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Additive Manufacturing (AM) offers the potential to increase the ability to customise large-scale plastic components. However, a substantial amount of manual work is still required during the customisation process, both in design and manufacturing.
This paper looks into how the additive manufacturing of mass customised large-scale products can be supported. Data was collected through interaction with industrial partners and potential customers in a case study regarding the customisation of kayaks.
As a result, the paper proposes a model-based methodology which combines design automation with a user interface.
The results point to the benefit of the proposed methodology in terms of design efficiency, as well as in terms of displaying results to the end user in an understandable format.
In 1994, the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program was initiated with funding from a special USDA grant. The 15-yr program provided $4.1 million to support jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.) research and technology transfer projects in 10 western states. These projects resulted in approximately 80 refereed manuscripts, including journal articles and extension publications. The research covered various topics related to the biology and ecology of jointed goatgrass as well as its management and control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production systems. This review summarizes the research on jointed goatgrass published after Donald and Ogg’s 1991 review, most of which was conducted as part of the USDA-funded National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program. Specific topics that were studied and reviewed here include A. cylindrica genetics, especially as it relates to gene flow and hybridization rates with wheat and fertility of the resulting hybrids; vernalization requirements; seed dormancy, longevity, and germination requirements; competitiveness with wheat; and herbicide resistance acquired through evolution or gene flow from wheat. With respect to management, a wide variety of practices were evaluated, including various tillage types and frequencies; crop rotations, especially diversified wheat production systems that include spring-seeded annual crops; competitive wheat cultivars, seeding dates, seeding density, and row spacing; fertility management, including nitrogen application timing and placement; and field burning. Finally, many studies evaluated the use of herbicides, especially the introduction of imazamox in imidazolinone-resistant wheat cultivars, as well as comparison of adjuvant systems and application timings. In addition to the many management practices that were studied individually, several integrated management systems were evaluated that combined crop rotations, tillage, and herbicide programs. Between 1993 and 2013, weed scientists in 14 western states estimated that jointed goatgrass infestations decreased by 45% to 55% and attributed the reduction to the implementation of more diverse crop rotations, improved cultural practices, and use of imazamox-resistant wheat technology. This is evidence that the practical implications of the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program have been successfully implemented by growers throughout the western United States.
The diagnosis and control of Mycobacterium bovis infection (bovine tuberculosis: TB) continues to present huge challenges to the British cattle industry. A clearer understanding of the magnitude and duration of immune response to M. bovis infection in the European badger (Meles meles) – a wildlife maintenance host – may assist with the future development of diagnostic tests, and vaccination and disease management strategies. Here, we analyse 5280 diagnostic test results from 550 live wild badgers from a naturally-infected population to investigate whether one diagnostic test (a gamma interferon release [IFNγ] assay, n = 550 tests) could be used to predict future positive results on two other tests for the same disease (a serological test [n = 2342 tests] and mycobacterial culture [n = 2388 tests]) and hence act as an indicator of likely bacterial excretion or disease progression. Badgers with the highest IFNγ optical density (OD) values were most likely to subsequently test positive on both serological and culture tests, and this effect was detectable for up to 24 months after the IFNγ test. Furthermore, the higher the original IFNγ OD value, the greater the chance that a badger would subsequently test positive using serology. Relationships between IFNγ titres and mycobacterial culture results from different types of clinical sample suggest that the route of infection may affect the magnitude of immune response in badgers. These findings identify further value in the IFNγ test as a useful research tool, as it may help us to target studies at animals and groups that are most likely to succumb to more progressive disease.
Radar data (center frequency 150 MHz) collected on the Antarctic plateau near the EPICA deep-drilling site in Dronning Maud Land vary systematically in backscattered power, depending on the azimuth antenna orientation. Backscatter extrema are aligned with the principal directions of surface strain rates and change with depth. In the upper 900m, backscatter is strongest when the antenna polarization is aligned in the direction of maximal compression, while below 900 m the maxima shift by 90° pointing towards the lateral flow dilatation. We investigate the backscatter from elongated air bubbles and a vertically varying crystal-orientation fabric (COF) using different scattering models in combination with ice-core data. We hypothesize that short-scale variations in COF are the primary mechanism for the observed anisotropy, and the 900 m boundary between the two regimes is caused by ice with varying impurity content. Observations of this kind allow the deduction of COF variations with depth and are potentially also suited to map the transition between Holocene and glacial ice.
