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This article discusses internet memes in their capacity to prompt affective responses on social media in the aftermath of the migrant crisis. The focus is on Facebook pages devoted to geopolitical satire meme-comics known as countryballs and their uptake with regard to the proposed migrant relocation mechanisms. Engagement with internet memes reveals a multilayered complexity behind what is often simplistically portrayed as pro- or anti-migrant sentiment. In order to account for this complexity, the paper combines Gilbert Simondon's theory of individuation with Mikhail Bakhtin's notion of the chronotope currently developed in interactional sociolinguistics along the lines of symbolic interactionism. Finally, this article shows that memes are not a mere product of participatory culture, but rather a powerful instigator of technosocial and often heteroglossic practices that co-organize social life in the new polycentric collectivities appearing on social media. (Chronotope, individuation, internet memes, countryballs, Facebook, identity)*
In this note we prove that the Kalton interlaced graphs do not equi-coarsely embed into the James space
nor into its dual
. It is a particular case of a more general result on the non-equi-coarse embeddability of the Kalton graphs into quasi-reflexive spaces with a special asymptotic structure. This allows us to exhibit a coarse invariant for Banach spaces, namely the non-equi-coarse embeddability of this family of graphs, which is very close to but different from the celebrated property
of Kalton. We conclude with a remark on the coarse geometry of the James tree space
and of its predual.
Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) vital labelling is a powerful method for analyzing the quality of porcine cumulus–oocyte complexes. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between the selection of porcine oocytes using BCB labelling and selected intranuclear characteristics of porcine oocytes and parthenotes. Moreover, BCB labelling was correlated with the diameter of the oocyte and the developmental potential of the parthenotes. The following methods were used: BCB labelling, measurement of the diameter of the oocyte, parthenogenetic activation, immunocytochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, enucleation and relative protein concentration (RPC) analysis. We determined that the diameter of the oocytes in the BCB-positive (BCB+) group was significantly larger than in the BCB-negative (BCB−) group. Immediately after oocyte selection according to BCB labelling, we found significant difference in chromatin configuration between the analyzed groups. BCB+ oocytes were significantly better at maturation than BCB− oocytes. BCB+ embryos were significantly more competent at cleaving and in their ability to reach the blastocyst stage than BCB− embryos. Ultrastructural analyses showed that the formation of active nucleoli in the BCB+ group started at the 8-cell stage. Conversely, most BCB− embryos at the 8-cell and 16-cell stages were fragmented. No statistically significant difference in RPC in nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs) between BCB+ and BCB− oocytes was found. We can conclude that BCB labelling could be suitable for assessing the quality of porcine oocytes. Moreover, the evaluation of RPC indicates that the quantitative content of proteins in NPB is already established in growing oocytes.
To identify predictors of good outcome in acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO).
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by BAO is often associated with a severe and persistent neurological deficit and a high mortality rate.
The set consisted of 70 consecutive AIS patients (51 males; mean age 64.5±14.5 years) with BAO. The role of the following factors was assessed: baseline characteristics, stroke risk factors, pre-event antithrombotic treatment, neurological deficit at time of treatment, estimated time to therapy procedure initiation, treatment method, recanalization rate, change in neurological deficit, post-treatment imaging findings. 30- and 90-day outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin scale with a good outcome defined as a score of 0–3.
The following statistically significant differences were found between patients with good versus poor outcomes: mean age (54.2 vs. 68.9 years; p=0.0001), presence of arterial hypertension (52.4% vs. 83.7%; p=0.015), diabetes mellitus (9.5% vs. 55.1%; p=0.0004) and severe stroke (14.3% vs. 65.3%; p=0.0002), neurological deficit at time of treatment (14.0 vs. 24.0 median of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] points; p=0.001), successful recanalization (90.0% vs. 54.2%; p=0.005), change in neurological deficit (12.0 vs. 1.0 median difference of NIHSS points; p=0.005). Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis identified age (OR=0.932, 95% CI=0.882–0.984; p=0.012), presence of diabetes mellitus (OR=0.105, 95% CI=0.018–0.618; p=0.013) and severe stroke (OR=0.071, 95% CI=0.013–0.383; p=0.002) as significant independent negative predictors of good outcome.
In the present study, higher age, presence of diabetes mellitus and severe stroke were identified as significant independent negative predictors of good outcome.
