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To assess the relapse-free survival (RFS) and the factors influencing local recurrence in patients with desmoid fibromatosis (DF) treated at our centre and to determine the role of post-operative radiotherapy (RT) in improving local control.
A retrospective analysis of 51 patients treated for DF from January 2004 to December 2013 was undertaken. The RFS was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier curve. Univariate analysis was done to assess correlation with tumour size, site, the extent of surgery, margin status and adjuvant RT with RFS.
The median age was 28 years with a male:female ratio of 1:3. The most common location of the tumour was anterior abdominal wall (47%). The median tumour size was 10 cm. Wide local excision was done in most patients. Complete resection with negative margin was achieved in eight patients. Post-operative RT was indicated for 43 patients of whom 19 received RT. At a median follow-up of 37 months, RFS in the complete resection with margin negative group was 100%. RFS for the patients with positive or close margins who received RT was 79% and for those who did not receive RT, it was 87%.
Complete excision with negative margins gives the best local control in DF. The benefit of post-operative RT could not be ascertained.
This article presents a potential analytic redundancy approach to detect faults in the air data sensor of an aircraft. In modern aircraft, fault detection of air data sensors is performed using a complex voting mechanism, which requires the availability of redundant air data sensor in all situations. However, to continuously monitor operation and performance of these sensors, the analytic redundancy-based air data estimation and fault detection is highly preferred than estimation with air data probe measurements. The proposed algorithm uses the kinematics of aircraft to estimate air data and detect air data sensor fault. In this paper, a simple mathematical model is developed, which does not consider the forces and moments acting on aircraft and uses measurements only from the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and Navigation System Data (NSD). In order to implement this approach, the Iterated Optimal Extended Kalman Filter (IOEKF) is developed to estimate air data, which provides an accurate and stable estimation. With the estimated states, the physical air data sensor measurements are compared and the residual is calculated to track each sensor performance and to detect the occurrence of a fault. The key advantage of this approach is that it does not require complex dynamic equations and is free from system uncertainties. The proposed algorithm is simulated in MATLAB software using flight simulator flight data and validated using the real-time flight data of Cessna Citation II transport aircraft.
crop diversity in the fields of the developing world has changed fundamentally over the past 200 years with the intensification and commercialisation of agriculture. This process accelerated with the advent of the Green Revolution (GR) in the 1960s when public sector researchers and donors explicitly promoted the international transfer of improved seed varieties to farmers in developing countries. Since the GR, the germplasm that dominates the area planted to the major cereals has shifted from ‘landraces’ or the locally adapted populations that farmers have historically selected from seed they save, to ‘modern varieties’ or the more widely adapted seed types produced by scientific plant breeding programmes and purchased by farmers.
We consider single-server scheduling to minimize holding costs where the capacity, or rate of service, depends on the number of jobs in the system, and job sizes become known upon arrival. In general, this is a hard problem, and counter-intuitive behavior can occur. For example, even with linear holding costs the optimal policy may be something other than SRPT or LRPT, it may idle, and it may depend on the arrival rate. We first establish an equivalence between our problem of deciding which jobs to serve when completed jobs immediately leave, and a problem in which we have the option to hold on to completed jobs and can choose when to release them, and in which we always serve jobs according to SRPT. We thus reduce the problem to determining the release times of completed jobs. For the clearing, or transient system, where all jobs are present at time 0, we give a complete characterization of the optimal policy and show that it is fully determined by the cost-to-capacity ratio. With arrivals, the problem is much more complicated, and we can obtain only partial results.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Drug repositioning has the potential to accelerate translation of novel cancer chemotherapeutics from bench to bedside. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of ciclopirox olamine (CPX) on esophageal tumor cells. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We tested the effect of CPX on four esophageal cancer cell lines, assessing cell proliferation and viability by hexosaminidase and clonogenicity assay, respectively. We analyzed the effects of CPX on three-dimensional (3D) esophageal tumor cell spheroids. We also analyzed effects on cell cycle by flow cytometry. For mechanism, we performed western blots for proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. For in vivo effects, we performed a murine xenograft model with intraperitoneal administration of CPX (100 mg/Kg body weight daily). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: CPX inhibited growth of all cell lines in a time and concentration-dependent manner. CPX also inhibited growth of esophageal spheroids. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated G0/G1 arrest in cells treated with CPX. Western blot analyses demonstrated decreased expression of cyclinD1, CDK4, CDK6, and transcriptionally active β-catenin, supporting the role of CPX in cell cycle inhibition and decreased β-catenin activity. Finally, treatment of nude mice with CPX significantly decreased tumor xenograft volume. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: CPX demonstrates anti-tumor properties in esophageal cancer cell lines. The current results justify further research into the mechanism of this inhibition. Additionally, given its established safety in humans, CPX is a potential candidate for repositioning as an adjunct treatment for esophageal cancer.
