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Building on a growing body of research suggesting that political attitudes are part of broader individual and biological orientations, we test whether the detection of the hormone androstenone is predictive of political attitudes. The particular social chemical analyzed in this study is androstenone, a nonandrogenic steroid found in the sweat and saliva of many mammals, including humans. A primary reason for scholarly interest in odor detection is that it varies so dramatically from person to person. Using participants’ self-reported perceptions of androstenone intensity, together with a battery of survey items testing social and political preferences and orientations, this research supports the idea that perceptions of androstenone intensity relate to political orientations—most notably, preferences for social order—lending further support to theories positing the influence of underlying biological traits on sociopolitical attitudes and behaviors.
A recent paper, “Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment classifications and neurobehavioral symptoms” (McDermott et al., 2017), provides an interesting comparison of the influence of different criteria for Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) on progression to dementia (PDD). Unfortunately, McDermott et al. (2017) incorrectly stated that “only 21% of PD-MCI participants (identified with a 1.5 SD cut-off) converted to PDD within four years” (p.6) in our study (Wood et al., 2016). However, the important point made by Wood et al. (2016) was that the proportion of conversions to PDD was 51% when the PD-MCI diagnosis required a minimum of two 1.5 SD impairments within any single cognitive domain, whereas additional PD-MCI patients classified with one impairment at 1.5 SD in each of the two domains (but never two impairments in the same domain) had a non-significant risk of dementia relative to non-MCI patients (11% vs. 6% converted, respectively). Our PDD conversion rate was 38% when combining both 1.5 SD criteria (21/56 PD-MCI patients vs. 4/65 non-MCI patients converted); McDermott et al. (2017) found a 42% conversion rate over three years for similarly described PD-MCI patients (10/24 PD-MCI patients vs. 0/27 non-MCI patients converted). Our study was also part of a multinational study (n = 467) showing that PD-MCI has predictive validity beyond known demographic and PD-specific factors of influence (Hoogland et al., 2017). All three studies found that multiple cognitive domain impairments are common in PD-MCI. Nonetheless, the research community needs to clarify the association between PD-MCI subtypes and, especially, the optimal cognitive markers for dementia risk in PD patients.
Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the extant literature: Machiavellianism and Baron-Cohen's Empathizing Quotient.
Duarte et al. are correct that the social science enterprise would improve on several fronts if the number of politically conservative researchers were to increase; however, because they misunderstand the degree to which liberals and conservatives are dispositionally different, they fail to appreciate the full range of reasons that conservatives are reluctant to enter the modern social sciences.
Disputes between those holding differing political views are ubiquitous and deep-seated, and they often follow common, recognizable lines. The supporters of tradition and stability, sometimes referred to as conservatives, do battle with the supporters of innovation and reform, sometimes referred to as liberals. Understanding the correlates of those distinct political orientations is probably a prerequisite for managing political disputes, which are a source of social conflict that can lead to frustration and even bloodshed. A rapidly growing body of empirical evidence documents a multitude of ways in which liberals and conservatives differ from each other in purviews of life with little direct connection to politics, from tastes in art to desire for closure and from disgust sensitivity to the tendency to pursue new information, but the central theme of the differences is a matter of debate. In this article, we argue that one organizing element of the many differences between liberals and conservatives is the nature of their physiological and psychological responses to features of the environment that are negative. Compared with liberals, conservatives tend to register greater physiological responses to such stimuli and also to devote more psychological resources to them. Operating from this point of departure, we suggest approaches for refining understanding of the broad relationship between political views and response to the negative. We conclude with a discussion of normative implications, stressing that identifying differences across ideological groups is not tantamount to declaring one ideology superior to another.
A broad, multidisciplinary empirical literature reports that individual-level differences in psychology and biology map onto variation in political orientation. In our target article we argued that negativity bias can explain a surprisingly large share of these findings. The commentators generally support the negativity bias hypothesis but suggest theoretical and empirical revisions and refinements. In this response, we organize these proposals, suggestions, and criticisms into four thematic categories and assess their potential for furthering theories and empirical investigations of the bases for individual-variation in political ideology.
