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In this paper we use formal tools from category theory to develop a foundation for creating and managing models in systems where knowledge is distributed across multiple representations and formats. We define a class of models which incorporate three different representations---computations, logical semantics, and data--as well as model mappings (functors) to establish relationships between them. We prove that our models support model merge operations called colimits and use these to define a methodology for model integration.
Recent archaeological survey and excavation in China have demonstrated that large sites of the late fourth and third millennia BC were situated not on the Central Plains—where the later dynastic centres were located—but along the Yangtze and lower Yellow River Basins. Their decline in the late third and second millennia BC coincided with the growth of sites to the north of the Central Plains. Evidence for settlement size and a new chronology constructed from radiocarbon dates emphasise discontinuities in the geographic distribution of settlements, combined with continuity in cultural practices of ritual feasts and the use of symbolic jades.
Many materials systems comprise complex structures where multiple materials are integrated to achieve a desired performance. Often in these systems, it is a combination of both the materials and their structure that dictate performance. Here the authors layout an integrated computational–statistical–experimental methodology for hierarchical materials systems that takes a holistic design approach to both the material and structure. The authors used computational modeling of the physical system combined with statistical design of experiments to explore an activated carbon adsorption bed. The large parameter space makes experimental optimization impractical. Instead, a computational–statistical approach is coupled with physical experiments to validate the optimization results.
Some patients presenting to rural or regional hospitals may be deteriorating so rapidly that emergency procedures might be necessary before transfer to specialist facilities. Such interventions might include placement of an ICC, establishing a surgical airway, evacuation of an EDH, laparotomy, or intra-abdominal packing. The treating clinician may have had little or no experience in the procedure. Interactive telepresence technology offers further point of care support to the treating clinicians through the virtual presence of a specialist from a major trauma center.
To explore the feasibility of wearable interactive telepresence technology that can provide sub-specialist support to remote clinicians treating patients with traumatic injuries.
Thirty-seven wearable near-field display devices and annotation software applications were tested against a set of pre-specified technical and user experience requirements. A shortlist of three devices and two software applications underwent usability evaluations with a convenience sample of 24 junior clinicians and sub-specialists. The junior clinicians trialed the wearable devices and the sub-specialists trialed the annotation applications in three simulated trauma scenarios. Measures included participants’ ratings of acceptance and workload, technical issues encountered (e.g. frequency of call drop-outs), and anecdotal comments.
Participants’ subjective ratings of the solutions and anecdotal feedback were positive. However, there was no clear solution that satisfied the functionality and ease-of-use requirements for all participants. For example, the solutions that were rated more favorably by the junior clinicians were rated less favorably by the sub-specialists, and vice versa.
This work provided preliminary evidence of the feasibility and usefulness of interactive telepresence technology in healthcare. A second phase of usability testing is currently underway to explore additional device and software combinations, including those with augmented reality functionality. Future phases of the project will evaluate the solutions under higher-fidelity conditions followed by in-situ trials across selected regional centers.
The Avebury henge is one of the famous megalithic monuments of the European Neolithic, yet much remains unknown about the detail and chronology of its construction. Here, the results of a new geophysical survey and re-examination of earlier excavation records illuminate the earliest beginnings of the monument. The authors suggest that Avebury's Southern Inner Circle was constructed to memorialise and monumentalise the site of a much earlier ‘foundational’ house. The significance here resides in the way that traces of habitation may take on special social and historical value, leading to their marking and commemoration through major acts of monument building.
To assess current performance and identify opportunities and reforms necessary for positioning a food standards programme to help protect public health against dietary risk factors.
A case study design in which a food standards programme’s public health protection performance was analysed against an adapted Donabedian model for assessing health-care quality. The criteria were the food standards programme’s structure (governance arrangements and membership of its decision-making committees), process (decision-making tools, public engagement and transparency) and food standards outcomes, which provided the information base on which performance quality was inferred.
The Australia and New Zealand food standards programme.
The structure, process and outcomes of the Programme.
The Programme’s structure and processes produce food standards outcomes that perform well in protecting public health from risks associated with nutrient intake excess or inadequacy. The Programme performs less well in protecting public health from the proliferation and marketing of ‘discretionary’ foods that can exacerbate dietary risks. Opportunities to set food standards to help protect public health against dietary risks are identified.
The structures and decision-making processes used in food standards programmes need to be reformed so they are fit for purpose for helping combat dietary risks caused by dietary excess and imbalances. Priorities include reforming the risk analysis framework, including the nutrient profiling scoring criterion, by extending their nutrition science orientation from a nutrient (reductionist) paradigm to be more inclusive of a food/diet (holistic) paradigm.
Geologists and archaeologists have long known that the bluestones of Stonehenge came from the Preseli Hills of west Wales, 230km away, but only recently have some of their exact geological sources been identified. Two of these quarries—Carn Goedog and Craig Rhos-y-felin—have now been excavated to reveal evidence of megalith quarrying around 3000 BC—the same period as the first stage of the construction of Stonehenge. The authors present evidence for the extraction of the stone pillars and consider how they were transported, including the possibility that they were erected in a temporary monument close to the quarries, before completing their journey to Stonehenge.