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In this paper, we report on the acceleration of protons and oxygen ions from tens of micrometer large water droplets by a high-intensity laser in the range of 1020 W/cm2. Proton energies of up to 6 MeV were obtained from a hybrid acceleration regime between classical Coulomb explosion and shocks. Besides the known thermal energy spectrum, a collective acceleration of oxygen ions of different charge states is observed. 3D PIC simulations and analytical models are employed to support the experiential findings and reveal the potential for further applications and studies.
To test the functional implications of impaired white matter (WM) connectivity among patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, we examined the heritability of fractional anisotropy (FA) measured on diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, and its association with cognitive performance in a unique sample of 175 multigenerational non-psychotic relatives of 23 multiplex schizophrenia families and 240 unrelated controls (total = 438).
We examined polygenic inheritance (h2r) of FA in 24 WM tracts bilaterally, and also pleiotropy to test whether heritability of FA in multiple WM tracts is secondary to genetic correlation among tracts using the Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines. Partial correlation tests examined the correlation of FA with performance on eight cognitive domains on the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery, controlling for age, sex, site and mother's education, followed by multiple comparison corrections.
Significant total additive genetic heritability of FA was observed in all three-categories of WM tracts (association, commissural and projection fibers), in total 33/48 tracts. There were significant genetic correlations in 40% of tracts. Diagnostic group main effects were observed only in tracts with significantly heritable FA. Correlation of FA with neurocognitive impairments was observed mainly in heritable tracts.
Our data show significant heritability of all three-types of tracts among relatives of schizophrenia. Significant heritability of FA of multiple tracts was not entirely due to genetic correlations among the tracts. Diagnostic group main effect and correlation with neurocognitive performance were mainly restricted to tracts with heritable FA suggesting shared genetic effects on these traits.
In this study, a hybrid dual drug-loaded hydroxyapatite-oxidized dextran methacrylate core–shell nanocarrier was formulated and explored for combinatorial delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and methotrexate (MTX) to bone cancer. The synthesized nanocarrier was well characterized by different techniques. In vitro drug release studies in both acidic (pH 5) and alkaline (pH 7.4) conditions showed sequential release of MTX followed by DOX in a sustained manner for 10 days. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity studies performed using drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) on fibroblast L929 cells and osteosarcoma MG63 cells (OMG63) showed that the NPs were highly biocompatible and showed concentration-dependent toxicity. Gene expression studies in OMG-63 cells exhibited the upregulation of caspase-3 and BAX which confirmed the apoptosis induced by dual drug-loaded NPs. The nanocarrier is expected to be a potential bone void filling material, as well as a platform for sequential delivery of DOX and MTX for the treatment of bone cancer.
The radiocarbon (14C) calibration curve so far contains annually resolved data only for a short period of time. With accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) matching the precision of decay counting, it is now possible to efficiently produce large datasets of annual resolution for calibration purposes using small amounts of wood. The radiocarbon intercomparison on single-year tree-ring samples presented here is the first to investigate specifically possible offsets between AMS laboratories at high precision. The results show that AMS laboratories are capable of measuring samples of Holocene age with an accuracy and precision that is comparable or even goes beyond what is possible with decay counting, even though they require a thousand times less wood. It also shows that not all AMS laboratories always produce results that are consistent with their stated uncertainties. The long-term benefits of studies of this kind are more accurate radiocarbon measurements with, in the future, better quantified uncertainties.
In the last few decades, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have become very popular for addressing different development challenges. The use of CCT programmes to promote enrolment in schools, improve preventive health care and increase household consumption in Latin America has been well documented. However, the potential of CCT programmes to change more deep-rooted norms is not very clear. The Shubh Laxmi scheme, a CCT programme, was started by the Government of Rajasthan, India, to improve the status of health and education among girls. A study was undertaken to understand the changes in beneficiaries’ perspectives due to scheme. A total of 95 beneficiaries were randomly selected and in-depth interviews were conducted in order to understand the impact of the scheme. In addition, two focus group discussions were conducted with 30 non-beneficiaries in order to understand their awareness about the scheme and their perceptions of girls. The findings show that the CCT programme has helped in generating a positive attitude among beneficiaries towards the survival, education and well-being of girls. The key challenge was low awareness of the scheme and of the procedures for claiming its benefits. This study highlights that CCT programmes are useful for nudging people to address gender-based inequalities in health and education among children; however, effective implementation remains key.