Ice rises play key roles in buttressing the neighbouring ice shelves and potentially provide palaeoclimate proxies from ice cores drilled near their divides. Little is known, however, about their influence on local climate and surface mass balance (SMB). Here we combine 12 years (2001–12) of regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2) output at high horizontal resolution (5.5 km) with recent observations from weather stations, ground-penetrating radar and firn cores in coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, to describe climate and SMB variations around ice rises. We demonstrate strong spatial variability of climate and SMB in the vicinity of ice rises, in contrast to flat ice shelves, where they are relatively homogeneous. Despite their higher elevation, ice rises are characterized by higher winter temperatures compared with the flat ice shelf. Ice rises strongly influence SMB patterns, mainly through orographic uplift of moist air on the upwind slopes. Besides precipitation, drifting snow contributes significantly to the ice-rise SMB. The findings reported here may aid in selecting a representative location for ice coring on ice rises, and allow better constraint of local ice-rise as well as regional ice-shelf mass balance.
Deception research has recently begun to examine its occurrence within parent-child relationships. The use and consequence of parental deception on the parent-child relationship remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of parental lies on the parent-child relationship. Questionnaires were provided to 276 participants that asked them to indicate their satisfaction with their parents, what kinds of lies parents have told, the seriousness of the lies, and how the lies affected their relationship. Findings revealed a negative correlation between parental deception and satisfaction, and parents were rated most likely to use white lies than any other types. The implications of the use of deception within parent-child relationships are discussed.
Detailed studies of the last 20 km of the flow-line leading to the core hole at Dye 3 Greenland, provide a description of ice flow over and around basal hills. The surface pattern is very simple. Velocity vectors are nearly parallel to one another and the largest variations in velocity are speed changes along the direction of flow. The surface elevation is stepped and the speed is faster than average where the surface slope is steepest. These positions correspond to basal highs, and the surface velocity increases as expected, based on the decrease in ice thickness, which indicates that most of the ice thickness must vary in velocity as does surface ice. Further support for this comes from the form of an internal radio-reflecting layer, which, in general, has the same shape as the bed but with much reduced relief. The damping of the relief is the same both along and across the flowline, suggesting that lateral velocity fluctuations are not important and that flow around and between obstacles is not well developed at the surface or at depth. At two sites, however, the internal layer does not match the bed and at one of these there must be important third-dimensional flow at depth.
Puumala virus (PUUV) causes many human infections in large parts of Europe and can lead to mild to moderate disease. The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the only reservoir of PUUV in Central Europe. A commercial PUUV rapid field test for rodents was validated for bank-vole blood samples collected in two PUUV-endemic regions in Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg). A comparison of the results of the rapid field test and standard ELISAs indicated a test efficacy of 93–95%, largely independent of the origin of the antigens used in the ELISA. In ELISAs, reactivity for the German PUUV strain was higher compared to the Swedish strain but not compared to the Finnish strain, which was used for the rapid field test. In conclusion, the use of the rapid field test can facilitate short-term estimation of PUUV seroprevalence in bank-vole populations in Germany and can aid in assessing human PUUV infection risk.
HST UV observations of V795 Her reveal a strong 2.6-h orbital variation in the prominent UV lines, in contrast to earlier (IUE) evidence of a 4.8-h period. Only the C IV line contains a strong blue-shifted, wind formed absorption component. Several lines exhibit a ‘narrow’ absorption feature near rest velocity which may originate in the disk, and a blue-shifted emission feature which accounts for most of the line profile variability.
Windrow burning is one of several harvest weed seed control strategies that have been developed and evaluated in Australia to address the widespread evolution of multiple herbicide resistance in annual weeds. Herbicide-resistant Italian ryegrass populations are common in the Palouse region of eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of burning standing stubble and narrow windrows on the survival of Italian ryegrass seed on the soil surface and to determine the amount of crop residue remaining after both practices. Italian ryegrass emergence was 63, 48, and 1% for the nonburned check, burned standing stubble, and burned windrow treatments, respectively. Crop-residue dry weights were 9.94, 5.69, and 5.79 Mg ha−1 for these same treatments. Windrow burning can be an effective tactic in an integrated weed management strategy for Italian ryegrass control in the Palouse region of eastern Washington and northern Idaho.
