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Glaciological ablation is computed from point-scale data at a few ablation stakes that are usually regressed as a function of elevation and averaged over the area-elevation distribution of a glacier. This method is contingent on a tight control of elevation on local ablation. However, in debris-covered glaciers, systematic and random spatial variations of debris thickness modify the ablation rates. We propose and test a method to compute sub-debris ablation where stake data are interpolated as a function of debris-thickness alone and averaged over the debris-thickness distribution at different parts of the glacier. We apply this method on Satopanth Glacier located in Central Himalaya utilising ~1000 ablation measurements obtained from a network of up to 56 stakes during 2015–2017. The estimated mean sub-debris ablation ranges between 1.5±0.2 to 1.7±0.3 cm d−1. We show that the debris-thickness-dependent regression describes the spatial variability of the sub-debris ablation better than the elevation dependent regression. The uncertainties in ablation estimates due to the corresponding uncertainties in the measurement of ablation and debris-thickness distribution, and those due to interpolation procedures are estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Possible biases due to a finite number of stakes used are also investigated.
Frailty is associated with cognitive decline in older adults. However, the mechanisms explaining this relationship are poorly understood. We hypothesized that sleep quality may mediate the relationship between frailty and cognition.
154 participants aged between 50-90 years (mean = 69.1 years, SD = 9.2 years) from the McKnight Brain Registry were included.
Participants underwent a full neuropsychological evaluation, frailty and subjective sleep quality assessments. Direct relationships between frailty and cognitive function were assessed using linear regression models. Statistical mediation of these relationships by sleep quality was assessed using nonparametric bootstrapping procedures.
Frailty severity predicted weaker executive function (B = −2.77, β = −0.30, 95% CI = −4.05 – −1.29) and processing speed (B = −1.57, β = −0.17, 95% CI = −3.10 – −0.16). Poor sleep quality predicted poorer executive function (B = −0.47, β = −0.21, 95% CI = −0.79 – −0.08), processing speed (B = −0.64, β = −0.28, 95% CI = −0.98 – −0.31), learning (B = −0.42, β = −0.19, 95% CI = −0.76 – −0.05) and delayed recall (B = −0.41, β = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.80 – −0.31). Poor sleep quality mediated the relationships between frailty severity and executive function (B = −0.66, β = −0.07, 95% CI = −1.48 – −0.39), learning (B = −0.85, β = −0.07, 95% CI = −1.85 – −0.12), delayed recall (B = −0.47, β = −0.08, 95% CI = −2.12 – −0.39) and processing speed (B = −0.90, β = −0.09, 95% CI = −1.85 – −0.20).
Relationships between frailty severity and several cognitive outcomes were significantly mediated by poor sleep quality. Interventions to improve sleep quality may be promising avenues to prevent cognitive decline in frail older adults.
A commercially available combined X-ray diffraction – differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC) stage was adapted for studies of gas loading in microporous materials, including metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Insertion of a custom-built humid atmosphere swing chamber (HASC) between a humidity generator and the XRD-DSC stage facilitates both humid atmosphere and vacuum swing gas loading. The HASC is necessary to buffer between the humidity generator and the XRD-DSC stage, allowing the gas mixture to homogenize prior to sample exposure, so that both humid atmosphere and vacuum swings could be performed. The changes in XRD can be used to follow structural changes, including collapse, which is indicative of a lack of microporosity upon activation, and the flexibity of frameworks upon gas sorption–desorption cycles. Measurements of the area under the DSC curve allows for calculation of the isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst; kJ molGAS−1). Vacuum-atmosphere swing experiments performed at different pressure steps allow for the reconstruction of the enthalpy of gas adsorption before and after a phase transition. These modes of operation are illustrated in three case studies from a program of exploratory MOF synthesis used to discover novel materials for selective gas sorption from humid gas streams: (1) gas binding in Stony Brook metal organic framework-1, (2) zeolitic imidazolate framework-7 response to variable pressure vacuum-atmosphere swing, and (3) high throughput evaluation of the selectivity of novel MOFs synthesized from customized linkers.
We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among 39 pediatric hospitals. Similar decreases were observed for days of therapy of anti-MRSA antibiotics.
To evaluate the survival outcomes and toxicities experienced by non-metastatic head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving modulated radiotherapy (RT).
Materials and methods
A total of 608 HNC patients treated consecutively from March 2010 to December 2014 with common subsites (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx and nasopharynx) of HNCs formed the study group. Eligible patients included those treated with radical or postoperative RT between March 2010 and December 2014. More than 90% patients received modulated RT [intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] with concurrent chemotherapy as per stage guidelines. Demographic parameters and disease-related factors were analysed. Disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated from end date of RT till last follow-up or last date of disease control. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from date of registration to last follow-up date if alive. The primary endpoint was survival. The statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 20.0 and Kaplan–Meier method was used for calculation survival.
