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The mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed on peacekeeping
missions have been relatively neglected in the military mental health
To assess the mental health impacts of peacekeeping deployments.
In total, 1025 Australian peacekeepers were assessed for current and
lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, service history and exposure to
potentially traumatic events (PTEs). A matched Australian community
sample was used as a comparator. Univariate and regression analyses were
conducted to explore predictors of psychiatric diagnosis.
Peacekeepers had significantly higher 12-month prevalence of
post-traumatic stress disorder (16.8%), major depressive episode (7%),
generalised anxiety disorder (4.7%), alcohol misuse (12%), alcohol
dependence (11.3%) and suicidal ideation (10.7%) when compared with the
civilian comparator. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was most
strongly and consistently associated with exposure to PTEs.
Veteran peacekeepers had significant levels of psychiatric morbidity.
Their needs, alongside those of combat veterans, should be recognised
within military mental health initiatives.
In this work we explore the radiocarbon (14C) signal as an independent tool to assess the year of formation of individual tree rings of tropical species in northern Brazil. Three different species were analyzed in this work: Dipteryx magnifica, Enterolobium maximum, and Hymenolobium petraeum. The studied samples are from the stem of only one individual of each species, all cut down in 2008 in Porto Trombetas, Pará, Brazil. Individual tree rings were identified based on wood anatomy and they were counted from bark to pith. Several rings were selected for 14C analysis in order to cover the overall shape of the 14C atmospheric bomb peak (after 1955). The 14C content was measured at Laboratory of Radiocarbon, Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF). Results are compared with the Southern Hemisphere 14C atmospheric calibration curves. For E. maximum and H. petraeum the 14C signal exhibits an overall good match with the SH zone 3 and suggests annual seasonality in the growth-ring formation. These species offer suitable characteristics for dendrochronology. The D. magnifica shows mismatches in the 14C measurements that are likely a result of difficulties in identifying ring boundaries with certainty. Additional techniques may be helpful to disentangle the origin of this discrepancy.
Rotational grazing (RG) is a livestock management practice that rotates grazing cattle on a scale of hours to days among small pastures termed paddocks. It may beneficially affect stream channels, relative to other livestock management practices. Such effects and other beneficial effects on hydrology are important to RG's potential to provide a highly multifunctional mode of livestock farming. Previous comparisons of effects of RG and confinement dairy (CD) on adjoining streams have been restricted in scale and scope. We examined 11 stream-channel characteristics on a representative sample of 37 small dairy farms that used either RG or CD production methods. Our objectives were: (1) to compare channel characteristics on RG and CD farms, as these production methods are implemented in practice, in New York, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, USA; and (2) to examine land use on these farms that may affect stream-channel characteristics. To help interpret channel characteristic findings, we examined on-farm land use in riparian areas 50 m in width along both sides of stream reaches and whole-farm land use. In all states, stream-channel characteristics on RG and CD farms did not differ. Whole-farm land use differed significantly between farm types; CD farms allocated more land to annual row crops, whereas RG farms allocated more land to pasture and grassland. However, land cover in 50 m riparian areas was not different between farm types within states; in particular, many RG and CD farms had continuously grazed pastures in riparian areas, typically occupied by juvenile and non-lactating cows, which may have contributed sediment and nutrients to streams. This similarity in riparian management practices may explain the observed similarity of farm types with respect to stream-channel characteristics. To realize the potential benefits of RG on streams, best management practices that affect stream-channel characteristics, such as protection of riparian areas, may improve aggregate effects of RG on stream quality and also enhance other environment, economic and social benefits of RG.
Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity are important for piglet survival. Insulin-stimulating sow diets before mating may improve subsequent piglet birth weights and litter uniformity, but the physiological mechanisms involved are not clear. This study evaluated effects of different levels of insulin-stimulating feed components (dextrose plus starch; fed twice daily) during the weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) on plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations, and on follicle development and subsequent luteal, fetal and placental development and uniformity at days 42 to 43 of pregnancy. During WEI, multiparous sows were isocalorically fed diets supplemented with 375 g/day dextrose plus 375 g/day corn starch (INS-H), with 172 g/day dextrose plus 172 g/day corn starch and 144 g/day animal fat (INS-L), or with 263 g/day animal fat (CON). Jugular vein catheters were inserted through the ear vein at 1.5 days before weaning to asses plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations. After estrus, all sows received a standard gestation diet until slaughter at days 42 to 43 of pregnancy. The dextrose plus starch-diets enhanced the postprandial insulin response in a dose-dependent manner (e.g. at day 2 insulin area under the curve was 4516 μU/444 min for CON, 8197 μU/444 min for INS-L and 10 894 μU/444 min for INS-H; s.e.m. = 694; P < 0.001), but did not affect plasma IGF-1 concentrations during the first 3 days of WEI. Follicle development and subsequent luteal, fetal and placental development and uniformity were not affected by the dietary treatments, nor related to plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations during WEI. Pre-weaning plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were negatively related to sow body condition loss during lactation, but were not related to subsequent reproduction characteristics. This study shows that dietary dextrose plus starch are effective in stimulating insulin secretion (both postprandial peak and long-term concentration), but not IGF-1 secretion during the first 3 days after weaning in multiparous sows. The extreme insulin-stimulating diets during WEI did, however, not improve follicle development, or subsequent development and uniformity of fetuses and placentas in these high-prolific sows (27.0 ± 0.6 ovulations; 18.6 ± 0.6 vital fetuses).
