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The study area belongs to the Singhbhum metamorphic belt of Jharkhand, situated in the eastern part of India. The spatial distribution of the index minerals in the pelitic schists of the area shows Barrovian type of metamorphism. Three isograds, viz. garnet, staurolite and sillimanite, have been delineated and the textural study of the schists has revealed a time relation between crystallization and deformation. Series of folds with shifting values of plunges in the supracrustal rocks having axial-planar schistosity to the folds have been widely cited. Development of these folds could be attributed to the second phase of deformation. In total, two phases of deformation, D1 and D2, in association with two phases of metamorphism, M1 and M2, have been lined up in the study area. Chemographic plots of reactant and product assemblages corresponding to various metamorphic reactions suggest that the pattern of metamorphic zones mapped in space is in coherence with the temporal-sequential change during prograde metamorphism. The prograde P–T evolution of the study area has been obtained using conventional geothermobarometry, internally consistent winTWQ program and Perple_X software in the MnNCKFMASHTO model system. Our observations suggest that the progressive metamorphism in the area is not related to granitic intrusion or migmatization but that it was possibly the ascending plume that resulted in the M1 phase of metamorphism followed by D1 deformation. The second and prime metamorphic phase, M2, with its possible heat source generated by crustal overloading, was preceded by D1 and it lasted until late- to post-D2 deformation.
A comprehensive study of the fundamental characteristics of leading-edge separation in rarefied hypersonic flows is undertaken and its salient features are elucidated. Separation of a boundary layer undergoing strong expansion is typical in many practical hypersonic applications such as base flows of re-entry vehicles and flows over deflected control surfaces. Boundary layer growth under such conditions is influenced by effects of rarefaction and thermal non-equilibrium, thereby differing significantly from the conventional no-slip Blasius type. A leading-edge separation configuration presents a fundamental case for studying the characteristics of such a flow separation but with minimal influence from a pre-existing boundary layer. In this work, direct simulation Monte Carlo computations have been performed to investigate flow separation and reattachment in a low-density hypersonic flow over such a configuration. Distinct features of leading-edge flow, limited boundary layer growth, separation, shear layer, flow structure in the recirculation region and reattachment are all explained in detail. The fully numerical shear layer profile after separation is compared against a semi-theoretical profile, which is obtained using the numerical separation profile as the initial condition on existing theoretical concepts of shear layer analysis based on continuum flow separation. Experimental studies have been carried out to determine the surface heat flux using thin-film gauges and computations showed good agreement with the experimental data. Flow visualisation experiments using the non-intrusive planar laser-induced fluorescence technique have been performed to image the fluorescence of nitric oxide, from which velocity and rotational temperature distributions of the separated flow region are determined.
Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive naturally after one year of regular unprotected intercourse. Most couples do not have absolute infertility but subfertility with a reduced chance of conception in each cycle due to one or more factors. Subfertility has major clinical and social implications and affects approximately thirteen to fifteen per cent of couples worldwide. In the United Kingdom, one in six to seven couples complain of infertility. Half of these couples will conceive either spontaneously or with relatively simple advice or treatment. However, eight per cent of the population remain subfertile and require more complex treatment with assisted reproductive techniques (ART) .
Background: Headaches are a major cause of disability and healthcare cost worldwide. When investigating headaches etiology, incidental unruptured intracranial aneurysms are often considered unrelated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess headaches outcomes (severity) after treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically reviewed. Results: The data from eligible studies (n=7) was extracted and analyzed. 309 nonduplicated patients provided patient-level data for analysis. All studies used the 10-point numeric rating scale (NRS). 88% of patients were treated with endovascular technique. Overall, the observed effect estimate under a random effects model was found to be a standard mean difference in pre- and post-intervention headache severity of -0.448 (95% CI: -0.566 to -0.329). No significant heterogeneity was noted. No significant publication bias was demonstrated. Conclusions: This is the first and largest systematic review assessing postoperative headache outcomes after treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysm. A significant reduction in headache intensity after treatment is observed in the current published literature. This study highlights an interesting clinical phenomenon that still warrants scientific effort before it can influence clinical practice. We encourage future study to stratify headache outcomes by aneurysm size, location and treatment modality.