Among the evaluable patients, the median age was 60 years (range: 16–93) with male preponderance (male:female – 513:95). Majority were squamous cell carcinoma 93·4% (568/608). The subsites treated were oral cavity 36·8% (224). oropharynx 26·4% (161), larynx 19·7% (120), hypopharynx 10% (62) and nasopharynx 6·4% (41). RT intent was radical in 63·5% (386) and postoperative in 36·5% (222), with 59·5% (362) receiving concurrent chemotherapy. At last follow-up, 348 (57·2%) patients were alive, 169 (27·7%) patients had succumbed to disease and 120 (24·6%) patients had recurrent disease. Out of 120 recurrent cases loco-regional recurrence, nodal recurrence and distant metastases were seen in 62 (51·7%), 25 (20·8%), 33 (27·5%), respectively. In the entire study cohort at 2 year OS and DFS was 80 and 79% whereas 3 years OS and DFS was 70 and 75%, respectively.
In our study, 2 years and 3 years OS and DFS rates are found comparable to the international data with acceptable toxicity profile with the use of modulated RT. It seems to be possible because of stringent departmental protocols and good medical physics support. Our data re-validates need and benefit of advanced RT techniques like IG-IMRT and VMAT for both postoperative and radical HNC treatment at the cost of minimal long-term side effects. Future stringent follow-up and quality of life issues are being considered in a prospective manner.
By considering the physical properties of Sun-like G stars and their exoplanets, present study examines whether presence of planets near the host stars enhances their stellar activity. In order to attain this goal, chromospheric RHK index data-a proxy for the magnetic activity-for the stars with and without planets is considered. With the reasonable constraints on the exoplanetary data, we obtained a power law decay relationship between the magnetic activity of host stars and their ages, for stars with and without planets. Both these results strongly suggest that there is no difference in magnetic activity of the sun-like stars with and without presence of planets. In order to confirm this result, further we also examine an association between the host stars RHK index that have exoplanets and their respective exoplanetary masses. We find that magnitude of RHK (hence magnetic activity) of the host stars is independent of presence of planetary mass in its vicinity.
Solar wind kinetic energy gets transferred into the Earth’s magnetosphere as a result of dynamo action between magnetosphere and solar wind. Energy is then dissipated among various dissipation channels in the MI system. In the present study, energetics of 59 intense geomagnetic storms are analyzed for the period between 1986 and 2015, which covers the three consecutive solar cycles SC 22, 23 and 24. The average solar wind energy impinging the MI system is estimated using Epsilon parameter, the coupling function. Moreover, the relative importance of different energy sinks in the MI system are quantified and is found that more than 60% of solar wind energy is dissipated in the form of ionospheric Joule heating.
A number of complex systems arising in diverse disciplines may have certain quantitative features that are surprisingly similar which are classified under the paradigm of “universality”. The non-extensive Tsallis stastical mechanics and Lévy flight patterns provide a novel basis for analyzing non-equilibrium complex systems that may exhibit long-range correlations. The present work studies the scope of employing non-extensive Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) type law for the magnitude distribution of energy of solar wind, in order to investigate the existence of a universal behavior as well as to compute the relations of degree of non-extensivity and Lévy statistics in solar wind turbulence with heliographic distance during different solar cycles.
Hemispheric asymmetry is one of the significant parameters related to the action of solar dynamo. Comparison of hemispheric activities during various phases are found out for solar cycles 12 to 23. Asymmetry of solar activity shows extremum values during the cycles 14 and 19. Lowest and highest levels of north-south asymmetry are mainly observed during minimum and maximum phases respectively of solar cycles. A change of phase is found to be existing between the asymmetries at solar maxima and the whole cycle, after solar cycle 15 and 18. Also, for cycles 17-19, the behaviour of the asymmetry is observed to be peculiar and different from that of the other cycles. Periodic behaviour of north-south asymmetry mainly occurs in 8.8 years and noticed very high during the cycles 18-22.
A precise knowledge of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance is of great importance for better understanding of Earth′s ionosphere and thermosphere. The search for an ideal solar EUV proxy is vital since the ionospheric and thermospheric models are based on the solar proxies of EUV radiation. In this study, the phase asynchrony analysis of solar EUV data with other solar activity indices during solar cycle 23 is done. The cross-wavelet transform (XWT) technique is used to reveal the phase difference between the two time series of solar indices. Analysis reveals that the phase relationship between the indices is both time and frequency dependent. The solar indices F10.7 and Mg II core-to-wing index are found to be more synchronous with solar EUV data for low frequency components.