Exceptionally dense titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were prepared via dip coating from a sol containing poly(hexafluorobutyl methacrylate) as the structure-directing agent. The films were grown on glass, F-doped SnO2, and crystalline silicon (111) faces, either pure or with a thin layer of SiO2. The TiO2 films cover perfectly even rough surfaces, which was ascribed to thixotropic properties of the precursor gel. The films provide antireflection function to crystalline Si wafers for photovoltaic applications. The optical reflectance in visible to near-infrared (NIR) wave lengths region is considerably smaller for Si wafers covered by TiO2/SiO2 film compared with that of SiO2/Si. The dense TiO2 films are amorphous with small amount of anatase and monoclinic TiO2(B). These two phases withstand calcination at 900 °C in films deposited on Si. For comparison, porous TiO2 films were grown by the same dip-coating protocol, but with alternative organic additives, either polymers or ionic liquids.
This article is an attempt to examine, in Ton Hoenselaars's words, one of the ‘countless traces…of foreign cultural and ideological encounters with [Shakespeare's] histories’, focusing on the capacity of Henry IV, Part 2 ‘to mediate in non-English processes of national formation and preservation’. Despite detailed attention paid to one of these traces, the influence of Henry IV, Part 2 on the dramatic fragments of the leading Czech Romantic Karel Hynek Mácha (1810–36), my objective is more general: to study the potential of Shakespeare's histories to transform historical awareness in the context of the early nineteenth-century European Romantic nationalist movements. Specifically, I am interested in the way Mácha's use of Henry IV, Part 2 in his project of historical dramas facilitated an important change in his understanding of Czech history: a shift from perceiving it as a predetermined ‘providential’ narrative of national emancipation to a more ‘realistic’ ‘concern with history as processes and the inner necessities of historical change’. As the exploration of Mácha's reading and transformation of Henry IV, Part 2 will show, this change of historical awareness challenged not only the simplistic and utopian perception of Czech political identity but also the early nineteenth-century position of Shakespeare as a supreme literary and dramatic authority.
It is no surprise that the productions or translations of the histories did not appear in the period of early Czech appropriation of Shakespeare (1782–1807), when tragedies (Macbeth, King Lear) and comedies (The Merchant of Venice) were mainly seen as educational tools facilitating the spread of literacy. In 1792, the preface to a Czech translation of a German adaptation of King Lear pointed out the meaning of theatre for the education of the people, and amplified Friedrich Schiller's argument in favour of the communal nature of theatre and its role as a seedbed for the people's cultural growth.
Aggregated systems of silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles coated with cationic polythiophene were prepared, which showed optical properties typical for strongly coupled plasmonic excitations. The procedure allowed tune up the three-dimensional arrangement of nanoparticles assembly for achieving strong SERS effect at the excitation wavelength depending on the polymer concentration. By combination with an anionic derivative of polythiophene thin multilayer films composed of alternating anionic and cationic polythiophene with mutually interacting plasmonic Au nanoparticles were successfully prepared using layer-by-layer deposition.
Transportation capacities belong to the key factors of the response to a major incident. Available resources, both in terms of personnel and equipment, must be transported, usually by ambulances, to the incident location. In the other direction, casualties must be transported to hospitals and other health care facilities for further treatment. For this reason, the efficiency of the response is greatly determined by ambulance travel times and the ability of health care facilities to absorb large numbers of patients. We propose methods to compute the travel times to and from the incident location based on a classified road network. The methods take into account different attributes that depend on ambulance type and capacity, road quality, time of day, weather or actual traffic density. Correctly computed travel times are crucial not only for optimal deployment of all resources within the analyzed region, but also for the evaluation of the readiness of the emergency health care system for a major incident. We have included the methods in an agent-based simulation of transport during the response. From the simulation outputs and with the help of geographical information systems and information visualization methods we have synthesized maps that represent the capability of a region to absorb a major incident defined by a scenario. When combined with risk maps and maps of population density the synthesized maps allow emergency management authorities to find critical points and gaps in the emergency health care service.
In the present work we study Zn+O divacancies filled up with varying amount of hydrogen atoms. Besides the structure and energy-related properties of such defects, we also investigate their capability to trap positrons taking into account positron induced forces. We show that the Zn+O divacancy may trap positrons when up to two hydrogen atoms are located inside the divacancy. The calculated properties are discussed in the context of other computational and experimental studies of ZnO.
