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Social perception is a key aspect of social cognition which has so far not been investigated in eating disorders (ED). This study aimed to investigate social perception in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN).
Outpatients with AN (restricting subtype [AN-R]: n = 51; binge-purge subtype [AN-BP]: n = 26) or BN (n = 57) and 50 healthy control (HC) participants completed the Interpersonal Perception Task (IPT-15). This is an ecologically valid task, which consists of 15 video clips, depicting complex social situations relating to intimacy, status, kinship, competition and deception. The participants have to assess relationships between protagonists’ based on non-verbal cues.
Overall, there was no difference between groups on the IPT total score and subscale scores. Group differences on the Intimacy subscale approached significance so post hoc comparisons were carried out. HCs performed significantly better than AN-R participants in determining the degree of intimacy between others.
Social perception is largely preserved in ED patients. Individuals with AN-R show impairments in identifying intimacy in social situations, this may be due to the lack of relationship experience. Further research into different aspects of social cognition is required to establish the link between interpersonal difficulties and ED psychopathology.
The research has shown the interesting contributions of shearing in mid-gestation on the performance of lambs from birth to weaning. Other studies have reported that shearing at early pregnancy influences the development of the placenta and lamb live weight at birth. However, there was a lack of information on the effect of early-prepartum shearing on the behavior of the offspring from weaning onward. This study evaluated the effect of shearing ewes at 50 days of gestation on the growth, reproductive behavior and response to a gastrointestinal parasite challenge in the female offspring from weaning to 18 months old. Fifty-seven Polwarth female lambs were used, 22 being singles and 35 twins born to ewes either shorn at 50 days of pregnancy (PS, n = 23) or shorn at 62 days postpartum (U, control, n = 34) resulting in four subgroups: single lambs born to PS ewes (n = 8), born to U ewes (n = 14), twin lambs born to PS ewes (n = 15) or born to U ewes (n = 20). All progeny were managed together under improved pasture with a minimum forage allowance of 6% live weight on dry basis. Body weight, body condition score and fecal eggs count were recorded every 14 days from weaning to 18 months of age. Concentrations of progesterone were measured weekly (from 4 to 10 months of age and from 14 to 18 months of age) to establish the onset of puberty. Ovulation rate at an induced and a natural heat (545 ± 1.0 and 562 ± 1.0 day old) was recorded. Prepartum shearing did not affect the age at puberty or the ovulation rate of female offspring, but those born as singles were more precocious ( P = 0.03) and heavier ( P = 0.02) at puberty than twin born lambs. Both the average value of parasite egg count ( P = 0.0 7) and the Famacha index ( P = 0.02) for the entire study period were lower in lambs born to prepartum shorn ewes than those born to postpartum shorn ewes. In conclusion, shearing at 50 days of gestation did not affect the growth or the reproductive behavior of female offspring. However, female lambs born from ewe shorn during gestation showed a better response to the parasitic challenge, and further research is required to confirm this.
Solvency II came into force on 1 January 2016 and included a transitional measure on technical provisions (“TMTP”) designed to help smooth in the capital impact of Solvency II over a 16-year period. The working party’s view is that the main intention of the TMTP is to mitigate the impact of the introduction of the risk margin, which significantly increases the technical provisions of firms, relative to their Solvency I Pillar 2 liabilities.
The majority of firms who hold a TMTP have now had at least one recalculation approved by the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA); or are in the process of applying for a recalculation. Despite this large number of approved recalculations, there remains significant uncertainty in the industry around the approach and triggers for recalculation.
This paper considers aspects of TMTP recalculation for regulated UK life firms, for example practicalities of the calculation, asset and liability considerations, and communications/announcements.
In this paper, we outline the need for pragmatism when considering the approach to recalculation of a measure originally intended to serve as the bridge between two regimes. We call for an allowance for doing what is sensible in a principles-based regime balancing what might be more theoretically correct with what is practical and possible to support effective management of the business.
Prior studies have demonstrated that both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are strong independent risk factors for subsequent STI. In observational studies of this biological enhancement (BE) hypothesis, it is important to adjust for the risk of STI exposure so that the independent effect of BE can be assessed. We sought to model if two markers of local sexual network (partner concurrency and cumulative number of STIs) represented residual confounding in the models of risk for subsequent infection in a study that screened 3620 women for STIs every 3 months for a year. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios for an incident diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and BV following a diagnosis of any of these four at the prior visit, controlling for the cumulative number of STIs and partner concurrency variables. We found that partner concurrency and cumulative number of STIs were each associated with incident infection, and in general, controlling for these variables reduced the strength of the association between prior and incident infections. We conclude that the frequently found association between prior and incident STIs is associated with both BE and sexual network structure.
The foetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal weight and nutrition during gestation, which could affect offspring milk production. It has previously been shown that ewes born to dams offered maintenance nutrition during pregnancy (day 21 to 140 of gestation) produced greater milk, lactose and CP yields in their first lactation when compared with ewes born to dams offered ad libitum nutrition. In addition, ewes born to heavier dams produced greater milk and lactose yields when compared with ewes born to lighter dams. The objective of this study was to analyse and compare the 5-year lactation performance of the previously mentioned ewes, born to heavy or light dams that were offered maintenance or ad libitum pregnancy nutrition. Ewes were milked once per week, for the first 6 weeks of their lactation, for 5 years. Using milk yield and composition data, accumulated yields were calculated over a 42-day period for each year for milk, milk fat, CP, true protein, casein and lactose using a Legendre orthogonal polynomial model. Over the 5-year period, ewes born to heavy dams produced greater average milk (P=0.04), lactose (P=0.01) and CP (P=0.04) yields than offspring born to light dams. In contrast, over the 5-year period dam nutrition during pregnancy did not affect average (P>0.05) offspring milk yields or composition, but did increase milk and lactose accumulated yield (P=0.03 and 0.01, respectively) in the first lactation. These results indicate that maternal gestational nutrition appears to only affect the first lactational performance of ewe offspring. Neither dam nutrition nor size affected grand-offspring live weight gain to, or live weight at weaning (P>0.05). Combined these data indicate that under the conditions of the present study, manipulating dam weight or nutrition in pregnancy can have some effects of offspring lactational performance, however, these effects are not large enough to alter grand-offspring growth to weaning. Therefore, such manipulations are not a viable management tool for farmers to influence lamb growth to weaning.
We assessed if there has been a decline in the median number of reported lifetime sexual partners in Kenya following the AIDS epidemic. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the median and interquartile range (IQR) of the number of lifetime sexual partners for men aged 20–54 years in the 1993 and 2008 Kenyan Demographic Health Surveys. The median number of sexual partners in 1993 increased rapidly to 10 partners reported at age 30 years then plateaued at this level. In 2008, the median number of sexual partners plateaued at around half the value of the 1993 plateau. The median number of lifetime sexual partners for men aged 20–54 years declined from 10 (IQR 4-20) in 1993 to 3 (IQR 2-7) in 2008 (P < 0·001). This decline could be due to a combination of the effects of AIDS mortality and a misreporting bias.
Mid-pregnancy shearing has consistently been shown to increase lamb birth weight, which can lead to an increase in lamb survival rates. However, shearing ewes during the winter months and under outdoor pastoral farming conditions can expose the recently shorn ewe to a greater risk of hypothermia. The aim of this study was to determine if exposure of ewes to repeated stressors, in mid- and late pregnancy, would result in an increase in lamb birth weight. This information may assist in the elucidation of the mechanism for the birth weight response to mid-pregnancy shearing, which in turn could assist in the design of management options to increase lamb birth weight without placing the ewe at risk. One hundred and forty-four twin-bearing Romney ewes were allocated to one of six mid-pregnancy treatments: control, isolation on 2 or 10 occasions, sham-shearing on 10 occasions, intramuscular cortisol injection on 10 occasions or shearing. Isolation, sham-shearing and cortisol treatments were conducted twice a week beginning, on average, day 74 of pregnancy and shearing occurred on day 76. During pregnancy, ewe treatment had no effect on ewe live weight. However, average ewe body condition scores were higher in the shorn group than in the sham-shorn or cortisol groups (P < 0.05). Intramuscular injections of cortisol had a greater effect on ewe plasma cortisol concentrations than all other treatments (P < 0.05). Shearing produced a greater plasma cortisol response than isolation × 10 and sham-shearing (P < 0.05). Ewe plasma cortisol responses decreased during the 5 weeks of isolation and sham-shearing but cortisol injections produced a greater response during the fifth treatment than the first or ninth treatments (P < 0.05). Lambs born to shorn ewes were heavier and had a longer crown rump, forelimb and hind limb lengths than all other lambs (P < 0.05). In addition, lambs born to ewes in the cortisol treatment were lighter than lambs born to control, isolation × 2, isolation × 10 and shorn ewes (P < 0.05). The plasma cortisol concentrations observed for ewes injected with cortisol were far greater than those observed in all other groups, which is likely to explain the low birth weights of lambs born to ewes in that group. These results indicate that the mechanism by which mid-pregnancy shearing increases lamb birth weight is unlikely to be repeated stressors.
