Clause because gender-motivated violence was a noneconomic local activity that did not substantially affect interstate commerce; and (2) the Fourteenth Amendment's Enforcement Clause did not allow remedial measures against private actors. Justices Souter and Breyer wrote separate dissents. Both dissenters argued that gender-motivated violence was well within the purview of the commerce power, and neither discussed the validity of VAWA's private right of action under the enforcement power.
Professor Aníbal Rosario Lebrón, writing as a dissenting Justice, details the facts in Morrison quite differently than do the original majority and dissenting opinions. For example, Chief Justice Rehnquist's majority opinion briefly and succinctly described Crawford and Morrison's alleged attack on Brzonkala as an “assault” and “repeated rape.” Morrison's debasing remarks about what he liked to do with women (delivered some months after the alleged rape) were vaguely described as “vulgar remarks that cannot fail to shock and offend.” The dissenting opinions authored by Justices Souter and Breyer did not mention the terms rape or assault in relation to Brzonkala, nor did the dissenters refer to Morrison's post-attack comments.
Rosario Lebrón's narrative explicitly adopts a situated perspective. Rosario Lebrón challenges neutrality as the proper tone of judicial opinions, as well as the concept that judicial language is somehow disconnected from patriarchy. Rosario Lebrón intentionally excludes a discussion of Brzonkala's race and the race of her alleged attackers, believing that such a discussion detracts from how gender-motivated violence perpetuates both physical and economic dominance over women. Nor does Rosario Lebrón mention that Brzonkala had been drinking prior to the alleged rape, believing that to do so would constitute re-victimization.
Rosario Lebrón's personalization of Brzonkala's story offers more than a strict and legalistic narrative of her “encounter” with Crawford and Morrison.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
Management of threatened and endangered populations of wildlife increasingly relies upon active intervention such as predator control, habitat manipulation, and ex situ breeding or care. One tool that has received consideration for the management of declining or threatened avian populations is headstarting, or the artificial incubation of eggs and subsequent placement of newly hatched chicks in original or foster nests. We assessed the feasibility of implementing a headstarting program for the American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus, a species of high conservation concern in the eastern USA. Annual productivity is often low and lost during incubation, suggesting artificial incubation could enhance annual productivity. We used a control-impact approach to assign nests as either control or headstart and measured daily survival rate, success of parents accepting headstarted chicks, attendance patterns and behaviours of parents, and chick survival. We also implemented a transparent scoring process to rate the success of each step and the overall program. Daily survival rates of nests were significantly higher at headstart compared to control nests, and parents continued to incubate when eggs were well secured at nest sites. Attendance patterns and behaviour did not differ between headstart and control parents, and parents readily accepted healthy chicks whether they were returned to original or foster nests. Chick survival and subsequently annual productivity were, however, not higher at headstart compared to control nests suggesting that although we were able to enhance nest survival, low chick survival was still limiting annual productivity. Ultimately, headstarting may be most appropriate for American Oystercatchers where productivity is lost primarily to flooding, predation, or disturbance during the incubation stage but not during the chick-rearing stage. If, for example, high rates of nest loss are due to predators that also may prey upon chicks, then headstarting may not be an effective conservation tool.
We present the characteristics of far-infrared (FIR) brightness fluctuations at 90 μm and 170 μm in the Lockman Hole, which were surveyed with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), and give constraints on the galaxy number counts down to 30 mJy at 90 μm and 50 mJy at 170 μm. The fluctuation power spectra of the FIR images are not dominated by IR cirrus, and are instead most likely due to star-forming galaxies. This analysis indicates the existence of strong evolution in the counts. Especially at 90 μm, the source density is much larger than that expected from the currently available galaxy count models. The galaxies responsible for the fluctuations also significantly contribute to the cosmic infrared background radiation recently derived from an analysis of the COBE data.