In the present work we study theoretically hydrogen incorporated into several positions in the zirconia cubic and tetragonal lattices. These are positions in the interstitial space and in the zirconium vacancy (VZr). We examine the structure of such configurations and for VZr-related defects we also calculate selected positron characteristics in order to assess their capability of trapping positrons. It is shown that hydrogen atoms do not prefer to stay in the center of the largest interstitial space nor of VZr and they rather tend to create bonds with neighboring oxygen atoms. The positron lifetime of the VZr+1H complex is shorter than that for non-decorated VZr and positron trapping in VZr+1H complexes could, in principle, explain experimental lifetime data.
Nasopharyngeal carriage of potential pathogens was studied in 425 healthy 3- to 6-year-old children attending 16 day-care centres (DCCs) in nine Czech cities during the winter 2004–2005. The overall carriage of pathogens was 62·8% (Streptococcus pneumoniae, 38·1%; Haemophilus influenzae, 24·9%; Moraxella catarrhalis, 22·1%; Staphylococcus aureus, 16%). An age-related downward trend was observed for colonization with respiratory pathogens in contrast to Staph. aureus whose carriage was significantly higher among older children. The following serotypes of colonizing S. pneumoniae were the most predominant: 23F (20·6%), 6A (15·1%), 6B (12·7%), 18C (7·8%), 15B and 19F (6% each). The majority (94·3%) of H. influenzae isolates were non-typable; among capsulated isolates, serotype b was not found. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin was determined in 3% of pneumococci; 4·6% of H. influenzae strains and 85·1% of M. catarrhalis strains produced β-lactamase. As for non-β-lactam antibiotics, pneumococci resistant to trimethoprim–sulphamethoxazole were the most common (15·7%) among the attendees.
Ideal elasticity is the property whereby the energy expended in deformation of the elastomer is completely recovered on removal of the deforming force. Because the energy expended in deformation is given by the area under the force, f, versus increase in length, ΔL, curve, a perfectly reversible force-extension curve means complete recovery on relaxation of the energy expended on deformation. Therefore, ideal elastomers exhibit perfectly reversible force-extension curves.
Perhaps our earliest perspective of the mechanism underlying ideal elasticity comes from a fundamental observation concerning rubber elasticity. In the mid-nineteenth century, Joule and Thomson noted a quantitative correlation between the increase in temperature of the elastomer due to stretching and the increase in force due to increasing the temperature (Flory, 1968). Thermodynamics provides for the analysis underlying this correlation, and the Boltzmann relation provides the bridge between experimental thermodynamic quantities and statistical mechanical description of molecular structures.
Continuing qualitatively with the Joule and Thomson correlation, heat produces motion, and the energy represented by heat distributes into the various available degrees of freedom in the chain molecules comprising the elastomer. Accordingly, the release of heat on stretching correlates with a loss of motion. By means of statistical mechanics, the loss of motion is seen as a decrease in entropy on extension. In addition, should solvent be essential for elasticity, this requires explicit consideration.
Elastic protein-based polymers comprised of repeating pentapeptide sequences, (GXGXP)n, exhibit mechanical resonances that have been observed to date with frequency maxima near 5 MHz and 3 kHz. Because the 3 kHz resonance is in the middle of the acoustic frequency range, the purpose here is to substantiate the relevance of the 3 kHz resonance to acoustic absorption and to demonstrate means of improving mechanical properties for the sound absorption application. Previously reported loss factor data in the 100 Hz to 10 kHz range is substantiated by relevant but distinctly different measurements of loss shear modulus and loss permittivity. Furthermore cross-linking approaches are reported that result in increased elastic moduli by an order of magnitude to 4 × 106 Pa at 20% strain and increased break stress by two orders of magnitude to 1.3 × 107 Pa while exhibiting break stain values of several hundred per cent.
Measurements of the hardness and Young's modulus of superhard coatings (HV≥40 GPa) by means of automated load-depth-sensing indentation technique can be subject to a number of errors that are discussed and exemplified here. Only load-independent values of hardness for loads larger than 30–50 mN can be considered reliable when the technique of Doerner and Nix (linear extrapolation of the unloading curve) is used to determine the corrected indentation depth. The results are compared with values of Vickers hardness calculated from the contact area of the remaining plastic deformation which was measured by means of calibrated scanning electron microscope. The values of Young's modulus obtained from the indentation are close to the zero-pressure shear modulus of the coatings as measured by means of Vibrating Reed and surface Brillouin scattering techniques.