Understanding crystal orientation at the ferroelectric domain level, using a non destructive technique, is crucial for the design and characterization of nano-scale devices. In this study, piezoresponse force spectroscopy (PFS) is used to identify ferroelectric domain orientation. The impact of crystal orientation on the switching field of ferroelectric BaTiO3 is also investigated at the domain level. The preferential domain orientations for BaTiO3 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in this study are ,  and . They have been mapped onto PFS spectra to show three corresponding switching fields of 460, 330 and 120 kV/cm respectively. In addition, the electric field at which the enhanced piezoresponse occurs was found to vary, due to a phase change. The polarization reversal occurs via a 2-step process (rotation and switching) for  and  orientations. The piezoresponse enhancement is absent for the  (pure switching) domains. The results demonstrate that an electric field induced phase change causes the  and  domains to reverse polarization at a lower field than the  domain.
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are widely used in many areas and the most important application is in active matrix liquid crystal display. However, the instability of the a-Si:H TFTs constrains their usability. These TFTs have been annealed at higher temperatures in hope of improving their electrical performance. But, higher anneal temperatures become a constraint when the TFTs are grown on polymer-based flexible substrates. This study investigates the effect of anneal time on the performance of the a-Si:H TFTs on PEN. Thin-film transistors are annealed at different anneal times (4 h, 24 h, and 48 h) and were stressed under different bias conditions. Sub-threshold slope and the off-current improved with anneal time. Off-current was reduced by two orders of magnitude for 48 hours annealed TFT and sub-threshold slope became steeper with longer annealing. At positive gate-bias-stress (20 V), threshold voltage shift (∆Vt) values are positive and exhibit a power-law time dependence. High temperature measurements indicate that longer annealed TFTs show improved performance and stability compared to unannealed TFTs. This improvement is due to reduction of interface trap density and good a-Si:H/insulator interface quality with anneal time.
A new multiferroic composite ceramics with the general formula (x)Ba(Sr)Fe12O19-(1-x)BaTiO3 (x=0.1, 0.5) was synthesized via a simple solid-state reaction technique. Crystal structure analysis performed for both materials revealed the presence of two crystalline phases pertinent to the initial composite components. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to testify the crystallinity, microstructure, and local magnetoelectric interactions between ferroelectric and ferromagnetic grains. Magnetic measurements revealed that the saturation magnetization is proportional to the volume fraction of ferrite phase. Dielectric studies demonstrated strong frequency relaxation due to space charge polarization and high conductivity loss making macroscopic magnetoelectric measurements difficult. Novel nanoscale magnetoelectric effect observed by AFM is discussed.
Beckwith and Morris raise concerns about the value of twin studies for understanding the role of genetics in complex human behavior, but virtually all of their concerns have been raised and rebutted before. When it comes to the equal environments assumption (EEA), the best approach is to test for and control possible violations of the EEA on heritability estimates rather than merely rejecting all empirical evidence because of the possibility of EEA violations. In many respects, since the study of the genetic basis of complex human behaviors now includes many methods in addition to twin studies, Beckwith and Morris's critique applies more to the behavioral genetics of a quarter century ago than to today's multifaceted behavioral genetics. Twin studies establish that there is a sizeable genetic component to political orientations, thereby giving cause to look further at the nature of that role by using other methodologies, including molecular genetics. We conclude by pointing out that the normative implications of the relevance of genes to human behavior are not nearly as worrisome as Beckwith and Morris seem to believe.
In the past, most political scientists have been oblivious to the growing empirical evidence challenging environmental determinism. Professor Charney, apparently as a result of the fact that genes and the environment interact in a complex fashion, advocates that this passive unawareness be replaced by active denial. Science, however, does not advance by avoiding important relationships merely because they are complicated and, fortunately, science is not heeding Charney's ideologically-based fears. Molecular geneticists, often working in tandem with political scientists, are quickly moving beyond twin studies to identify the specific suites of genes and biological systems that predict variation in core political preferences, whatever labels those preferences might be given in a particular culture at a particular time. We sympathize with the fact that our empirical findings, like those of so many behavioral geneticists, make Charney uncomfortable; still, his critique serves up nothing new—empirically or otherwise. Just as analyses of the roots of sexual preferences cannot presumptively ignore genetics, neither can analyses of the roots of political preferences.
