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Considering that work itself and work characteristics have a considerable impact on individuals’ well-being and considering that adults spend more than one-third of their waking hours at work (Burke, 2017), researchers as well as practitioners have sought to identify ways to improve employee well-being through workplace interventions. Well-being is an umbrella concept that has been conceptualized in different ways and encompasses a wide range of dimensions (Burke, 2017). Organizational research has predominantly adopted the hedonic perspective of well-being (Sonnentag, 2015), which focuses on people’s emotional/affective and cognitive evaluations of their lives and concerns what laypeople refer to as happiness and satisfaction (Diener, Oishi, & Lucas, 2003). In this tradition, high subjective well-being is indicated by the experience of positive affective states, the absence of negative affective states, and positive cognitive evaluations of being satisfied with one’s life as a whole or with specific life domains, such as work (Diener et al., 2003; Sonnentag, 2015). Frequently, intervention research focuses on employee experiences that signal a lack of well-being, such as negative emotions, psychological strain, psychosomatic complaints, work–family conflict, or burnout. Increasingly, however, scholars have also been addressing positive aspects of work-related well-being including positive emotions, job satisfaction, work engagement, thriving, or flow (Sonnentag, 2015). The breadth of the overall concept of employee well-being and its underlying dimensions will be reflected in our review of intervention research, which has also used a wide range of well-being-related outcome variables.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the antimicrobial stewardship module in our electronic medical record was reconfigured for the management of COVID-19 patients. This change allowed our subspecialist providers to review charts quickly to optimize potential therapy and management during the patient surge.
To investigate the level of public acceptability of a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax and its associated factors.
Participants completed an online self-administered questionnaire. Acceptability of an SSB tax was measured on a seven-point Likert scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). Associations between acceptability and sociodemographic factors, weight status, SSB consumption and beliefs about effectiveness (e.g., ‘An SSB tax would reduce people’s SSB consumption’), appropriateness, socioeconomic and economic benefit, implementation and trust were assessed using multivariable linear regression analyses.
Dutch adults aged ≥18 years representative of the Dutch population for age, sex, education level and location (n 500).
Of the participants, 40 % supported and 43 % opposed an SSB tax in general. Moreover, 42 % supported (43 % opposed) an SSB tax as a strategy to reduce overweight, and 55 % supported (32 % opposed) an SSB tax if revenue is used for health initiatives. Participants with a low education level (B = –0·82, 95 % CI –1·31, –0·32), overweight (B = –0·49, 95 % CI –0·89, –0·09), moderate or high SSB consumption (B = –0·86, 95 % CI –1·30, –0·43 and B = –1·01, 95 % CI –1·47, –0·56, respectively) and households with adolescents (B = –0·57, 95 % CI –1·09, –0·05) reported a lower acceptability of an SSB tax than their counterparts. Beliefs about effectiveness, appropriateness, socioeconomic and economic benefit, implementation and trust were associated with acceptability (P < 0·001).
Public acceptability of an SSB tax tends to be higher if revenue is used for health initiatives. The factors associated with acceptability should be taken into consideration.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
The Belgian medical world has acknowledged the diagnosis of transsexualism and accepted Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS) as one of the steps in the treatment of choice since 1985. This prevalence and demographic study analyses data on all Belgian individuals who have undergone SRS since that year.
All (188) plastic surgeons as well as all gender teams (Antwerp, Bruges, Ghent, and Liège) in Belgium were sent demographic questionnaires to be completed for each of their transsexual patients.
The results show an overall prevalence of 1:12,900 for male-to-female and 1:33,800 for female-to-male transsexuals in Belgium. In Wallonia (the French-speaking region of Belgium) the prevalence is significantly lower than in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking region) and in Brussels (the bilingual capital region). In the total Belgian population the male/female sex ratio is 2.43:1, again with a substantial difference between Wallonia on the one hand and Flanders on the other.
Discussion and Conclusion
While in Flanders and in Brussels the prevalence is comparable to that in other Western European countries, in Wallonia it is markedly lower. Transsexualism in Wallonia appears to be socially less acceptable: persons suffering from gender dysphoria in that part of Belgium encounter more problems accessing gender clinics and receiving treatment.
This study validated a French language version of an inventory designed to detect symptoms of depression and anxiety [Goldberg et al, 1987] in a sample of elderly French-speaking inpatients at risk for one of these disorders. Latent trait analysis was used to replicate the structure of the symptoms in the inventory, and receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the performance of the inventory as a screening measure for Major Depressive Episode and Generalised Anxiety Disorder according to DSM-IV criteria. Reflecting the ascertainment of individuals in the sample as being at risk for a disorder, prevalence of individual symptoms was high although the general structure of the inventory was found to be comparable to that found in samples of both community elderly and younger medical patients. ROC analyses showed that the subscales of inventory performed satisfactorily as screening measures for anxiety or depression but lacked specificity for each disorder. In addition to providing further evidence for the utility of this inventory to detect general psychiatric distress in elderly persons, this study provides a valid means of detecting symptoms of depression and anxiety in French speaking groups.
