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The time it takes to acquire a satellite signal is one of the most important parameters for a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The Parallel Frequency space search acquisition Algorithm (PFA) runs faster than the Parallel Code phase search acquisition Algorithm (PCA) when the approximate phase of Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN) code and the approximate value of a Doppler shift are known. However, a large amount of data is needed to be dealt with by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) in a traditional PFA algorithm because it processes a narrow-band signal with the initial sampling frequency after the PRN code is stripped. In order to reduce the computational complexity of the traditional PFA algorithm, a down-conversion module and a downsampling module were added to the traditional PFA in the work reported here. Experiments demonstrated that this method not only succeeded in acquiring BeiDou B1I signals, but also the time for acquirement was reduced by at least 80% with the modified PFA algorithm compared with the traditional PFA algorithm. The loss in Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) did not exceed 0·5 dB when the number of coherent points was less than 500.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of Scutellaria baicalensis extracts (SBE) on intestinal health in terms of morphology, barrier integrity and immune responses in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli K88. A total of seventy-two weaned piglets were assigned into two groups to receive a basal diet without including antibiotic additives or the basal diet supplemented 1000 mg SBE/kg diet for 14 d. On day 15, twelve healthy piglets from each group were selected to expose to oral administration of either 10 ml 1 × 109 colony-forming units of E. coli K88 or the vehicle control. After 48 h of E.coli K88 challenge, blood was sampled, and then all piglets were killed humanely for harvesting jejunal and ileal samples. Dietary supplementation of SBE significantly decreased diarrhoea frequency and improved feed conversion ratio (P < 0·05). SBE supplementation to E.coli K88-challenged piglets improved villous height and villous height/crypt depth (P < 0·05), recovered the protein expression of occludin and zonula occludens-2 in both the jejunum and ileum (P < 0·05), and mitigated the increases in plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IgA and IgG (P < 0·05). Meanwhile, dietary SBE effectively inhibited the stimulation of NF-κB, P38 and TNF-α as well as IL-1β in the small intestine of piglets challenged by E. coli K88 and prevented the activation of NF-κB/P38 signalling pathways (P < 0·05). Collectively, SBE supplementation can potently attenuate diarrhoea in weaning piglets and decrease inflammatory cytokine expressions through inhibiting the NF-κB and P38 signalling pathways.
Let φ : ℝn × [0, ∞) → [0, ∞) satisfy that φ(x, · ), for any given x ∈ ℝn, is an Orlicz function and φ( · , t) is a Muckenhoupt A∞ weight uniformly in t ∈ (0, ∞). The (weak) Musielak–Orlicz Hardy space Hφ(ℝn) (WHφ(ℝn)) generalizes both the weighted (weak) Hardy space and the (weak) Orlicz Hardy space and hence has wide generality. In this paper, two boundedness criteria for both linear operators and positive sublinear operators from Hφ(ℝn) to Hφ(ℝn) or from Hφ(ℝn) to WHφ(ℝn) are obtained. As applications, we establish the boundedness of Bochner–Riesz means from Hφ(ℝn) to Hφ(ℝn), or from Hφ(ℝn) to WHφ(ℝn) in the critical case. These results are new even when φ(x, t): = Φ(t) for all (x, t) ∈ ℝn × [0, ∞), where Φ is an Orlicz function.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), characterized by deficits in memory and cognition and by behavioral impairment, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that influences more than 47 million people worldwide. Currently, no available drug is able to stop AD progression. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies need to be investigated.
We analyzed the RNA sequencing data (RNA-seq) derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify the differentially expressed mRNAs in AD. The AD mouse model Tg2576 was used to verify the effects of IGF-2. The Morris Water Maze was administered to test the role of IGF-2 in memory consolidation. In addition, we quantified cell apoptosis by the TUNEL assay. The levels of amyloid plaques and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in the hippocampus were also determined by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively.
RNA-seq analysis revealed that IGF-2 was remarkably reduced in AD. The expression of the upstream genes PI3K and AKT and the downstream gene CREB in the PI3K signaling pathway was significantly increased in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice cells treated with IGF-2. The Morris water maze test showed that IGF-2 improved memory consolidation in Tg2576 mice. The activity of caspase-3 was decreased in Tg2576 mice treated with IGF-2. Amyloid plaques in the hippocampus were reduced, and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were decreased. The above effects of IGF-2 on AD were blocked when the PI3K signaling pathway inhibitor wortmannin was added.
IGF-2 attenuates memory decline, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and amyloid plaques in the AD mouse model Tg2576 by activating the PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling pathway.