This essay is an outline of some of the key terms in the classical Sanskrit tradition that can be translated as “imagination.” This enables us to map a very different yet recognizable terrain for our understanding of the concept. The essay is in four parts. The first looks at the articulation of ideas recognizably centred on imagination in the performative aspects of early or Vedic texts (1500–300 BCE). The second presents various terms that approach different aspects of “imagination,” and looks at some of the genres within which these terms were thematized. The third section surveys some influential contemplative practices in which imagination was carefully explored as a disciplined way of cultivating and expanding awareness. The fourth section very briefly considers the philosophical question of the cognitive status of imagination at least in aesthetic production. The conclusion opens up discussion about how this tradition of thematizing imagination may enrich the contemporary study of imagination, whose philosophical roots lie in the Western tradition.
The present study aims to assess associations between parental depression and parental and child nutritional status and diets in Nepal.
A cross-sectional survey conducted from June to September 2017.
This monitoring survey was conducted in sixteen of forty-two Suaahara intervention districts spanning mountains, hills and plains in Nepal. Multi-stage cluster sampling was used to sample communities in this survey.
Women and men with a child 6–59 months of age were randomly selected (n 3158 mothers and children; n 826 fathers).
Overall, 36 % of mothers, 37 % of fathers and 55 % of children met minimum dietary diversity, indicating that they consumed foods from at least four of seven food groups (children) and at least five of ten food groups (adults) in the 24 h prior to the interview. The percentage of children stunted, wasted and underweight was 28, 11 and 23, respectively. Only 5 % of mothers and 3 % of fathers screened positive for moderate or severe depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥ 10). In adjusted models, we found maternal depression was positively associated with maternal underweight (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·17). Maternal and paternal depression, however, were not associated with other indicators of anthropometric status or dietary diversity.
Maternal and paternal depression, measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, were not associated with dietary diversity or anthropometric status of fathers or children in Nepal, whereas depressed mothers were at increased risk of being underweight. Additional studies are needed to further assess relationships between mental health and nutritional outcomes.
Does a concurrent verbal working memory (WM) load constrain cross-linguistic activation? In a visual world study, participants listened to Hindi (L1) or English (L2) spoken words and viewed a display containing the phonological cohort of the translation equivalent (TE cohort) of the spoken word and 3 distractors. Experiment 1 was administered without a load. Participants then maintained two or four letters (Experiment 2) or two, six or eight letters (Experiment 3) in WM and were tested on backward sequence recognition after the visual world display. Greater looks towards TE cohorts were observed in both the language directions in Experiment 1. With a load, TE cohort activation was inhibited in the L2 – L1 direction and observed only in the early stages after word onset in the L1 – L2 direction suggesting a critical role of language direction. These results indicate that cross-linguistic activation as seen through eye movements depends on cognitive resources such as WM.
The current study was undertaken to identify the sources of tolerance to bruchid in cowpea, by screening a set of germplasm accessions as a source for natural resistance. A total of 103 diverse accessions of cowpea were evaluated for resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. under no-choice artificial infestation conditions. Significant differences among the cowpea accessions were observed for oviposition, adult emergence, exit holes and per cent seed weight loss (PSWL) caused by the bruchid infestation. The accessions showed variation in physical seed parameters viz., colour, shape, testa texture, length, width and seed hardness. Among the seed biochemical parameters studied, per cent sugar content ranged from 0.322 (IC330950) to 1.493 (IC249137), and per cent phenol content ranged from 0.0326 (EC390261) to 1.081 (EC528423). Correlation studies indicated that PSWL had significant positive correlation (r = 0.335) with exit holes, oviposition (r = 0.219), adult emergence (r = 0.534) and seed roundness (r = 0.219). Adult emergence had a significant negative correlation with seed hardness (r = −0.332). Correlation with biochemical parameters indicated that PSWL had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.231) with sugar content and a significant negative correlation with phenol content (r = −0.219). None of the accessions were found to be immune to bruchid infestation. However, out of studied accessions, EC528425 and EC528387 were identified as resistant based on PSWL and moderately resistant based on adult emergence. These resistance sources of cowpea germplasm can be used as potential donors for development of bruchid tolerant/resistant cultivars.
