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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with reduced life expectancy in patients with affective disorders, however, whether MetS also plays a role before the onset of affective disorder is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether MetS, inflammatory markers or oxidative stress act as risk factors for affective disorders, and whether MetS is associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress.
We conducted a high-risk study including 204 monozygotic (MZ) twins with unipolar or bipolar disorder in remission or partial remission (affected), their unaffected co-twins (high-risk) and twins with no personal or family history of affective disorder (low-risk). Metabolic Syndrome was ascertained according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Inflammatory markers and markers of oxidative stress were analyzed from fasting blood and urine samples, respectively.
The affected and the high-risk group had a significantly higher prevalence of MetS compared to the low-risk group (20% v. 15% v. 2.5%, p = 0.0006), even after adjusting for sex, age, smoking and alcohol consumption. No differences in inflammatory and oxidative markers were seen between the three groups. Further, MetS was associated with alterations in inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress was modestly correlated with inflammation.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with low-grade inflammation and may act as a risk factor and a trait marker for affective disorders. If confirmed in longitudinal studies, this suggests the importance of early intervention and preventive approaches targeted towards unhealthy lifestyle factors that may contribute to later psychopathology.
This paper reviews the effects of extended lactation (EXT) as a strategy in dairy cattle on milk production and persistency, reproduction, milk quality, lifetime performance of the cow and finally the economic effects on herd and farm levels as well as the impact on emission of greenhouse gas at product level. Primiparous cows are able to produce equal or more milk per feeding day during EXT compared with a standard 305-d lactation, whereas results for multiparous cows are inconsistent. Cows managed for EXT can achieve a higher lifetime production while delivering milk with unchanged or improved quality properties. Delaying insemination enhances mounting behaviour and allows insemination after the cow’s energy balance has become positive. However, in most cases EXT has no effect or a non-significant positive effect on reproduction. The EXT strategy sets off a cascade of effects at herd and farm level. Thus, the EXT strategy leads to fewer calvings and thereby expected fewer diseases, fewer replacement heifers and fewer dry days per cow per year. The optimal lifetime scenario for milk production was modelled to be an EXT of 16 months for first parity cows followed by an EXT of 10 months for later lactations. Modelling studies of herd dynamics indicate a positive effect of EXT on lifetime efficiency (milk per dry matter intake), mainly originating from benefits of EXT on daily milk yield in primiparous cows and the reduced number of replacement heifers. Consequently, EXT also leads to reduced total meat production at herd level. For the farmer, EXT can give the same economic return as a traditional lactation period. At farm level, EXT can contribute to a reduction in the environmental impact of dairy production, mainly as a consequence of the reduced production of beef. A wider dissemination of the EXT concept will be supported by methods to predict which cows may be most suitable for EXT, and clarification of how milking frequency and feeding strategy through the lactation can be organised to support milk yield and an appropriate body condition at the next calving.
A growing body of literature indicates that corporal punishment (CP) has the potential to adversely affect the mental and physical wellbeing of children in childhood as well as into adulthood. Corporal punishment of children in the home is legal in all states and territories in Australia, but not much is known about this type of family violence in the Australian context. This article presents a review of the literature currently available on the prevalence of CP of children in the home in Australia, covering online surveys, academic research, government data and grey literature. The role of online surveys is examined, and the lack of data available from government studies concerned with the wellbeing of children is also explored. There is found to be an overall lack of consistent data available on CP of children in the home in Australia, and this article calls on researchers and policymakers to further research and act on this aspect of family violence.
Background. Previous studies have shown a potential for cannabis in disorders of the digestive organs. We aimed to investigate whether cannabis use disorders (CUD) would decrease the risk of incident disorders of the digestive organs, in people with schizophrenia and population controls.
Methods. We combined nationwide Danish registers to identify 21 066 cases with schizophrenia and 176 935 sex-and-age-matched controls. Two models were analyzed for the associations between CUD and digestive disorders in time-varying Cox regressions: one adjusted for sex, year of birth, and calendar year; and one further adjusted for alcohol and other substance use disorders and parental education.