Nowadays, hierarchical materials have received tremendous interests because of their unique physical and chemical properties. In this article, a novel and facile particle aggregation method was used to fabricate vertically aligned diamondoid nanowires and hierarchical branched nanowire cluster array by using an electrophoresis template method. Triamantane, a three-cage diamondoid, was applied as raw material in current research. Diamondoids are nanometer-sized, hydrogen-terminated diamond-like, saturated hydrocarbons, which process great potential in nanotechnology due to biocompatibility and ultrahard nature. By electrophoresis template method, triamantane molecules dissolved in toluene were transferred into a porous alumina template by electric field and form the one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure with high aspect ratio. After that, a two-step thermal treatment was applied to the nanowires to achieve hierarchical branched nanowires. The surface morphologies of triamantane nanowire array with different treatments were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. This approach opens a new avenue for mass production of the vertically aligned diamondoid nanowires and hierarchical branched nanowire cluster arrays.
In this paper, it is shown that if a dynamical system is null and distal, then it is equicontinuous. It turns out that a null system with closed proximal relation is mean equicontinuous. As a direct application, it follows that a null dynamical system with dense minimal points is also mean equicontinuous. Meanwhile, a distal system with trivial
-pairs and a non-trivial regionally proximal relation of order
Risk communication plays a very important role in the prevention of public health crisis events and has been considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be 1 of the main functions of an emergency public health crisis. However, it is a relatively new research field in China, so many people have mistaken understandings of risk communication. This article will describe the concept and importance of risk communication and briefly introduce the role of risk communication in public health crisis management. It also provides information for the prevention of public health crisis events in the future.
A kind of n–p (SnO2)1.3/(α ∼ Bi2O3)x/(β ∼ Bi2O3)1−x nanocomposite (SB-15) was synthesized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a template by solid state synthesis. XRD and HR-TEM confirmed the formation of n–p (SnO2)1.3/(α ∼ Bi2O3)x/(β ∼ Bi2O3)1−x. Particle size is found to be about 18 nm from HR-TEM images. FE-SEM clearly detected the boundary between SnO2 nanoparticles and Bi2O3 polyhedron particles. The special morphology and coexisting of α-Bi2O3 and β-Bi2O3 in SB-15 make it have a stronger visible light absorption range as far as 725 nm. PL and photocurrent test shows that the SB-15 has the best photocarriers separation capability. About 99% decolorization ratio of Rh.B was achieved in only 5 min. About 70% Cr6+ was degraded within 20 min and it is about 60% for tetracycline in the coexisting system (Te with Cr6+ solution), introducing it as a promising photocatalytic material. This work has addressed the method of phase-selective synthesis of n–p SnO2/α ∼ Bi2O3/β ∼ Bi2O3 by convenient solid state synthesis, which should be useful for the studies of other composites.
Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) are widely used for antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but real-world data on treatment patterns and long-term clinical outcomes are not always available. Using data from electronic medical records between January 2011 and December 2016 in Shanghai, China, we evaluated patient characteristics, treatment patterns and clinical outcomes in patients with CHB. There were 6688 patients in the study cohort. The incidences of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were 41.0‰ and 6.8‰ person-years, respectively. There were more cirrhosis and HCC cases among patients who had shorter NA treatment duration (<365 days), or who were less compliant (<80%). In addition, increased risk of cirrhosis and HCC was observed in patients who did not achieve hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss/seroconversion. Moreover, patients with cirrhosis developed after antiviral treatments had a higher incidence of HCC (adjusted hazard ratio 15.86, 95% confidence interval 7.35–34.24). Good compliance with treatment and longer treatment duration significantly decreased the risk of developing cirrhosis and HCC. HBsAg loss seemed to be a protective factor for cirrhosis/HCC in NAs-treated patients with CHB, and cirrhosis was a confirmed risk factor for HCC development as expected.
Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONPs) are particularly attractive in biosensor, antibacterial activity, targeted drug delivery, cell separation, magnetic resonance imaging tumor magnetic hyperthermia, and so on because of their particular properties including superparamagnetic behavior, low toxicity, biocompatibility, etc. Although many methods had been developed to produce MIONPs, some challenges such as severe agglomeration, serious oxidation, and irregular size are still faced in the synthesis of MIONPs. Thus, various strategies had been developed for the surface modification of MIONPs to improve the characteristics of them and obtain multifunctional MIONPs, which will widen the applicational scopes of them. Therefore, the processes, mechanisms, advances, advantages, and disadvantages of six main approaches for the synthesis of MIONPs; surface modification of MIONPs with inorganic materials, organic molecules, and polymer molecules; applications of MIONPs or modified MIONPs; the technical challenges of synthesizing MIONPs; and their limitations in biomedical applications were described in this review to provide the theoretical and technological guidance for their future applications.
To assess helical tomotherapy (TOMO) current clinical application and practice in mainland China.
Materials and methods:
Data were collected for all TOMO units clinically operational in mainland China by 30 April 2016, including (a) the distribution of installation and staffing levels; (b) types of cancers treated; (c) utilisation efficiency; (d) quality assurance; (e) maintenance; (f) optional features; and (g) satisfaction levels. The data were collected as a census and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively.