Accurate detection of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in live badgers would enable targeted tuberculosis control. Practical challenges in sampling wild badger populations mean that diagnosis of infection at the group (rather than the individual) level is attractive. We modelled data spanning 7 years containing over 2000 sampling events from a population of wild badgers in southwest England to quantify the ability to correctly identify the infection status of badgers at the group level. We explored the effects of variations in: (1) trapping efficiency; (2) prevalence of M. bovis; (3) using three diagnostic tests singly and in combination with one another; and (4) the number of badgers required to test positive in order to classify groups as infected. No single test was able to reliably identify infected badger groups if <90% of the animals were sampled (given an infection prevalence of 20% and group size of 15 badgers). However, the parallel use of two tests enabled an infected group to be correctly identified when only 50% of the animals were tested and a threshold of two positive badgers was used. Levels of trapping efficiency observed in previous field studies appear to be sufficient to usefully employ a combination of two existing diagnostic tests, or others of similar or greater accuracy, to identify infected badger groups without the need to capture all individuals. To improve on this, we suggest that any new diagnostic test for badgers would ideally need to be >80% sensitive, at least 94% specific, and able to be performed rapidly in the field.
Revising Clouds for publication some five years after its third-place showing in the City Dionysia of 423 b.c., Aristophanes retooled the first parabasis (lines 510–626) to praise the play's propriety, omitting as it did distasteful matter and gratuitous buffoonery, which—along with the judges’ crassness—accounted, he says, for its failure.
The addition of a CdMgTe (CMT) layer at the back of a CdTe solar cell should improve its performance by reflecting both photoelectrons and forward-current electrons away from the rear surface. Higher collection of photoelectrons will increase the cell’s current, and reduction of forward current will increase its voltage. To achieve electron reflection, conformal CMT layers were deposited at the back of CdTe cells, and a variety of measurements including performance curves, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were performed. Oxidation of magnesium in the CMT layer was addressed by adding a CdTe capping layer. MgCl2 passivation was substituted for CdCl2 in some cases, but little difference was seen.
Adherence engineering applies human factors principles to examine non-adherence within a specific task and to guide the development of materials or equipment to increase protocol adherence and reduce human error. Central line maintenance (CLM) for intensive care unit (ICU) patients is a task through which error or non-adherence to protocols can cause central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). We conducted an economic analysis of an adherence engineering CLM kit designed to improve the CLM task and reduce the risk of CLABSI.
We constructed a Markov model to compare the cost-effectiveness of the CLM kit, which contains each of the 27 items necessary for performing the CLM procedure, compared with the standard care procedure for CLM, in which each item for dressing maintenance is gathered separately. We estimated the model using the cost of CLABSI overall ($45,685) as well as the excess LOS (6.9 excess ICU days, 3.5 excess general ward days).
Assuming the CLM kit reduces the risk of CLABSI by 100% and 50%, this strategy was less costly (cost savings between $306 and $860) and more effective (between 0.05 and 0.13 more quality-adjusted life-years) compared with not using the pre-packaged kit. We identified threshold values for the effectiveness of the kit in reducing CLABSI for which the kit strategy was no longer less costly.
An adherence engineering–based intervention to streamline the CLM process can improve patient outcomes and lower costs. Patient safety can be improved by adopting new approaches that are based on human factors principles.
To better understand tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) in healthcare facilities (HCFs) in Georgia.
A cross-sectional evaluation of healthcare worker (HCW) knowledge, beliefs and behaviors toward TB IC measures including latent TB infection (LTBI) screening and treatment of HCWs.
Georgia, a high-burden multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) country.
HCWs from the National TB Program and affiliated HCFs.
An anonymous self-administered 55-question survey developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) conceptual framework.