Results. CUD was associated with a decreased risk of developing disorders of gut–brain interaction (e.g. irritable bowel syndrome, dyspepsia, etc.) among cases with schizophrenia (HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.74–0.94, p = 0.003). CUD was associated with decreased risk of inflammatory bowel disease (HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.49–0.99, p = 0.045) in the basically adjusted model, dropping just below statistical significance in the fully adjusted model (HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.48–1.03, p = 0.07). CUD displayed a tendency toward a decreased risk of serious disorders of the digestive organs among cases with schizophrenia (HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.77–1.02, p = 0.09) in the fully adjusted model. No associations were observed among controls.
Conclusions. In people with schizophrenia, but not in controls, CUD is associated with decreased risk of disorders of gut–brain interaction and inflammatory bowel disease, and possibly other serious disorders of the digestive organs. Our findings could lead to new targets for treatment and prevention of disorders of the digestive organs.
Oxidative stress has been suggested to increase after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a treatment which continues to be the most effective for severe depression. Oxidative stress could potentially be mechanistically involved in both the therapeutic effects and side effects of ECT.
We measured sensitive markers of systemic and central nervous system (CNS) oxidative stress on DNA and RNA (urinary 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo, cerebrospinal fluid 8-oxoGuo, and brain oxoguanine glycosylase mRNA expression) in male rats subjected to electroconvulsive stimulations (ECS), an animal model of ECT. Due to the previous observations that link hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and age to DNA/RNA damage from oxidation, groups of young and middle-aged male animals were included, and markers of HPA-axis activity were measured.
ECS induced weight loss, increased corticosterone (only in middle-aged animals), and decreased cerebral glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression, while largely leaving the markers of systemic and CNS DNA/RNA damage from oxidation unaltered.
These results suggest that ECS is not associated with any lasting effects on oxidative stress on nucleic acids neither in young nor middle-aged rats.
Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression, less than half of patients achieve satisfactory symptom reduction during treatment. Targeting known psychopathological processes such as rumination may increase treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to test whether adding group rumination-focused CBT (RFCBT) that explicitly targets rumination to routine medical management is superior to adding group CBT to routine medical management in treating major depression.
A total of 131 outpatients with major depression were randomly allocated to 12 sessions group RFCBT v. group CBT, each in addition to routine medical management. The primary outcome was observer-rated symptoms of depression at the end of treatment measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Secondary outcomes were rumination at post-treatment and depressive symptoms at 6 months follow-up (Trial registered: NCT02278224).
RFCBT significantly improved observer-rated depressive symptoms (Cohen's d 0.38; 95% CI 0.03–0.73) relative to group CBT at post-treatment on the primary outcome. No post-treatment differences were found in rumination or in depressive symptoms at 6 months follow-up, although these secondary analyses may have been underpowered.
This is the first randomized controlled trial providing evidence of benefits of RFCBT in major depression compared with CBT. Group RFCBT may be a beneficial alternative to group CBT for major depression.
Based on studies of types and recent collections, the number of species of Etlingera Giseke in the Philippines is doubled from eight to 16. Three species (Etlingera alba, E. brevilabrum and E. sessilanthera) are reported here for the first time, E. pandanicarpa is synonymised with the Bornean E. fimbriobracteata, and four new combinations (E. bulusanensis, E. linearifolia, E. pubimarginata and E. subviridis) and one new name (E. pilosa) are published here. Nine lectotypifications are proposed, of which three represent second-step designations. About two-thirds of the species are currently thought to be endemic, but future fieldwork is likely to result in more species of Etlingera in the Philippines, either endemic or as new records from neighbouring islands.