The current study investigated the effects of dam weight and nutrition during gestation on the reproductive performance of female primiparous offspring at 2 years of age. Four hundred and fifty heavy (H) (mean±s.e.m.: 60·8 kg±0·18) and 450 light (L) (42·5 kg±0·17) dams were randomly allocated to ad libitum (A) or maintenance (M) nutritional regimens from day 21 until day 140 of pregnancy, under pastoral grazing conditions. One week prior to lambing, all dams and their lambs were provided with ad libitum feeding through to weaning. After weaning, female progeny were managed and fed to requirements as one group. At 2 years of age, the oestrous cycles of the female offspring (n=207) were synchronized and the offspring were naturally mated. Ewes were scanned for pregnancy by ultrasound at day 70 of pregnancy. Within 24 h of birth, lambs were weighed and body dimensions were measured. Lambs were also weighed at day 24 (L24) and weaning. No effects of dam nutrition or dam weight were found (P>0·10) on the reproductive performance of the ewe offspring. Lambs of M-grand-dams were heavier at birth (P=0·024) and weaning (P=0·031) than lambs of A-grand-dams. Twin lambs of H-grand-dams were heavier at birth (P=0·014) than twin lambs of L-grand-dams; however, grand-dam weight had no effect (P>0·10) on lamb weaning weight. In summary, dam weight had no effect on reproductive performance of the female offspring, with only a minor effect on the weight of grand-offspring. Thus, being born to a larger dam has no advantages over being born to a smaller dam, in terms of number of lambs born and weight of lambs at birth and weaning. Grand-dam maintenance nutrition had no effect on reproductive performance although it increased lamb birth and weaning weight and lamb growth rates of the grand-offspring. Therefore, this indicates that ewes born to dams fed at maintenance during pregnancy have an advantage over A-ewes in physiological stressful situations including pregnancy or lactation.
The present study investigated the effects of maternal plasma iodine concentration on twin- and triplet-born lamb plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, rectal temperature and maximal heat production. On pregnancy day 68 (P68), 16 twin- and 14 triplet-bearing ewes were randomly chosen from ewes that were injected intramuscularly with 1·5 ml of iodized peanut oil and ewes that were not. Selected ewes were grazed on ad libitum pasture from P68 until parturition. After parturition, lamb blood samples were collected within 5 min of birth and at 3, 12 and 24–36 h after birth. Lamb rectal temperatures were measured within 5 min of birth and at 1, 3 and 12 h after birth. Lamb body weight, crown–rump length and thoracic-girth circumference were recorded at 3 h of age, and the capability of the lamb to produce heat at 24–36 h of age was measured using indirect open-circuit calorimetry. Maternal iodine supplementation successfully increased plasma iodine concentrations of twin- and triplet-bearing ewes throughout pregnancy, but had no effect on the rectal temperature, thyroid hormone concentration and maximal heat production of twin- or triplet-born lambs. Compared with twin-born lambs, triplet-born lambs had lower birth weights, rectal temperatures and plasma T4 and T3 concentrations within 5 min of birth. Overall, under the conditions of the present study, maternal iodine supplementation offered no benefit in improving lamb heat production.
It was hypothesized that exposure of the fetus to adverse conditions in utero due to either maternal constraint or nutrition may result in developmental adaptations altering metabolism and postnatal growth of the offspring. Heavy (H) and light (L) Romney dams (G0) were allocated to ad libitum (A) or maintenance (M) nutritional regimens, from day 21–day 140 of pregnancy. Female twin-born offspring (G1) born to the dams in the four treatment groups will be referred to as HA-ewes, LA-ewes, HM-ewes and LM-ewes. At 16 months of age, offspring were catheterized and given intravenous insulin tolerance test (ITT), glucose tolerance test (GTT) and epinephrine tolerance test challenges to assess their glucose and fat metabolism in relation to their birth weight and postnatal growth. In HA-ewes, the regression coefficients of growth rates prior to puberty on insulin and glucose curves in response to GTT (InsAUCGTT) and ITT (GluAUCITT), respectively, were different from 0 (P < 0.05) and were different from the regression coefficients of HM-ewes. This may indicate that HA-ewes may have showed puberty-related insulin resistance at 16 months of age with increasing growth rates prior to puberty compared to HM- or LM-ewes. In HM-ewes, the regression coefficients of growth rates after puberty on InsAUCGTT and GluAUCITT were different from 0 (P < 0.05) and were different from those of HA-ewes. These results may indicate that offspring born to heavy dams fed maintenance during pregnancy and with greater postnatal growth rates after puberty could develop glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in later life.