for any interval
, where the quantity
is defined by
denotes the Sato–Tate measure of the interval
Lithium remains to be the drug of choice for treating BPAD for the past few decades. There is extensive literature showing the effectiveness of Lithium when used as a mood stabilizing agent in bipolar spectrum disorders. However significant number of articles show that a third of the patients who receive lithium for their symptomology not only do not show any response but also may show deterioration of their clinical symptoms. (However, research shows that Lithium may negatively affect a third of the patients depending on various factors). The side effect profile of Lithium and especially its neurotoxic effects were discussed in depth in literature over the last decade. Although Lithium remains first choice as maintenance treatment for bipolar affective disorder, about half of all individuals may stop their treatment at some point, despite its proven benefits concerning the prevention of severe affective episodes and suicide.
The authors performed a systematic literature review to recognize the significance of negative effects of Lithium in a minority of patient population and also comment on the factors influencing patient compliance. We ran a literature search on Pubmed using the following terms: “Lithium” AND (“schizoaffective disorder [MeSH terms]” OR “Bipolar Affective disorder [MeSH terms]” ). Our inclusion criteria were studies which have observed effects of Lithium in schizoaffective patient population or bipolar affective patient population. Studies with other concurrent diagnoses were excluded.
We discuss a fifty nine year old male with a history of multiple admissions to a forensic hospital care setting. He initially endorsed a diagnosis of Psychotic disorder NOS which was later changed to schizoaffective disorder during his subsequent admissions. He presented with affective psychotic features where his mood was labile shifting from melancholic to euphoric and a concurrent history of auditory verbal hallucinations. He displayed paranoid non-bizarre persecutory delusions and also alleged that one of his doctors had hated him and put him on Lithium as a form of punishment. He claims that Lithium, as a result, has significantly affected him negatively and also damaged his nerves. This led the authors to explore the significance of use of Lithiumin people with schizoaffective disorders and also bipolar affective disorders. We also discuss the disease course in the patient and his clinical response to use of various psychotropic medications.
The case exemplifies the negative effects of Lithium when used as a mood stabilizer in patient population that is susceptible to its adverse effects due to various factors.
My goal in this article is to explicate the perspective of Kierkegaard's pseudonymous author, Johannes Climacus, on the leap to faith, based on Climacus’ presentation in Philosophical Crumbs. I will argue that for Climacus, during the moment in which this leap is a possibility, while God must bring to the individual both the truth and the condition for understanding it, the leap is a decision by the individual, an existential decision to believe. In attempting to understand Climacus, it is important to use his definition of faith—namely, that faith is a passion and that it is the condition for understanding the paradox of the Christian conception of the Incarnation (as opposed to a synonym for religiosity), because this allows us to understand why faith is not an act of will but is simultaneously a decision (because belief is a free expression of will).