As of 30 April 2016, 23 TOMO units were used clinically by 22 hospitals in mainland China. In the same period, 22,558 cancer patients were treated. For TOMO units with more than a year of clinical utilisation, a median of 378 cases were treated annually per machine. The median daily operation was 10·5 hours, and treatment headcount was 38·3 patients. The median service outage rate was 2·6%, and the most common cause was malfunction of the multi-leaf collimator. In terms of overall satisfaction levels, 3 hospitals were very satisfied, 16 were satisfied and 3 considered their satisfaction level as average.
The overall operation of TOMO is good, but there are some problems due to running at full capacity, lack of clinical efficacy research and insufficient quality assurance regulations.
Utilizing the experimental and modeling approaches, the Gamma radiation effects on stress responses of the silicon rubber foam under quasistatic compression are investigated. In the experimental work, the samples of the silicon rubber and the silicon rubber foams are quasistatically compressed before and after the Gamma radiation (a dose of 500 kGy and a dose rate of 100 Gy/min). The data reveal that the Gamma radiation obviously increases the material hardness, e.g., the compressive stresses of the silicon rubber and the silicon rubber foams both increase over 5 times as the strain is 20%. In the simulation work, a multiscale method combined with finite element method is developed to numerically predict the compressive stress of the silicon rubber foams. The microscale models are first constructed based on the real microstructures of the silicon rubber foams. The compressive stress and strain relation before and after the Gamma radiation is then simulated and obtained utilizing the phenomenological constitutive models based on the testing data of the silicon rubber. The simulation reveals that the Gamma radiation strongly affects the compressive response of the microscale models. The stress responses of the microscale models are then transferred into the macroscale models. The results also prove that the Gamma radiation obviously increases the hardness of the macroscale models. Data comparison shows that the numerical results agree with the testing data well, which verifies the developed method. The present work develops a new method to predict the radiation effects on mechanical properties of rubber foams.
CrFeNiTix (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 molar ratio) compositionally complex alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting to investigate the microstructure, hardness, and compressive properties. The results revealed that CrFeNiTix alloys consisted of the principal face-centered cubic (FCC) phase and body-centered cubic (BCC) solid solution, with an amount of (Ni, Ti)-rich hexagonal close-packed phase. CrFeNiTix alloys exhibited the typical dendrite. Ti0.2 and Ti0.3 alloys were composed of FCC and BCC solid solutions in the dendrite, as well as ε (Ni3Ti) and R (Ni2.67Ti1.33) phases in the inter-dendrite, simultaneously. For Ti0.4, Ti0.5, and Ti0.6 alloys, (Fe, Cr)-rich solid solution separated out and ε phase transformed into R phase gradually. Meanwhile, TEM analysis indicated that Ti0.4 alloy matrix consisted of the principal FCC phase containing (Ni, Ti)-rich intragranular nanoprecipitates. The hardness values of CrFeNiTix alloys were increased with the addition of Ti content and the high compressive strength of CrFeNiTix alloys was maintained, which was attributed to the solid solution strengthening and precipitation hardening.
This paper presents a control strategy for solving the cable pseudo-drag problem of cable-driven parallel camera robots at high speeds. The control strategy belongs to a hybrid position/tension control method based on cable tension optimization. The cable catenary model and cable pseudo-drag problem are considered firstly. Then, the dynamic model of the cable-driven parallel camera robot is established. The cable tension optimization is proposed. And then a control strategy is put forward and its stability is proved. Simulation results of a four-cable camera robot are presented and discussed.
Imaging studies have shown that the subcallosal region (SCR) volume was decreased in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, whether the volumetric reductions in the SCR are due to thinning of the cortex or a loss of surface area (SA) remains unclear. In addition, the relationship between cortical measurements of the SCR and age through the adult life span in MDD remains unclear.
We used a cross-sectional design from 114 individuals with MDD and 112 matched healthy control (HC) individuals across the adult life span (range: 18–74 years). The mean cortical volume (CV), SA and cortical thickness (CT) of the SCR were computed using cortical parcellation based on FreeSurfer software. Multivariate analyses of covariance models were performed to compare differences between the MDD and HC groups on cortical measurements of the SCR. Multiple linear regression models were used to test age-by-group interaction effects on these cortical measurements of the SCR.
The MDD had significant reductions in the CV and SA of the left SCR compared with HC individuals after controlling of other variables. The left SCR CV and SA reductions compared with matched controls were observed only in early adulthood patients. We also found a significant age-related CT reduction in the SCR both in the MDD and HC participants.
The SCR volume reduction was mainly driven by SA in MDD. The different trajectories between the CT and SA of the SCR with age may provide valuable information to distinguish pathological processes and normal ageing in MDD.