Background: In aneurysms overall, a lower rate of recanalization in stent assisted coiling vs coiling alone has been observed without an increase in morbidity. This study aims to stratify and compare degree of occlusion outcome by treatment modalities. Secondarily, this study aims to stratify and compare postoperative adverse events. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched. Study center were reviewed for inclusion. We performed meta-regressions, bias analysis and fail-safe N. We controlled for the quality of the studies. Results: 396 nonduplicated patients were separated into 4 groups: microsurgical, stent-assisted coiling, coiling, stent only. Stent-assisted coiling has lower rate of retreatment (17 vs 24%) and higher rehemorrhage (5% vs 3%) compared to coiling. Stent-assisted has higher rates of complete occlusion (55% vs 45%) and lower rate of residual aneurysm (15% vs 23%) compared to coiling. Comparative analyses were performed. Microsurgical remained the most morbid modality with the best rate of complete occlusion (93%) and lowest rehemorrhage (2%) and retreatment rate (5%). Conclusions: This is the first and largest meta-analysis focusing on patients treated for basilar apex aneurysm. To our knowledge, this is the first study to stratify and compare degree of occlusion per treatment modality. This study provides benchmark numbers to guide clinicians.
The difference in the defect structures produced by different ion masses in a tungsten lattice is investigated using 80 MeV Au7+ ions and 10 MeV B3+ ions. The details of the defects produced by ions in recrystallized tungsten foil samples are studied using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocations of type b = 1/2 and  were observed in the analysis. While highly energetic gold ion produced small clusters of defects with very few dislocation lines, boron has produced large and sparse clusters with numerous dislocation lines. The difference in the defect structures could be due to the difference in separation between primary knock-on atoms produced by gold and boron ions.
The present paper uses spectral theory of linear operators to construct approximatelyminimal realizations of weighted languages. Our new contributions are: (i) a new algorithm for the singular value decomposition (SVD) decomposition of finite-rank infinite Hankel matrices based on their representation in terms of weighted automata, (ii) a new canonical form for weighted automata arising from the SVD of its corresponding Hankelmatrix, and (iii) an algorithmto construct approximateminimizations of given weighted automata by truncating the canonical form.We give bounds on the quality of our approximation.
We study and compare instability mechanisms of a Mach 5.65 laminar boundary layer tripped by an isolated diamond-shaped trip and by an array of diamond-shaped trips using direct numerical simulations. A low-Reynolds-number experiment, consisting of the trip array (Semper & Bowersox, AIAA J., vol. 55 (3), 2017, pp. 808–817), is used to validate our simulations. Three dynamically prominent flow structures are observed in both trip configurations. These flow structures are the upstream vortex system, the shock system, and the downstream shear layers/counter-rotating streamwise vortices that originate from the top and sides of the trips. Analysis of the power spectral density of pressure reveals the source of instability to be an interaction between the shear layers and the counter-rotating streamwise vortices downstream of both trip configurations. The interaction leads to the formation of hairpin-like structures that eventually break down to turbulent flow. This finding contrasts with that of an isolated cylindrical trip (Subbareddy et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 748, 2014, pp. 848–878) where the upstream vortex system is found to be the source of instability. Therefore, the shape of a trip plays an important role in the instability mechanism. Furthermore, dynamic mode decomposition (Rowley et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 641, 2009, pp. 115–127; Schmid, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 656, 2010, pp. 5–28) of three-dimensional snapshots of pressure fluctuations unveil globally dominant modes consistent with the power spectral density analysis in both diamond-shaped trip configurations.
Discs of CoCuFeMnNi face centered cubic high entropy alloy were subjected to monotonic and cyclic high pressure torsion (HPT) in a single step and multiple steps of 5° forward and reverse cycle for 100° and 360° twist, respectively, under 5 GPa pressure at room temperature. It was observed that the 100° cyclic HPT sample shows the highest hardness at the periphery comparable to 360° monotonic HPT sample, while the cyclic 360° HPT sample shows the lowest hardness throughout the sample. High hardness of 100° cyclic HPT sample can be attributed to finer grain size and unstable dislocation substructure by continuous change in strain path from initial compression to forward–reverse torsion, while stable dislocation structure corresponding to shear contributes to increase in hardness from 100° to 360° for monotonic HPT sample. The unstable dislocation substructure promotes grain boundary migration–enabled grain growth leading to low hardness throughout the 360° cyclic HPT sample.