Spectra from 1 to 2·5 μm, at 230–430 spectral resolution, are presented of the fluorescent molecular hydrogen line emission from two locations in the reflection nebula NGC 2023. Over 100 H2 lines can be identified in the spectra, although blending and poor atmospheric transmission mean that reliable level column densities can only be obtained from 35 lines. This latter group includes lines from v = 1–8 and v = 10, spanning an energy range from 6000 to 45,000 K above the ground state. These data may be used to constrain models of photodissociation regions and of fluorescent excitation for molecular hydrogen.
The development of lower-glycaemic index (GI) foods requires simple, palatable and healthy strategies. The objective of the present study was to determine the most effective dose of a novel viscous fibre supplement (PGX®) to be added to starchy foods to reduce their GI. Healthy subjects (n 10) consumed glucose sugar (50 g in water × 3) and six starchy foods with a range of GI values (52–72) along with 0 (inert fibre), 2·5 or 5 g granular PGX® dissolved in 250 ml water. GI testing according to ISO Standard 26 642-2010 was used to determine the reduction in GI. PGX® significantly reduced the GI of all six foods (P < 0·001), with an average reduction of 19 % for the 2·5 g dose and 30 % for the 5 g dose, equivalent to a reducing the GI by 7 and 15 units, respectively. Consuming small quantities of the novel functional fibre PGX®, mixed with water at the start of a meal, is an effective strategy to reduce the GI of common foods.
The course of experimental infection in groups of 6-month-old castrated lambs with field isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae from France was followed culturally and serologically for 7 months. Infection with an ovine field isolate following inoculation by different routes and contact exposure was compared with that caused similarly by a caprine field isolate. The prolonged infections produced were symptomless apart from limited arthritis in one animal inoculated with the isolate from sheep and increased lachrymation in another associated with the goat isolate. The ovine isolate was more virulent in that ante- and post-mortem recoveries of the organism were more consistent and the serological responses more pronounced. Serological responses varied between animals and between strain infections, and the results of the film inhibition test were more consistent than those of the complement fixation test. The limitations of both these tests for detecting carrier infections are discussed.
When egg storage periods are prolonged (>7 days), hatchability and chick quality declines. The reason for this decline has been investigated, but is still not completely understood. At oviposition the developmental stage of the chicken embryo varies and so do the total number of viable cells. During storage, changes can occur in the embryo. Embryo viability at the end of storage seems to be dependent on the number of viable cells and the developmental stage of the embryo at oviposition. When the hypoblast is completely formed (during the quiescent developmental stage), the embryo seems to be more able to endure prolonged storage periods than embryos that are less or more advanced. During storage, changes also occur in egg characteristics such as albumen viscosity, albumen pH and yolk pH. There appears to be an interaction between albumen pH and embryo viability during early incubation and perhaps also during storage. An albumen pH of 8.2 seems to be optimal for embryo development. Albumen pH may influence embryo viability, but embryo viability may in turn, affect albumen pH. It has been hypothesised that an embryo in which the hypoblast is completely formed is better able to provide an effective barrier between the internal embryo and the exterior (yolk and albumen) and/or is better able to produce sufficient amount of carbon dioxide, which will reduce the pH level in the micro environment of the embryo to the optimal pH of 8.2. It appears that, to maintain hatchability and chick quality after prolonged storage periods, embryonic development should be advanced to the stage in which the hypoblast is completely formed or the atmosphere during storage and early incubation should be altered in such a way that albumen pH is maintained at the optimal level of 8.2.
Hatchling length and weight are used as tools to measure hatchling quality. However, the relationship between these parameters and later performance are not well known. This review evaluates the relationship between hatchling length or weight and slaughter weight, breast meat yield and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in both male and female broilers.
Datasets from two trials were compared. In the first, hatchling length and weight of 100 male and 100 female broilers were measured and body weight and breast meat yield were determined at 38 days of age. In experiment 2, hatchling length of 187 female and 230 male broilers was measured and body weight was determined at 21 and 42 days of age. Feed intake was determined between 21 and 42 days of age.