The present work aims to understand the effect of zinc and rare-earth element addition (i.e., 2 wt% Gd, 2 wt% Dy, and 2 wt% of Gd and Nd individually) on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion behavior, and cytotoxicity of Mg for biomedical application. The microstructure results indicate that the Mg–Zn–Gd alloy consists of the lamellar long period stacking ordered phase. The electrochemical and immersion corrosion behavior were studied in Hanks balanced salt solution. Enhanced corrosion resistance with reduced hydrogen evolution volume and magnesium (Mg2+) ion release were estimated for the Mg–Zn–Gd alloy as compared to the other two alloy systems. At the early stage of corrosion, formation of the oxide film inhibited the corrosion propagation. However, at the later stages, the breaking of the oxide film leads to shallow pitting mode of corrosion. The ultimate tensile strength of Mg–Zn–Gd–Nd is better than the other two alloys due to the uniform distribution of the Mg12Nd precipitate phase. The moderate strength in the Mg–Zn–Gd alloy is due to the low volume fraction of the secondary phase. The MTT (methylthiazoldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay study was carried out to understand the cell cytotoxicity on the alloy surfaces. Studies revealed that all three alloys had significant cellular adherence and no adverse effect on cells.
The evolutionary-aided design process is a method to find solutions to design and optimisation problems. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are applied to search for optimal solutions from a solution space that evolves over several generations. EAs have found applications in many areas of robotics. This paper covers the efforts to determine body morphology of robots through evolution and body morphology with the controller of robots or similar creatures through co-evolution. The works are reviewed from the perspective of how different algorithms are applied and includes a brief explanation of how they are implemented.
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a locally aggressive intermediate malignancy.
The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to determine the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in local control of DFSP.
Patients and methods
The recurrence-free survival (RFS) for 45 patients treated for DFSP at our institution was estimated and compared between surgery alone and postoperative RT groups.
Age range of the patients were in the third and fourth decades; males:females=2:1; most common site: anterior abdominal wall; tumours >5 cm in size in 75%; low grade in 77·8%; margins positive in 31·8% and <5 mm margins in 45·5%. Two-thirds of patients had at least one recurrence before presentation to our institution. RT dose was >50 Gy in 88% of patients. The patients treated with postoperative RT had poorer prognostic factors compared with surgery alone: they were males (17 versus 13 patients), and presented with high-grade tumours (5 versus 1 patients), multiple recurrences prior to presentation (25 versus 20 patients) and positive or <5 mm margins (22 versus 12 patients). Median follow-up for surgery alone group was 17 (1–152) months and for postoperative RT group, this was 54 (5–121) months. RFS at 5 years was 77·1% for surgery alone and 87·9% for postoperative RT group but was not statistically significant. The median time to recurrence was 4 years.
RT delays the time to recurrence in DFSP. RT improves the outcome of DFSP for recurrent tumours and with positive margins.
In this work, morphology, viability, and metabolism of the amniotic mesenchymal stem cells conditioned with different citric acid (CA)/media ratios were investigated using rhodamine-phalloidin/4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, live/dead assay, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay). The cells cultured in 25:75 CA/media displayed well spread actin filaments with a prominent nucleus and evidenced optimum viability. The gelation kinetics of chitosan solution in CA/media (25:75) was monitored via dynamic time sweep analysis on a rheometer. The chemical cross-linking of chitosan with CA was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Subsequently, chitosan solution was extruded in CA/media bath containing cells under benign conditions to form cell-laden fibers (living fibers). The prelabeled cells imaged immediately after fiber formation confirmed the attachment of the cells on the fibers. This approach has several advantages including instantaneous gelation, tunable mechanical properties, and adjustable biodegradability that can provide a platform technology for creating viable three dimensional (3D) building blocks for tissue engineering applications.
For 94 patients with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, time-to-detection (TTD), acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear, and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) results were reviewed. All 12 patients whose first specimen was negative by AFB smear and NAAT had prolonged TTD, indicating low transmissibility and supporting discontinuing isolation for low-risk patients.
Placental structure and function determine birth outcomes. Placental mass does not always correlate with fetal birth weight (BW) in uncomplicated pregnancies which raises the possibility of other variables such as placental shape and cord insertion being the determinants of placental efficiency. In total, 160 women with singleton pregnancy, recruited into a pregnancy cohort were studied. Placental weight (PW) was measured and other data were obtained from clinical records. Birth outcomes were classified as small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) based on fetal gender, gestational age (GA) and BW. High-resolution images of the chorionic plate were recorded. The shape of the placenta and the insertion of the cord were measured using eccentricity index (EI) and cord centrality index (CCI). Only placentae with eccentrically inserted cords (n=136) were included. The mean BW and PW were 2942 (±435) g and 414 (±82) g with average GA of 38.6 weeks. The mean CCI and EI was 0.483 (±0.17) and 0.482 (±0.16). Neither of these correlated with placental efficiency. However, EI showed negative correlation with placental surface area and breadth. Upon sub-grouping the cohort into SGA (n=32) and AGA (n=104), the SGA babies with the highest EI (third tertile) had significantly lower BW than those with the least eccentric placentae (first tertile). Although eccentric-shaped placentae were present in both SGA and AGA groups, the effect on BW was observed only in the SGA group.