Schizotypy is regarded as a subthreshold expression or precursor of schizophrenia spectrum psychosis.
Schizotypal personality disorder is a risk factor of the ‘genetic risk and functional decline’ criterion of the ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria for psychosis; and its positive features are part of attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) of the UHR criteria. Furthermore, schizotypy as assessed with the Wisconsin Scales of Schizophrenia Proneness (WSSP) 'Perceptual Aberration”, 'Magical Ideation”, and 'Social Anhedonia” but not 'Physical Anhedonia” was predictive of psychosis in the community.
Thus, we examined the psychosis-predictive value of the for WSSP in 128 patients seeking help at an early detection service (23+/-7 yrs; 56% male; 81% at-risk for UHR and/or basic symptom criteria) with a median follow-up of 24 (1-101) months by Cox regression.
Within 48 months; 36 patients converted to psychosis. Unexpectedly, none of the four WSSP was a significant predictor of conversion. This negative finding was replicated when the positive (Perceptual Aberration and Magical Ideation) and negative (both Anhedonia scales) dimension were examined. Thus, although schizotypy scales might be able to identify a more extreme range of the psychotic continuum in the community, they lack the ability to further separate ‘true’ from ‘false’ risk cases in a clinical sample already representing this more extreme range of the psychotic continuum.
This indicates that WSSP might be useful rather as an initial screening for persons potentially at-risk for current criteria in the community than as additional predictors in already identified risk patients.
Relatively few studies have assessed the prevalence, correlates, and independent impact on quality of life (QoL) of trichotillomania (TTM) in large samples.
Consecutive participants (N = 7639) were recruited from a cross-sectional web-based study. Sociodemographic data were collected and several validated self-reported mental health measures were completed (Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, Hypomania checklist, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Early Trauma Inventory Self Report–Short Form, and the Symptom Checklist-90–Revised Inventory). Health-related QoL was assessed with the World Health Organization QoL abbreviated scale (WHOQOL-Bref). Multivariable models adjusted associations to potential confounders.
The sample was predominantly composed of young females (71.3%; mean age: 27.2 ± 7.9 years). The prevalence of probable TTM was 1.4% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.2-1.7), and was more common among females. Participants with probable TTM had a greater likelihood of having co-occurring probable depression (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] = 1.744; 95% CI: 1.187-2.560), tobacco (ORadj = 2.250; 95% CI: 1.191-4.250), and alcohol (ORadj = 1.751; 95% CI: 1.169-2.621) use disorders. Probable TTM was also independently associated with suicidal ideation (ORadj = 1.917; 95% CI: 1.224-3.003) and exposure to childhood sexual abuse (ORadj = 1.221; 95% CI: 1.098-1.358). In addition, a positive screen for TTM had more impaired physical and mental QoL.
TTM was associated with a positive screen for several psychiatric comorbidities as well as impaired physical and psychological QoL. Efforts towards the recognition and treatment of TTM across psycho-dermatology services are warranted.
The contribution of mental health to the risk of smoking is increasingly acknowledged but still insufficiently studied during the key period of student life. In particular, the simultaneous action of stress and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms on the risk of smoking remains poorly understood.
To assess the effects of stress and ADHD symptoms on tobacco smoking.
Multivariate modeling was conducted on the French i-Share study (n = 8110, median age 20.3 years, 74.8% females, 32.9% regular/occasional smokers) to evaluate the associations between stress, ADHD symptoms and tobacco smoking, adjusting for potential family/socio-demographic confounders.
Students with high levels of stress were more likely to smoke > 10 cigarettes/day (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12–1.96) than those with low levels of stress. Students with high levels of ADHD symptoms were more likely to smoke > 10 cigarettes/day (aOR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.58–2.75) than those with low levels of ADHD symptoms.
Stress and ADHD contribute independently to the risk of smoking. Interventions targeting each condition are likely to reduce the burden of tobacco use in students.
Radar sounding is a powerful geophysical approach for characterizing the subsurface conditions of terrestrial and planetary ice masses at local to global scales. As a result, a wide array of orbital, airborne, ground-based, and in situ instruments, platforms and data analysis approaches for radioglaciology have been developed, applied or proposed. Terrestrially, airborne radar sounding has been used in glaciology to observe ice thickness, basal topography and englacial layers for five decades. More recently, radar sounding data have also been exploited to estimate the extent and configuration of subglacial water, the geometry of subglacial bedforms and the subglacial and englacial thermal states of ice sheets. Planetary radar sounders have observed, or are planned to observe, the subsurfaces and near-surfaces of Mars, Earth's Moon, comets and the icy moons of Jupiter. In this review paper, and the thematic issue of the Annals of Glaciology on ‘Five decades of radioglaciology’ to which it belongs, we present recent advances in the fields of radar systems, missions, signal processing, data analysis, modeling and scientific interpretation. Our review presents progress in these fields since the last radio-glaciological Annals of Glaciology issue of 2014, the context of their history and future prospects.