The dielectric response of La- and Dy- doped BiFeO3 thin films at microwave frequencies (up to 12 GHz) has been monitored as a function of frequency, direct current (dc) electric field, and magnetic field in a temperature range from 25 to 300 °C. Both the real and imaginary parts of the response have been found to be non-monotonic (oscillating) functions of measuring frequency. These oscillations are not particularly sensitive to a dc electric field; however, they are substantially dampened by a magnetic field. The same effect has been observed when the volume of the characterized sample is increased. This phenomenon is attributed to the presence of a limited number of structural features with a resonance type response. The exact origin of these features is unknown at present. Leakage current investigations were performed on the whole set of films. The films were highly resistive with low leakage current, thereby giving us confidence in the microwave measurements. These typically revealed ‘N’-type I-V characteristics.
The dielectric response of La- and Dy- doped BiFeO3 thin films to electric- and magnetic fields was measured at microwave frequencies (up to 12GHz) in a temperature range from 25 °C to 300 °C. Interesting phenomena were observed. Significant oscillations in the C(f) characteristic which were unaffected by the electric field or by elevated temperature but which were dampened by a magnetic field. We also observed ‘N’-type I-V characteristics. A possible explanation for this mesoscopic response is the presence of structural features that cause resonance (e.g. grains, grain-boundaries, domains, domain walls etc), with a contribution strong enough to be averaged by the system. The exact origin of these features is unknown at present.
We test the possibility that political attitudes and behaviors are the result of both environmental and genetic factors. Employing standard methodological approaches in behavioral genetics—specifically, comparisons of the differential correlations of the attitudes of monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins—we analyze data drawn from a large sample of twins in the United States, supplemented with findings from twins in Australia. The results indicate that genetics plays an important role in shaping political attitudes and ideologies but a more modest role in forming party identification; as such, they call for finer distinctions in theorizing about the sources of political attitudes. We conclude by urging political scientists to incorporate genetic influences, specifically interactions between genetic heritability and social environment, into models of political attitude formation.
In this article we propose that evolutionary biology can supply
political science with a theory of the ultimate causes of human
preferences and behaviors that it otherwise lacks. For the most part,
political scientists are either unfamiliar with the social side of
evolutionary theory or misidentify its key features. Far from being
genetically deterministic or leading exclusively to predictions that
all human behavior will be selfish, modern evolutionary theories stress
that adaptive behavior is frequently characterized by a guarded sort of
cooperation. We describe modern biological theory, offer our own
version of it, discuss new and potentially useful interpretations of
political attitudes and public policies, and present scientific
evidence, drawn from research on autistic individuals and monozygotic
and dizygotic twins, of the startlingly important role genetics plays
in shaping politically relevant attitudes and behaviors.The authors are grateful to Chris Larimer,
Levente Littvay, David Rapkin, Kevin Smith, Jeff Spinner-Halev, Elizabeth
Theiss-Morse, and anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and
TiAl based thin-films possess high oxidation-resistance and high melting
points, making them possible candidates for application in electronics. The
behavior of the films upon exposure to various temperatures is of interest
for such application. In the present study, Ti37Al63
thin films were deposited onto SiO2 substrates using RF magnetron
sputtering from a compound target. Anneals were performed in vacuum at
temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 700 °C. The phases and microstructural
behavior of the films were evaluated as a function of annealing.
Microstructural behavior was correlated with resistivity changes in the
films. The behavior of Ti-Al films as potential under-layers for silver
metallization was also evaluated. The Ti-Al was observed to enhance the
thermal stability of pure Al thin-films. The results are relevant for
potential application of the films to electronics.
The thermal stability and electrical resistivity of Ag(Al) alloy thin films
on SiO2 are investigated and compared to pure Ag thin films by
performing various analyses: Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS),
X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and
four-point probe. The susceptibility to agglomeration of Ag on
SiO2 layer is a drawback of Ag metallization. Ag(Al) thin
films show good thermal stability on SiO2 layer without any
diffusion barrier. The films are stable up to 600 °C for 1 hour in vacuum.
Electrical resistivity of as-deposited Ag (5 at % Al) thin film is slightly
higher than that of pure Ag thin film. However, the resistivity of Ag(Al)
samples annealed at high temperatures (up to 600 °C for 1 hour in vacuum)
remains constant due to the improvement of thermal stability (large
reduction of agglomeration). This finding can impact metallization for thin
film transistors (TFT) for displays, including flexible displays, and
high-speed electronics due to lower resistivity value compared to Cu thin
This Handbook provides a complete survey of the vibrant field of political sociology. Part I explores the theories of political sociology. Part II focuses on the formation, transitions, and regime structure of the state. Part III takes up various aspects of the state that respond to pressures from civil society.