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Antonia Potter Prentice, Co-managing partner of Athena, which provides specialist advice, policy analysis and project management on peace and security issues.,
Camille Marquis Bissonnette, Doctoral candidate in International Law at Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.
To be powerful and influential, one can argue, requires not just representation but presence, and not just presence, but meaningful, empowered presence. In 2016, there were only ten women serving as heads of states and nine serving as heads of government, and women held only 22 % of seats in parliaments around the world. Despite huge effort and promotion, women candidates for the top jobs at the United Nations (UN) and the US Government failed to prevail. Peace processes, in particular, as they “provide key opportunities for major reforms that transform institutions, structures, and relationships in societies affected by conflict or crises,” are instrumental for women's empowerment and for their consideration in the construction of their post-conflict society. According to a study by UN Women based on 31 major peace processes occurring between 1992 and 2011, women represented 2.4 % of chief mediators (although the UN itself has never appointed a woman as chief mediator), 4 % of peace agreement signatories, and 9 % of negotiators in formal peace processes. Most of the time, this low representation of women in peace negotiations is the result of passive – as opposed to deliberate – exclusion, but as some feminist writers have clearly underlined, gender-neutrality often corresponds to gender-blindness. Traditionally, women are very much involved in informal peace negotiations at the grassroots level and within civil society initiatives, and in particular in disarmament processes; this contribution is now widely documented and recognized. But as is well known, women's participation in formal peace negotiations remains very marginal. Moreover, even when women are included, their viewpoints are often sidelined, as they are perceived to lack relevant qualifications, credibility or simply power.
Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the dramatic underrepresentation of women in formal peace processes, starting with a lack of women in the traditional institutional “pipelines” to mediation and negotiation. For example, women are still a minority within governments and armies, and in the military and political wings of armed groups, and yet the belligerents ‘ representatives are generally perceived to be the most crucial actors in peacemaking – at least in the prevailing concept of peace-making – to the expense of other groups, mostly civil society.
The purpose of the study was to identify self-perceived gaps in gerontological competencies among recreation staff in long-term care homes in Ontario. Two sets of gerontological competencies, in an online survey, were distributed to recreation staff working in 500 long-term care homes. There were 487 recreation staff members who completed the questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions regarding staff’s current competencies and competencies that they recalled learning prior to entering the workforce. Factors that were perceived to contribute to confidence in gerontological competencies were experience, continuing education, in-service training sessions, and education. Understanding the gaps in gerontological competencies is required for enhancing therapeutic recreation education and continuing education.
In long-term care facilities (LTCF), registered nurses (RNs) perform both clinical and supervisory roles as part of a team aiming to provide high-quality care to residents. The residents have several co-morbidities and complex care needs. Unfortunately, new RNs receive minimal preparation in gerontology and supervisory experience during their program, leading to low retention rates and affecting resident outcomes. This qualitative study explored factors that influence supervisory performance of new RNs in LTCF from the perspective of 24 participants from Ontario, Canada. Data were collected through individual interviews, followed by a directed content analysis. Three levels of influences were identified: personal influences, organizational influences, and external influences. Each level presented with sub-elements, further describing the factors that impact the supervisory performance of the new RN. To retain new RNs in LTC, organizations must provide additional gerontological education and mentoring for new RNs to flourish in their supervisory roles.
Early–mid Pliocene moraines in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, are more extensive than the present alpine glaciers in this region, indicating substantial climatic differences between the early–mid Pliocene and the present. To quantify this difference in the glacier–climate regime, we estimated the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) change since the early–mid Pliocene by calculating the modern ELA and reconstructing the ELAs of four alpine glaciers in Wright and Taylor Valleys at their early–mid Pliocene maxima. The area–altitude balance ratio method was used on modern and reconstructed early–mid Pliocene hypsometry. In Wright and Victoria Valleys, mass-balance data identify present-day ELAs of 800–1600ma.s.l. and an average balance ratio of 1.1. The estimated ELAs of the much larger early–mid Pliocene glaciers in Wright and Taylor Valleys range from 600 to 950±170ma.s.l., and thus are 250–600±170m lower than modern ELAs in these valleys. The depressed ELAs during the early–mid-Pliocene most likely indicate a wetter and therefore warmer climate in the Dry Valleys during this period than previous studies have recognized.