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of offering ewes two different feeding levels, during mid and late pregnancy, on ewe and lamb behaviour 12 to 24 h after birth. Romney ewes, bearing twin (n = 80) or triplet foetuses (n = 56), were allocated to a pasture sward height of 2 or 4 cm between 70 and 107 days of pregnancy. In late pregnancy (day 107 to 147), half of the ewes were reallocated the alternate sward height, which produced four treatments: 2-2, 2-4, 4-2 and 4-4. Ewes were weighed on days 65, 92, 107 and 130 of pregnancy and lamb live weights were recorded 12 to 24 h after birth. Twelve to 24 h after birth the maternal behaviour score (MBS) of the ewes were determined, whilst their lambs were tagged. After the lambs were released, the behaviour of each ewe and her lambs was observed for 5 min. Ewe treatment and litter size had no effect on ewe MBS. However, as MBS increased (ewes stayed closer to lambs during tagging), ewes bleated less in a high-pitch and were quicker to make contact with their lamb. During the observation period, ewes in the 4-4 treatment had a greater percentage of their bleats in a low pitch (P < 0.05) than ewes in the 2-2 and 4-2 treatment (61.3% v. 41.3% and 38.8% low bleats, respectively) and more lambs born to 4-4 ewes (95%) bleated than lambs born to 2-2 ewes (84%; P < 0.05). However, lambs born to ewes in the 2-2 treatment bleated earlier than lambs in all other treatments (P < 0.05). Lambs born to 4-4 ewes were less likely (P < 0.05) to move towards their dam in order to make contact than lambs born to 2-2 or 4-2 ewes (3.1% v. 16.9% and 16.7%, respectively). These findings suggest that under the conditions of the present study, ewe nutrition had little effect on maternal behaviour. However, lambs born to ewes offered 2 cm pasture sward heights during mid and/or late pregnancy (2-2, 2-4 and 4-2 treatments) displayed behaviour that demonstrated greater ‘need’ whereas lambs born to ewes offered 4 cm during mid and late pregnancy sought less attention from their dam.
The current study investigated the effect of offering concentrate supplement to ewes in late pregnancy on twin- and triplet-born lamb heat production at 24–36 h old and performance from birth until lactation day 94 (L94). Twin- (n=40) and triplet-bearing (n=28) ewes were grazed on a 60 mm sward height from day 70 of pregnancy (P70) until L94. From P100, half of the ewes from each litter size were offered 400 g/ewe/day of concentrate sheep pellets. Ewe liveweight and body condition were recorded on P50, 100, 130, 135 and 140. Ewe blood samples were also collected on P130, 135 and 140, and ewe herbage intake was estimated from P133–136 using the n-alkane method. Lamb measurements included liveweight and body size at birth, production of heat using indirect open-circuit calorimetry at 24–36 h old and liveweight at L94. Blood samples were also collected from lambs at 24–36 h old and directly before and after calorimetry measurements. While estimates of ewe herbage intake suggested that substitution of herbage for concentrate did not occur, offering concentrate supplement failed to improve ewe liveweight gain, or birth weight of lambs. Offering concentrate supplement, however, did have a positive effect (P<0·05) on the maximal amount of heat a triplet-born lamb can produce on a per kg of body weight basis (concentrate 21±1·3 W/kg, non-concentrate 17±0·6 W/kg). It also had a positive effect (P<0·05) on lamb square-root-transformed plasma gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations, an indicator of colostrum uptake (concentrate 46±3·1 U/l, non-concentrate 38±2·9 U/l). Irrespective of lamb birth rank, offering concentrate supplement had a positive effect (P<0·01) on liveweight gain per day from birth until L94 (concentrate 261±5·7 g/day, non-concentrate 239±5·8 g/day), although there was no effect on the total weight of lamb reared/ewe. Supplementation with concentrate resulted in triplet-born lambs that produced more heat which may have positive effects on the ability of the newborn lamb to deal with cold stress and potentially its survival. Offering concentrate supplement also produced greater lamb growth in twin- and triplet-born lambs.