An integrated experimental – simulation – control theory approach designed to enable adaptive control of microstructural evolution in polycrystalline metals is described. A micro-heater array, containing ten addressable channels, is used to create desired temperature profiles across thin polycrystalline films in situ to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The goal is that on heating with controlled temperature profiles, the evolution of grain growth within the film can be continuously monitored and compared to Monte Carlo simulations of trajectories towards a desired microstructure. Feed-forward and feedback control strategies are then used to guide the microstructure along the desired trajectory.
Genetic diversity and relationship of 92 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes from India and exotic collections were examined using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and phenotypic traits to identify new sources of diversity that could accelerate the development of improved wheat varieties better suited to meet the challenges posed by heat stress in India. Genetic diversity assessed by using 82 SSR markers was compared with diversity evaluated using five physiological and six agronomic traits under the heat stress condition. A total of 248 alleles were detected, with a range of two to eight alleles per locus. The average polymorphic information content value was 0.37, with a range of 0.04 (cfd9) to 0.68 (wmc339). The heat susceptibility index was determined for grain yield per spike, and the genotypes were grouped into four categories. Two dendrograms that were constructed based on phenotypic and molecular analysis using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) were found to be topologically different. Genotypes characterized as highly heat tolerant were distributed among all the SSR-based cluster groups. This implies that the genetic basis of heat stress tolerance in these genotypes is different, thereby enabling wheat breeders to combine these diverse sources of genetic variability to improve heat tolerance in their breeding programmes.
Se is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth, development and antioxidant defence. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of dietary Se sources and levels on the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. First-feeding fry (initial body weight: 91 mg) were fed either a plant- or fishmeal-based diet containing 0·5 or 1·2 mg Se/kg diet supplemented or not with 0·3 mg Se/kg diet supplied as Se-enriched yeast or sodium selenite for 12 weeks at 17°C. Growth and survival of rainbow trout fry were not significantly affected by dietary Se sources and levels. Whole-body Se was raised by both Se sources and to a greater extent by Se-yeast. The reduced:oxidised glutathione ratio was raised by Se-yeast, whereas other lipid peroxidation markers were not affected by dietary Se. Whole-body Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was enhanced in fish fed Se-yeast compared to fish fed sodium selenite or non-supplemented diets. Activity and gene expression of this enzyme as well as gene expression of selenoprotein P (SelP) were reduced in fish fed the non-supplemented plant-based diet. Catalase, glutamate–cysteine ligase and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expressions were reduced by Se-yeast. These results suggest the necessity to supplement plant-based diets with Se for rainbow trout fry, and highlight the superiority of organic form of Se to fulfil the dietary Se requirement and sustain the antioxidant status of fish. GPX and SelP expression proved to be good markers of Se status in fish.
This article presents the complex pedagogical challenges and triumphs of an
experience of teaching “postcolonial film.” It contains a
template for teaching undergraduate students both film studies skills and
critical skills to tackle postcolonial artistic creation in its widest
respective theoretical and historical context. It also suggests ways for nonfilm
studies specialists to integrate close study of a film within a course otherwise
using text-based materials. An explication de texte is the most
basic exercise that yields complex analyses of any sutured
“text” and provides opportunities for sustained dialogue
between the student and material. The highly sophisticated, creative,
meticulous, and generative readings that students have produced in my experience
of beginning every class curriculum with this most basic method of the French
tradition has convinced me of its value for insightful reading and clear writing
at all levels. I offer this example of explication, taken from
my method of presenting and discussing a film, for instructors to modify for
their purposes and, more specifically, to adapt film meaningfully into their