Stressful experiences affect biological stress systems, such as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Life stress can potentially alter regulation of the HPA axis and has been associated with poorer physical and mental health. Little, however, is known about the relative influence of stressors that are encountered at different developmental periods on acute stress reactions in adulthood. In this study, we explored three models of the influence of stress exposure on cortisol reactivity to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) by leveraging 37 years of longitudinal data in a high-risk birth cohort (N = 112). The cumulative stress model suggests that accumulated stress across the lifespan leads to dysregulated reactivity, whereas the biological embedding model implicates early childhood as a critical period. The sensitization model assumes that dysregulation should only occur when stress is high in both early childhood and concurrently. All of the models predicted altered reactivity, but do not anticipate its exact form. We found support for both cumulative and biological embedding effects. However, when pitted against each other, early life stress predicted more blunted cortisol responses at age 37 over and above cumulative life stress. Additional analyses revealed that stress exposure in middle childhood also predicted more blunted cortisol reactivity.
The directions of strong winds are important for the distribution of marine salt spray, rock weathering, lake chemistry and the distribution of vegetation in Bunger Hills, a coastal ice-free oasis in East Antarctica. Present-day strong winds (> 10 m s−1) dominantly blow from 118 ± 21 degrees true (°T; ± 1 SD). Orientated tafoni (weathering pits) might form in bedrock surfaces by salt and ice crystallization, thermal stress and saltating sand particles, recording the orientation of a strongly directional wind field since the last deglaciation, which commenced > 30 000 years ago. The orientations of these tafoni, at 101 ± 18°T for 686 measurements at 28 sites, are indistinguishable from the direction of modern-day strong winds (> 10 m s−1), indicating that the orientation of the slope of the ice sheet has been stable throughout the last 10 000 years during the Holocene.
Terrestrial environments at Bunger Hills, East Antarctica, vary from vegetation-rich, little-weathered rock surfaces retaining glacial polish and striations near the glacier and ice-sheet margins to salty, vegetation-poor, extensively weathered regions near to and downwind of marine bays and inlets. Weathering forms include tafoni and orientated pits, which record former wind directions. Although salts are found all over Bunger Hills, the strongly weathered area is coincident with the distribution of halite (NaCl) and thenardite (Na2SO4), both of which are derived from seawater and marine salt spray. Salts elsewhere in Bunger Hills are either subglacial calcium carbonates or rock weathering products including gypsum (CaSO4⋅2H2O) and a range of rarer minerals. These other salt minerals do not weather rocks and sediment. The distribution of halite and thenardite acts as a major control on the geomorphology, sediment geochemistry and biogeography of Bunger Hills.
The types and distributions of anthropogenic rubbish have been documented at Bunger Hills, East Antarctica. The area has been the site of scientific research stations from 1958 to the present. Rubbish types include deliberately or negligently discarded items (gas cylinders, broken glass), abandoned unserviceable equipment (boats, vehicles, scientific equipment), spills (chemicals, fuel, oil) and the slow collapse of old buildings. Some rubbish remained where it was left, while other material was redistributed by strong winds. Modern expeditioner training should limit the production of new rubbish, while inadvertent wind dispersal of rubbish from old station buildings could be minimized by better management of these structures and their surrounds. Buildings and other constructed items need ongoing maintenance if they are not to break down and be distributed by wind, or they should be removed within a reasonable period.
In this paper, we synthesize recorded observations of moss, lichen and bird species in Bunger Hills, East Antarctica, and assess the role of environmental controls, including sediment, salinity, moisture and geology, on species' distributions. The distribution of snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea) appears to be associated with geology; they nest by preference in crevices in bedrock outcrops around the margins of the hills or wherever jointed cliffs are found. South polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) are seen throughout Bunger Hills, where they nest and prey on snow petrels. Mosses and lichens were most abundant around the ice margins where fresh snow and ice meltwater are abundant. In the central area of Bunger Hills, where the highest salt concentration in sediments is found and exposure to abrasion by wind-driven mineral sand grains and ice particles is greatest, mosses and lichens are reduced in abundance and diversity. Exposure of parts of Bunger Hills from the ice sheet throughout the Last Glacial Maximum, c. 20 ka bp, means that some land and lakes could have acted as regional refugia and as a locus of recolonization of other ice-free areas.