The role of negative substrate bias voltage in influencing the microstructural evolution, along with the mechanical and scratch behavior of magnetron sputtered Ni–Zr alloyed thin films, has been investigated. The films have been deposited on a Si(100) substrate by direct current (DC) magnetron co-sputtering of high-purity elemental Ni and Zr targets, using an optimized target power in an argon atmosphere at room temperature by altering the negative substrate bias voltage (0 to −80 V). The increase in negative substrate bias voltages leads to an increase in Zr content of the investigated films. The characterization techniques such as grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies confirm that an increase in the negative substrate bias voltage leads to an increase in the volume fractions of amorphous phase and Ni3Zr, but a decrease in the deposition rate, surface roughness, and average grain sizes. Hardness and Young's modulus obtained by nanoindentation, along with the coefficient of friction obtained from nano-scratch experiments, appear to be related to the relative volume fractions of both nanocrystalline and the amorphous phase. Furthermore, increase in Ni3Zr volume fraction with decrease in grain size within the crystalline part of the film, with increase in substrate bias used during deposition may have contributed to both increase in both hardness and scratch resistance.
Examining cases of libel between 1780 and 1823, this article analyses how the theory and practice of press regulation and governmentality was initially articulated in colonial India, embodied in everyday transactions between the newly invented East India Company state and an emerging newspaper press. While Company officials recognized that scrutiny by a free press was central to establishing their fairly new claims to just governance and public legitimacy, they feared that public critique would destabilize the very sovereign authority that they sought to establish. Concerned with appearing arbitrary, officials developed strategies through which they could demand obedience without necessarily predicating it on censorship. Journalists derived much of their negotiating power from the early colonial state's vulnerability to public scrutiny, but they also knew that the state possessed extensive control over their livelihood. Cognizant of the power and constraints of colonial governmentality at this juncture, they produced their own mechanisms of permissible intransigence. This uneasy equilibrium generated the questions explored in this article: What rights of comment and critique practically accrued to newspapers? What was the legal authority of executive regulations censoring newspapers and how far were these enforceable? Why, in practice, did punishments remain strikingly similar across periods with and without formal censorship? The cases between 1780 and 1823 not only reveal the historical negotiations that structured this foundational—though somewhat marginalized—period of India's press history, but also explain the strategic shifts that followed as, in 1823, the fulcrum of crime and punishment turned away from press censorship and towards press licensing.
The purpose of this study was to examine how exposure to the armed conflict and the tsunami, perceived availability of resources, and perceived helpfulness of religious practices would predict depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and psychosocial functioning in a multi-ethnic sample of Sri Lankan youth. A sample of Tamil (174), Sinhalese (332), and Muslim (215) children (girls=391) between 12 and 19 years (mean age =14.4, sd =1.9), completed a survey including demographic questions and items assessing exposure to the conflict and the tsunami, the perceived availability of resources, and perceived helpfulness of religious practices. Scales assessing depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and psychosocial functioning were also completed. Four hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted with exposure to the conflict and tsunami, perceived availability of resources, and perceived helpfulness of religious beliefs as predictors, and with depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress and psychosocial functioning as outcomes. The results revealed that exposure to the armed conflict significantly predicted posttraumatic stress (R2 =.03, F [1,494] = 12.77, p< .001), while exposure to the tsunami predicted anxiety (R2 =.03, F [2,506] = 7.8, p< .001), and perceived availability of resources predicted depression (R2=.09, F [4,499] = 11.83, p< .001) and psychosocial functioning (R2=.098, F [4,506] = 13.67, p< .001). The results suggest that exposure to traumatic events should not be assumed to be the only or even the most important variable when considering the overall psychological and psychosocial functioning of children in developing countries and traditional cultures. Implications for interventions, policy, and future research are discussed.
Functional polymorphism in ADH2 and ALDH2 genes are considered most important among several genetic determinants of alcohol dependence (AD), a complex disorder.
There is no report on the widely studied Arg47His and Glu487Lys polymorphisms from Indian alcohol dependent population. We, for the first time, report allelic and genotypic frequencies of Arg47His and Glu487Lys SNPs in North Indian alcohol dependent subjects.
A total of n=174 alcohol dependent males, recruited using DSM IV criteria, were genotyped using PCR-RFLP method.
Data obtained from genetic analysis was correlated with clinical parameters using T test or Mann Whitney's U test. ADH2 gene polymorphism was found to be largely monomorphic with minor allele frequency (ADH2*2) < 0.001. For the ALDH2 Glu487Lys SNP, genotypic frequencies were 0.73 (2*1/*1), 0.16 (2*1/*2) and 0.11 (2*2/*2), with minor allele frequency (ALDH2*2) = 0.19. Various clinical parameters were found to be significantly associated with ALDH2 polymorphism.