In both experiments, male broilers showed a positive relationship between hatchling length and slaughter weight or breast meat yield, but no relationship was found with hatchling weight. The relationship between hatchling length and performance in female broilers differed between the two experiments. In female broilers, a negative relationship between hatchling weight and breast meat yield was found. No relationship between hatchling length and FCR in both male and female broilers was found. From this limited dataset, it can be concluded that hatchling length seems to be a better parameter to predict subsequent chick performance, excluding FCR, than hatchling weight, but gender needs to be taken into account.
The Selborne Group comprises two metamorphic rock units, the muscovite±dolomite bearing Madison Marble and the biotite-muscovite±quartz-calcite Contortion Schist, which contains thick lenses of variably deformed metabasalts and metaconglomerates. Petrological and structural data indicate a polyphase metamorphic evolution including: i) an early stage of upper greenschist regional metamorphism (P = ~0.15–0.3 GPa; T = ~380–450°C), ii) prograde metamorphism during D1 up to amphibolite facies peak conditions (P = 0.58–0.8 GPa, T = ~560–645°C), iii) syn-D2 unloading-cooling retrograde metamorphism, iv) a post-D2 contact metamorphic overprint at variable T between 450 and 550°C and ~0.2 GPa connected to the emplacement of granitic plutons and felsic dyke swarms. Geochronological data constrain the polyphase syn-D1/D2 evolution between ~ 510 and 492 Ma. A similar metamorphic path, including a medium P stage but at lower T conditions, is documented in greenschist facies metabasalts within the Byrd Group in the Mount Dick area. The metamorphic pattern and close lithostratigraphic matching between Selborne Group and Byrd Group sharply contrast with the high-grade Horney Formation that is exposed north of the Byrd Glacier and corroborate the hypothesis that the Byrd Glacier discontinuity marks a first-order crustal tectonic boundary crossing the Ross orogen.
The Arcetri/Bologna H2O maser group has been monitoring the 1.3-cm water maser emission from a sample of 43 star-forming regions (SFRs) and 22 late-type stars for about 20 years at a sampling rate of 4-5 observations each year, using the 32-m Medicina Radio Telescope (HPBW 1.′9 at 22 GHz). For the late-type stars we observe representative samples of OH/IR-stars, Mira's, semi-regular variables, and supergiants. The SFR-sample spans a large interval in FIR luminosity of the associated Young Stellar Object (YSO), from 20 L⊙ to 1.5 × 106 L⊙, and offers a unique data base for the study of the long-term (years) variability of the maser emission in regions of star formation.
This presentation concerns only the masers in SFRs. The information obtained from single-dish monitoring is complementary to what is extracted from higher-resolution (VLA and VLBI) observations, and can better explore the velocity domain and the long-term variability therein.
We characterize the variability of the sources in various ways and we study how it depends on the luminosity and other properties of the associated YSO and its environment.
Bright Rimmed Clouds (BRCs) are clouds that have been compressed by an external ionization-shock front which focuses the neutral gas into compact globules. The boundary layer between the neutral gas and the gas ionized by the incident photons is often called “bright rim” but the clumps are sometimes classified also as speck globules or cometary globules depending on their appearance. Small globules with bright rims have been considered to be potential sites of star formation and have been studied in several individual regions. We present the first high resolution VLA observations of 20 of these BRCs, but only three detections were obtained. The low detection rate seems to support the idea that BRCs produce mostly low-luminosity objects, for which maser emission is weak and episodic, and that the embedded sources are in a more advanced evolutionary phase than class 0 objects.
Objectives: This study sought to identify potential
predictive variables of death within 6 months in patients with advanced
Methods: Investigators enrolled a consecutive series of
patients with advanced AIDS admitted to a skilled nursing facility in New
York City over a 1-year period. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and
outcome data were abstracted from medical records using a standardized
data collection instrument.
Results: Of the 152 patients enrolled during the study
period, 61 patients (40%) died within 6 months from date of admission.
Serum albumin, percent deviation from ideal body weight, and number of
comorbidities at the time of admission proved to be the best combination
of predictors of death within 6 months.
Significance of results: The decrease in AIDS mortality over
the past decade, along with an increase in prevalence due to longer
survival, has been attributed primarily to the successful use of highly
active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART regimens, however, can also
produce both short-term adverse effects and long-term complications. The
prognostic model developed by this study may be useful in guiding
treatment decisions in patients with advanced AIDS for whom a more
palliative care plan may be sought.
This paper reports on the status of the PHELIX petawatt laser which is
built at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in close
collaboration with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and
the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) in France. First
experiments carried out with the chirped pulse amplification (CPA)
front-end will also be briefly reviewed.
We study here schedulers for a class of rules that naturally arise in the context of rule-based constraint programming. We systematically derive a scheduler for them from a generic iteration algorithm of Apt (2000). We apply this study to so-called membership rules of Apt and Monfroy (2001). This leads to an implementation that yields a considerably better performance for these rules than their execution as standard CHR rules. Finally, we show how redundant rules can be identified and how appropriately reduced sets of rules can be computed.