Betting quotes provide valuable information on market-implied probabilities for outcomes of events such as elections or referendums, which may have an impact on exchange rates. We generate exchange-rate forecasts around such events based on a model that combines risk-neutral event probabilities implied from betting quotes with risk-neutral exchange-rate densities extracted from currency option prices. Its application to predict exchange rates around the Brexit referendum and the U.S. presidential elections shows that these forecasts, conditional on the respective outcomes, were accurate, and markets were able to separate their views on the likelihood and the impact of these events.
Owing to massive improvements in the diagnostics and surgery of children with CHD, fatality has decreased substantially. As more children with CHD survive from infancy into later childhood, more will need medication for chronic heart failure. However, surprisingly little is actually known about which drugs are being used to treat children with CHD, and whether prescription rates and CHD prevalence have changed over time.
The objective of this study was to assess the total prescription of cardiovascular drugs to children during an 18-year period and to assess concomitant CHD prevalence.
All prescription data of cardiovascular drugs to children aged 0–19 years were extracted from publicly available databases in Norway and Denmark from 1999 to 2016. This was coupled with data on CHD prevalence and birth rates.
The number of defined daily doses of cardiovascular drugs prescribed to children doubled in the study period. This was because of an increased use of beta blockers, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and anti-arrhythmic agents. The use of some classes of drugs was significantly reduced over time. The prevalence of CHD remained constant in both countries – 80 per 10,000 births.
We show that there is an increase in the overall prescription of cardiovascular drugs to children. Beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blockers, and anti-arrhythmics account for the largest increase. Birth rates decreased or remained constant together with CHD prevalence, suggesting that the increased use of cardiovascular drugs reflected increased prescription per patient, rather than more patients receiving a constant amount of drugs.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been widely acknowledged as a prominent problem throughout Australia. A growing body of research has linked corporal punishment of children in the home with numerous adverse outcomes both in childhood and adulthood. Some of these adverse outcomes in childhood, such as aggression and antisocial behaviour, may be antecedents for involvement in violence as an adult. Adverse longitudinal outcomes of corporal punishment in childhood include involvement in intimate partner violence as an adult, both as victim and as perpetrator. Corporal punishment is a type of family violence that is legal in Australia, yet its role in the family violence scenario is not yet fully appreciated. This article presents extant scientific literature on the link between corporal punishment in childhood and involvement in intimate partner violence in adulthood, and argues for the employment of this knowledge in the implementation of policy making around corporal punishment of children.
This article analyzes the competitive strategies of Odense Steel Shipyard between 1918 and 2012 and challenges existing scholarship on competition in global industries. Until the 1980s, the yard adopted typical strategies in shipbuilding, starting with cost leadership and subsequently adopting global segmentation and differentiation strategies. From the mid-1980s, however, it successfully followed a unique national responsiveness strategy, which scholars including Dong Sung Cho and Michael E. Porter had ruled out in shipbuilding. The article shows how shipyard owners shaped strategies and influenced competitiveness.
Varicella, usually a mild disease of childhood, can also cause complications and hospitalization. Universal varicella immunization is implemented in several countries worldwide, but not in Denmark. Taking advantage of unique national registers, we aimed to estimate the incidence of paediatric varicella hospitalizations and assess determinants for hospitalization. For this purpose, we designed a nationwide, retrospective register study of paediatric varicella hospitalizations and applied a case–cohort design and logistic regression analysis comparing hospitalized varicella patients to a sample of the entire paediatric population in Denmark. Varicella patients were identified in The Danish National Patient Register and referents were randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. The incidence of paediatric varicella admissions was 11/100 000 children 0–18 years of age/year. Of admitted children 67·1% had complications and 30·0% had underlying disease. All categories of underlying disease significantly increased the odds of hospitalization as well as male gender and not having been born in Denmark. In conclusion, we found a considerable burden of paediatric varicella disease in Danish hospitals, of similar magnitude as in other European countries comparable to Denmark. With this study we have provided epidemiological data needed for considering implementation of varicella vaccine in Denmark.