The highlight of the study is a clear association of ALDH2 gene polymorphism with delayed onset and shorter duration of alcohol consumption among ALDH2*2/*2 individuals. Our finding bolsters the protection conferring property of the ALDH2*2 allele of Glu487Lys SNP of ALDH2 gene.
Transitions from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS) can often be problematic due to high eligibility thresholds, inconsistent support during transition and limited participation from young people. The TRACK Study highlighted several clinical, organizational and policy related reasons for Services to develop and implement transition protocols effectively.
Aims and objectives
This audit aims to examine whether the Trust's Transitions Policy is adhered to during transitions of young people across services. It also aims to review the qualitative experience of young people and professionals involved.
A Questionnaire Survey method was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data from involved professionals and young people who moved from CAMHS into AMHS (Aug11–Jan12). The data was analyzed against the audit criteria, which relate to specific aspects of the Transitions Policy.
A variable response rate showed that majority of the young people and involved professionals were satisfied with the planning and transfer of care with high policy adherence rates. Young people wished for better communication, more information on the nature of services offered and greater support, while professionals hoped for greater consideration of engagement levels and joint working. Alternative support was requested for declined referrals.
Improved adherence to the Transitions Policy can be achieved through proper planning, better communication, more joint working and regular feedback from young people and professionals. It can also help to achieve higher standards and continuity of clinical care to meet the needs of young people.
There is a lack of pharmacological trials studying drug response in Persistent Delusional Disorder (PDD) to guide clinical practice. Available reviews of retrospective data indicate good response to second-generation antipsychotics, but even such data from India is sparse.
Objectives and aims
We aimed to compare the response of acute PDD to risperidone and olanzapine in our retrospective review.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with PDD (ICD-10) from 2000 to 2014 (n = 455) at our Center. We selected the data of patients prescribed either olanzapine or risperidone for the purpose of this analysis. We extracted data about dose, drug compliance and response, adverse effects, number of follow-up visits and hospitalizations. The study was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee.
A total of 280/455 (61%) were prescribed risperidone and 86/455 (19%) olanzapine. The remaining (n = 89; 20%) had received other antipsychotics. The two groups were comparable in socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of PDD. Compliance was good and comparable in both groups (> 80%, P = 0.2). Response to treatment was comparable in both groups (85% partial response and > 52% good response, all P > 0.3). Olanzapine was effective at lower mean chlorpromazine equivalents than risperidone (240 vs. 391, P < 0.05).
Our study indicates a good response to both risperidone and olanzapine, if compliance to treatment can be ensured. In the absence of specific treatment guidelines for PDD, second-generation antipsychotics like risperidone and olanzapine offer good treatment options for this infrequently encountered and difficult to treat psychiatric disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Previous studies have reported depressive symptoms in patients with persistent delusional disorder (PDD). Patients with PDD and depression may need antidepressants for treatment.
The aim of the study was to compare the sociodemographic profile, clinical presentation and treatment response in patients with PDD with and without comorbid depressive symptoms.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with PDD (ICD-10) from 2000 to 2014 (n = 455). We divided the patients into PDD + depression (n = 187) and PDD only (n = 268) for analysis.
Of the 187 patients with PDD + D, only eighteen (3.9%) were diagnosed with syndromal depression. There were no significant differences in sociodemographic profile including sex, marital and socioeconomic status (all P > 0.05). PDD + D group had a significantly younger age at onset ([PDD + D: 30.6 9.2 years vs. PDD: 33.5 11.1 years]; t = 2.9, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the clinical presentation including mode of onset, the main theme of their delusion and secondary delusions (all P > 0.3). However, comorbid substance dependence was significantly higher in patients with PDD only. (χ2 = 5.3, P = 0.02). In terms of treatment, response to antipsychotics was also comparable ([> 75% response: PDD + D = 77/142 vs. PDD = 106/179); χ2 = 1.9, P = 0.3). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of antidepressant treatment ([PDD + D = 32/187; 17% vs PDD: 17/268; 6%), χ2 = 12.9, P = 0.001).
Patients with PDD + D had significantly earlier onset of illness. These patients may require antidepressants for treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.