Unusual mafic rock fragments deposited in Plio-Pleistocene-aged marine sediments were recorded at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1359, in Wilkes Land, East Antarctica. These fragments were identified from sediment layers deposited between c. 3 and 1.2 Ma, indicating a sustained supply during this time interval. Clinopyroxenes in these basalts are Al–Ti diopside–hedenbergite, uncommon in terrestrial magmatic rocks. A single strong peak in the Raman spectra of a phosphate-bearing mineral at 963 cm-1 supports the presence of merrillite. Although not conclusive, petrological traits and oxygen isotopic compositions also suggest that the fragments may be extra-terrestrial fragments affected by shock metamorphism. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the basaltic fragments incorporated in marine sediments at Site U1359 represent ice-rafted material supplied to the continental rise of East Antarctica, probably from the bedrocks near the proximal Ninnis Glacier. Further studies on Plio-Pleistocene sediments near Site U1359 are required to characterize the unusual mafic rocks described.
Stigma related to mental health and lack of trained mental health professionals is a major cause for an increased treatment gap, particularly in rural India. The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health project delivered a complex intervention involving task sharing, an anti-stigma campaign and use of technology-based, decision-support tools to empower primary care workers to identify and manage depression, anxiety, stress and suicide risk.
The aim of this article is to report changes in stigma perceptions over three time points in the rural communities where the anti-stigma campaign was conducted.
A multimedia-based anti-stigma campaign was conducted over a 3-month period in the West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Following that, the primary care-based mental health service was delivered for 1 year. The anti-stigma campaign was evaluated in two villages and data were captured at three time points over a 24-month period (N = 1417): before and after delivery of the campaign and after completion of the health services delivery intervention. Standardised tools captured data on knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards mental health as well as perceptions related to help seeking for mental illnesses.
Most knowledge, attitude and behaviour scores improved over the three time points. Overall mean scores on stigma perceptions related to help seeking improved by −0.375 (minimum/maximum of −2.7/2.4, s.d. 0.519, P < 0.001) during this time. Loss to follow-up was 10%.
The data highlight the positive effects of an anti-stigma campaign over a 2-year period.
Objectives: Aging is associated with declines in performance on certain laboratory tasks of attentional control. However, older adults tend to report greater mindful, present-moment attention and less mind-wandering (MW) than young adults. For older adults, high levels of these traits may be protective for attentional performance. This study examined age-related differences in global (i.e., full-task) and local (i.e., pre-MW) attentional control and explored the variance explained by MW and mindfulness. Methods: Cross-sectional comparisons were conducted on data from a previously reported sample of 75 older adults (ages, 60–75 years) and a new sample of 50 young adults (ages, 18–30 years). All participants completed a Go/No-Go task and a Continuous Performance Task with quasi-random MW probes. Results: There were few age-related differences in attentional control. Although MW was not associated with decrements in global performance, local performance measures revealed deleterious effects of MW, which were present across age groups. Older adults reported higher trait mindfulness and less MW than young adults, and these variables helped explain the lack of observed age-related differences in attentional control. Conclusions: Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness and MW propensity explain important variance in attentional performance across age. Increasing present-moment focus and reducing lapses in attention represent important targets for cognitive rehabilitation interventions. (JINS, 2018, 24, 876–888)
Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been used to study the defect levels in thin film copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2, CIS) which we are developing as the absorber layer for the bottom cell of a monolithically grown perovskite/CuInSe2 tandem solar cell. Temperature and laser power dependent PL measurements of thin film CIS for two different Cu/In ratios (0.66 and 0.80) have been performed. The CIS film with Cu/In = 0.80 shows a prominent donor-to-acceptor peak (DAP) involving a shallow acceptor of binding energy ∼22 meV, with phonon replica at ∼32 meV spacing. In contrast, PL measurement of CIS film for Cu/In = 0.66 taken at 20 K exhibited an asymmetric and broad PL spectrum with peaks at 0.845 eV and 0.787 eV. Laser intensity dependent PL revealed that the observed peaks 0.845 eV and 0.787 eV shift towards higher energy (aka j-shift) at ∼11.7 meV/decade and ∼ 8 meV/decade with increase in laser intensity respectively. The asymmetric and broad spectrum together with large j-shift suggests that the observed peaks at 0.845 eV and 0.787 eV were related to band-to-tail (BT) and band-to-impurity (BI) transition, respectively. Such a band-tail-related transition originates from the potential fluctuation of defect states at low temperature. The appearance of band related transition in CIS film with Cu/In = 0.66 is the indicator of the presence of large number of charged defect states.