Knowledge regarding association of dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the contribution of BCAA from meat to the risk of T2D are scarce. We evaluated associations between dietary BCAA intake, meat intake, interaction between BCAA and meat intake and risk of T2D. Data analyses were performed for 74 155 participants aged 50−79 years at baseline from the Women’s Health Initiative for up to 15 years of follow-up. We excluded from analysis participants with treated T2D, and factors potentially associated with T2D or missing covariate data. The BCAA and total meat intake was estimated from FFQ. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the relationship between BCAA intake, meat intake, and T2D, adjusting for confounders. A 20 % increment in total BCAA intake (g/d and %energy) was associated with a 7 % higher risk for T2D (hazard ratio (HR) 1·07; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·09). For total meat intake, a 20 % increment was associated with a 4 % higher risk of T2D (HR 1·04; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·05). The associations between BCAA intake and T2D were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for total meat intake. These relations did not materially differ with or without adjustment for BMI. Our results suggest that dietary BCAA and meat intake are positively associated with T2D among postmenopausal women. The association of BCAA and diabetes risk was attenuated but remained positive after adjustment for meat intake suggesting that BCAA intake in part but not in full is contributing to the association of meat with T2D risk.
The condition of the family was a subject that much preoccupied school promoters in Upper Canada. Like educators in other times and places they blamed the weaknesses of the family for many social ills; at the same time they put forth an idealized portrait of domestic relations as a major hope for social progress. Besides the usual vague complaints and exaggerated hopes, they also had some very specific anxieties about the family, among them two that were clearly associated with the spread of formal schooling and that occurred in many parts of the United States as well as in Canada. The first was the recurring suspicion that some kinds of schools, especially those controlled increasingly by the state, were gradually undermining family authority. The second, which is the subject of this essay, was intimately related to the first and concerned the education of children and adolescents away from home. How could schools and colleges replace the authority, affection, and advice normally provided by families, for these absentees from the domestic fireside?
Central to the rise of the modern state in western societies was the change from private to public schooling; an attendant feature of this shift was the development of bureaucratic modes of school organization. Recent North American studies of these related phenomena, however, present two different interpretations of their evolution. Michael Katz's and David Tyack's studies of nineteenth century American schooling have portrayed the state as the protagonist in the promotion of bureaucratic structures in education, and their arguments have been echoed in Canadian analysis. The state, according to this interpretation, set the pace of educational reform, redefined the nature of parental, communal and religious involvement in the socialization of the young, and provided the framework for the organization of schools along hierarchical and bureaucratic lines.
A story titled “The Impressionists” that was published in 1897 should have something to say about art, but does it? The sixth installment in Rudyard Kipling's Stalky & Co. series, “The Impressionists” follows the antics of M'Turk, Stalky, and Beetle, three cunning boys at a dreary English military preparatory school. Suspecting these boys of cheating on their schoolwork, housemaster Mr. Prout turns them out of their private study into the main house dormitory. For revenge, and hoping to win back their room, Stalky & Co. become agents provocateurs. They start a fight in their house and manage to involve the other housemasters’ houses: “Under cover of the confusion the three escaped to the corridor, whence they called in and sent up passers-by to the fray. ‘Rescue, King's! King's! King's! Number Twelve form-room! Rescue, Prout's – Prout's! Rescue, Macrea's! Rescue, Hartopp's!’” (102). The three boys then allow Mr. Prout to overhear a conversation that makes money-lending seem common practice in the houses: “‘Where's that shillin’ you owe me?’ said Beetle suddenly. Stalky could not see Prout behind him, but returned the lead without a quaver. ‘I only owed you ninepence, you old usurer’” (103). Stalky & Co. rile up the other boys by telling ghost stories and spreading slanderous ditties; they turn the house against the prefects and undermine Mr. Prout's authority; and in the end they win back their room, but they are also found out by the headmaster, who mixes corporeal punishment with his admonishments: “There is a limit – one finds it by experience, Beetle – beyond which it is never safe to pursue private vendettas, because – don't move – sooner or later one comes – into collision with the – higher authority, who has studied the animal. Et ego – M'Turk, please – in Arcadia vixi” (117). The boys take the headmaster's attentions as a compliment, and they take his advice. Never again do they stake the school's peace in the pursuit of their own ends.
A finite-element solution of the time-dependent mass-continuity equation for column-averaged ice-sheet flow and sliding is applied to the Antarctic ice sheet. First, a calibration of the model to the steady-state present ice-sheet configuration is presented. With fitted values of the parameters describing the regions of sliding, the degree of bed coupling and the ice hardness, a change in the mean annual sea-level temperature is used to simulate variation of the climatic conditions over Antarctica for both warming and cooling of the climate. Paradoxically, a climate warming of up to 9 deg leads to an increase in ice volume, while cooling leads to decreasing ice volume as long as the present margins of Antarctica are maintained. Some extreme simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet for “maximum over-riding” and “minimum warm climate” are shown for situations where the present bed conditions are altered. Finally, a time-dependent simulation shows the response of the ice-sheet system to cyclical variations in the simulated climate, demonstrating the lag of the ice-sheet response to be approximately 2700 years.