The aim of this study was to characterise the gut microbiota composition of piglets fed bovine colostrum (BC), milk replacer (MR) or sow milk (SM) in the post-weaning period. Piglets (n 36), 23-d old, were randomly allocated to the three diets. Faecal samples were collected at 23, 25, 27 and 30 d of age. Digesta from the stomach, ileum, caecum and mid-colon was collected at 30 d of age. Bacterial DNA from all samples was subjected to amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial enumerations by culture and SCFA analysis were conducted as well. BC-piglets had the highest abundance of Lactococcus in the stomach (P<0·0001) and ileal (P<0·0001) digesta, whereas SM-piglets had the highest abundance of Lactobacillus in the stomach digesta (P<0·0001). MR-piglets had a high abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in the ileal digesta (P<0·0001) and a higher number of haemolytic bacteria in ileal (P=0·0002) and mid-colon (P=0·001) digesta than SM-piglets. BC-piglets showed the highest colonic concentration of iso-butyric and iso-valeric acid (P=0·02). Sequencing and culture showed that MR-piglets were colonised by a higher number of Enterobacteriaceae, whereas the gut microbiota of BC-piglets was characterised by a change in lactic acid bacteria genera when compared with SM-piglets. We conclude that especially the ileal microbiota of BC-piglets had a closer resemblance to that of SM-piglets in regard to the abundance of potential enteric pathogens than did MR-piglets. The results indicate that BC may be a useful substitute for regular milk replacers, and as a feeding supplement in the immediate post-weaning period.
• Understand the challenges businesses face in addressing the environmental impact of their activities.
• Appreciate how business environmental strategy may align and/or clash with international, regional and national regulation.
• Understand the potential and limitations of self-regulation and multi-stakeholder voluntary initiatives on environmental governance.
• Identify the push and pull factors that may facilitate the transmission of environmental performance demands up and down the value chain.
Increased consumer awareness of the environmental impact of production and transportation of goods, numerous campaigns and direct action by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other civil society groups, and emerging national and international regulation are leading business to assess and address the environmental impact of activities linked to its products, also beyond those carried in-house (Dauvergne and Lister, 2012).
Business can do much in reducing the environmental footprint of its own operations. But the fact that production is increasingly fragmented in geographical and organisational terms poses specific challenges in transmitting environmental demands to other supply chain actors. The many scandals that have touched branded companies in particular have led them to devise environmental strategies for their own operations and for those of their suppliers to avoid reputational risk, and to increasingly participate in multi-stakeholder initiatives addressing sustainability issues in supply chains (Nadvi, 2008; Vurro et al., 2010; Wahl and Bull, 2014).
Environmental improvements that business can implement on its own include those affecting production, processing, distribution, consumption and disposal or recycling. Sometimes, these processes lead to net cost reductions for operators due to, for example, increased efficiency or reduced energy consumption. Other times, they lead to net value addition, for example through the creation and certification of new environmental qualities that become embedded in products selling at a premium price. But they can also impose net costs. If net costs of environmental improvements in the short term are recouped in the long term, there is still a business case to carry them out. If net additional costs are permanent, firms will carry out environmental improvement only if all competitors do so, either through regulation or through industry-wide voluntary standards (Orsato, 2011).
The new genus and species Ducatina umbilicata is described from Îles Crozet and Îles Kerguelen. This lichen is characterized by an umbilicate thallus with a black verrucose lower surface and a greyish to dark olivaceous smooth upper surface having large verrucae, large semi-immersed cephalodia, semi-immersed apothecia with a prominent thalline margin, simple, mainly ellipsoid ascospores of 23–42×12–25 µm and the presence of unknown chemical compounds. Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU and mtSSU sequences place Ducatina in the Trapeliaceae (Baeomycetales). The new taxon is closely related to Orceolina antarctica and O. kerguelensis, two other lichens endemic to these subantarctic islands, differing by its morphology and the lack of chemical compounds. Ducatina is the only genus in the Trapeliaceae to develop a large umbilicate thallus.