In total, 240 HCWs (48% physicians; 39% nurses) completed the survey. The overall average TB knowledge score was 61%. Only 60% of HCWs reported frequent use of respirators when in contact with TB patients. Only 52% of HCWs were willing to undergo annual LTBI screening; 48% were willing to undergo LTBI treatment. In multivariate analysis, HCWs who worried about acquiring MDR-TB infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–2.25), who thought screening contacts of TB cases is important (aOR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.35–8.65), and who were physicians (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.08–2.60) were more likely to accept annual LTBI screening. With regard to LTBI treatment, HCWs who worked in an outpatient TB facility (aOR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.11–0.58) or perceived a high personal risk of TB reinfection (aOR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.37–0.64) were less likely to accept LTBI treatment.
The concern about TB reinfection is a major barrier to HCW acceptance of LTBI treatment. TB IC measures must be strengthened in parallel with or prior to the introduction of LTBI screening and treatment of HCWs.
In August 2012, an explosive outbreak of severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-8 occurred in a highly vaccinated elderly institutionalized population in England. Fifteen of 23 residents developed LRTI over 4 days (attack rate 65%); 11 had confirmed S. pneumoniae serotype-8 disease, and two died. Following amoxicillin chemoprophylaxis and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) re-vaccination no further cases occurred in the following 2 months. No association was found between being an outbreak-associated case and age (P = 0·36), underlying comorbidities [relative risk (RR) 0·84 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·34–2·09], or prior receipt of PPV (RR 1·4, 95% CI 0·60–3·33). However, the median number of years since PPV was significantly higher for cases (n = 15, 10·2 years, range 7·3–17·9 years) than non-cases (n = 8, 7·2 years, range 6·8–12·8 years) (P = 0·045), provided evidence of waning immunity. Alternative vaccination strategies should be considered to prevent future S. pneumoniae outbreaks in institutionalized elderly populations.
AlN thin films were deposited at various substrate temperatures via Plasma Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The films were grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates. Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy showed a dramatic change in the surface morphology of the film grown at 640°C. This is attributed to a change in the growth mechanism from pseudomorphic at lower temperatures to three-dimensional at higher than 640°C temperatures. Photoreflectance measurements showed an absorption shift toward 200 nm as the deposition temperature increases which is attributed to the change in the growth mechanism at higher temperatures. X-Ray Diffraction was unable to conclusively determine the AlN (0002) peak due to a significant diffuse intensity from the SiC (0002) peak. A MIS structure was created by depositing Pt contacts on the film grown at 500°C. I-V measurements showed that the Pt/AlN contact is Schottky.
There is increasing demand for the implementation of effects-based monitoring and surveillance (EBMS) approaches in the Great Lakes Basin to complement traditional chemical monitoring. Herein, we describe an ongoing multiagency effort to develop and implement EBMS tools, particularly with regard to monitoring potentially toxic chemicals and assessing Areas of Concern (AOCs), as envisioned by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). Our strategy includes use of both targeted and open-ended/discovery techniques, as appropriate to the amount of information available, to guide a priori end point and/or assay selection. Specifically, a combination of in vivo and in vitro tools is employed by using both wild and caged fish (in vivo), and a variety of receptor- and cell-based assays (in vitro). We employ a work flow that progressively emphasizes in vitro tools for long-term or high-intensity monitoring because of their greater practicality (e.g., lower cost, labor) and relying on in vivo assays for initial surveillance and verification. Our strategy takes advantage of the strengths of a diversity of tools, balancing the depth, breadth, and specificity of information they provide against their costs, transferability, and practicality. Finally, a series of illustrative scenarios is examined that align EBMS options with management goals to illustrate the adaptability and scaling of EBMS approaches and how they can be used in management decisions.
The mainstay of treatment for late-life depression is antidepressant medication, although recently there have been some psychotherapies that have been developed specifically for the older patient, e.g. problem solving therapy, that have proved effective. Although tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are used much less frequently in younger patients, they still have a very important role in the treatment of late-life depression. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most prescribed class of antidepressants for late-life depression. Given the number of patients with late-life depression who do not respond to a trial of an antidepressant there is considerable opportunity to study augmentation strategies. This chapter discusses dysthymic disorder and sub-syndromal depressive disorder, which is a heterogenous group of milder forms of depression. In patients with depression and cognitive impairment, there is a need to understand pathophysiology, determine early prognostic indicators, and develop optimal treatment strategies.