The aerodynamics and acoustics of a generic coaxial helicopter with a stiff main rotor system and a tail-mounted propulsor are investigated using Brown’s Vorticity Transport Model. In particular, the model is used to capture the aerodynamic interactions that arise between the various components of the configuration. By comparing the aerodynamics of the full configuration of the helicopter to the aerodynamics of various combinations of its sub-components, the influence of these aerodynamic interactions on the behaviour of the system can be isolated. Many of the interactions follow a simple relationship between cause and effect. For instance, ingestion of the main rotor wake produces a direct effect on the unsteadiness in the thrust produced by the propulsor. The causal relationship for other interdependencies within the system is found to be more obscure. For instance, a dependence of the acoustic signature of the aircraft on the tailplane design originates in the changes in loading on the main rotor that arise from the requirement to trim the load on the tailplane that is induced by its interaction with the main rotor wake. The traditional approach to the analysis of interactional effects on the performance of the helicopter relies on characterising the system in terms of a network of possible interactions between the separate components of its configuration. This approach, although conceptually appealing, may obscure the closed-loop nature of some of the aerodynamic interactions within the helicopter system. It is suggested that modern numerical simulation techniques may be ready to supplant any overt reliance on this reductionist type approach and hence may help to forestall future repetition of the long history of unforeseen, interaction-induced dynamic problems that have arisen in various new helicopter designs.
To demonstrate the use of an optical surface scanner, with associated software, in the assessment of rhinoplasty patients, and to discuss the possible clinical applications of this technology in the future.
Case study analysis of pre- and post-operative scans of a patient undergoing septorhinoplasty at Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, UK.
A 21-year-old man undergoing septorhinoplasty underwent pre-operative optical surface scanning of his face. The scans were repeated at one week and one year post-operatively. Software developed at University College London was then used to analyse the scans.
The scans clearly showed that the man's dorsal hump had been well reduced and the nose straightened, with a resulting 1600 mm3 gain on the right side and a 1000 mm3 loss on the left side of the nose. Tip projection had also been achieved.
This technique allowed objective quantification of facial features and analysis of change. It may well prove useful in the future in predicting change following surgical intervention.
To establish the prevalence of new vestibular and otological symptoms in a group of patients who had sustained a low grade (Quebec grades one or two) whiplash injury.
A retrospective review of the case records of 109 patients undergoing assessment by a single practitioner for the purposes of compiling a medicolegal report on their whiplash injury.
Four patients complained of short-lived, non-specific dizziness symptoms in the acute phase following their original injury. There were no reports of vertigo, tinnitus or hearing loss after a mean period of 149 days following the whiplash injury.
No patients reported otological or persistent vestibular symptoms in the acute phase following their whiplash injury. This suggests that caution should be exercised when attributing these symptoms to such an injury. Before whiplash injuries are admitted as an aetiological factor in the development of such symptoms, other causes should be excluded.
The Gattini-DomeC project, part of the IRAIT site testing campaign and ongoing since January 2006, consists of two cameras for the measurement of optical sky brightness, large area cloud cover, and auroral detection above the DomeC site, home of the French-Italian Concordia station. The cameras are transit in nature and are virtually identical except for the nature of the lenses. The cameras have operated throughout the past two Antarctic winter seasons and here we present the results obtained from the 2006 winter-time dataset of the wide field “All-sky camera".
The Gattini cameras are two site testing instruments for the measurement of optical sky brightness, large area cloud cover and auroral detection of the night sky above the high altitude Dome C site in Antarctica. The cameras have been operating since installation in January 2006 and are currently at the end of the first Antarctic winter season. The cameras are transit in nature and are virtually identical, both adopting Apogee Alta CCD detectors. By taking frequent images of the night sky we obtain long term cloud cover statistics, measure the sky background intensity as a function of solar and lunar altitude and phase and directly measure the spatial extent of bright aurora if present and when they occur. The full data set will return in December 2006 however a limited amount of data has been transferred via the Iridium network enabling preliminary data reduction and system evaluation. An update of the project is presented together with preliminary results from data taken since commencement of the winter season.