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The Rufous-throated Dipper Cinclus schulzi is endemic to the Southern Yungas of north-western Argentina and southern Bolivia. The species is categorised as ‘Vulnerable’ on the IUCN Red List on the basis of small population size and restricted range. The purpose of our study was to determine the distribution of potentially suitable habitat for the Rufous-throated Dipper, estimate its population size, and assess potential distribution within strict protected areas, in north-western Argentina. We surveyed 44 rivers in the Southern Yungas of Argentina from 2010 to 2013 to determine dipper density (i.e. the number of individuals detected per km surveyed). The dipper’s potential distribution was assessed using a maximum entropy modeling approach based on 31 occurrence points and eight bioclimatic and two topographic variables as predictors. The species is dependent on mountain forest rivers, so the potential distribution was restricted to rivers. We estimated dipper population size by multiplying density by the potential distribution along rivers. Finally, we calculated the extent of suitable habitat contained within the boundaries of Argentina´s National Parks. Dipper density was 0.94 ± 1.55 individuals/km. We estimate that within north-west Argentina there are ~2,815 km of river that are potential habitat, with an area of occupancy of 141 km2 and a population size of 2,657 ± 4,355 dippers. However, of this river extent, less than 5% is within National Parks. Our results highlight the need to create new and to enlarge existing National Parks that protect the potentially suitable habitat of the species. Although more information is needed for Bolivia, the country-level area of occupancy and population size of the dipper found in Argentina provides strong evidence that the IUCN Red List classification of this species as ‘Vulnerable’ is warranted.
This research paper addresses the hypothesis that the fortification of goat milk base with whey protein concentrate (WPC) could affect both the textural and the biofunctional properties of set-style yoghurt. The effect of fortification of goat milk base with two different WPCs on thermophilic bacteria counts, proteolysis, physical and biofunctional properties of set-style yoghurts was studied at specific sampling points throughout a 4-week storage period. Fortification and storage did not influence thermophilic counts. Physical properties were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by the composition of the protein and the mineral fraction of the WPC but not by the storage. ACE-inhibitory activity was moderate in accordance to low lactobacilli counts and lack of proteolysis. DPPH-radical scavenging activity, Fe2+-chelating activity and superoxide scavenging activity were high. At 28 d an anti-inflammatory effect was observed, which was not affected by WPC addition.
The majority of the work today regarding the effects of extended milking intervals has focused on dairy cattle and only to a limited extent on dairy goats and sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different non-milking intervals on milk yield and composition, mammary physiology and welfare indices in dairy ewes. Thirty-six multiparous ewes in late lactation were allocated to one of four groups of nine and subjected to 24, 48 or 72 h of non-milking or normal milking interval (12 h) (group A, B, C and D, respectively). Data showed that there were no significant differences in milk yield among the experimental groups during the third day after re-milking. Furthermore, no significant differences in milk lactose, protein and fat concentration among the experimental groups were observed after 7, 14 and 21 d of re-milking, respectively. Non-milking for 72 h resulted in a temporary increase of sodium concentration, Na + /K + ratio and enzymatic activities of plasmin (PL), plasminogen (PG) and plasminogen activator (PA) in milk. However, these parameters had similar values among the experimental groups on day 5 after re-milking. The concentration of lactose in blood was also significantly increased as a result of the 72 h non-milking interval and returned to its initial levels the second day after re-milking. These data, taken together, suggest that early involution events that occurred as an effect of non-milking were fully reversible within a short period of time. Finally, no significant signs of welfare impairment were observed in ewes due to extended milking intervals. In conclusion, non-milking up to 72 h had no negative effects on milk yield and composition, mammary physiology and welfare parameters in dairy ewes.
Ancient philosophers from an otherwise diverse range of traditions were connected by their shared use of aporia - translated as puzzlement rooted in conflicts of reasons - as a core tool in philosophical enquiry. The essays in this volume provide the first comprehensive study of aporetic methodology among numerous major figures and influential schools, including the Presocratics, Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Academic sceptics, Pyrrhonian sceptics, Plotinus and Damascius. They explore the differences and similarities in these philosophers' approaches to the source, structure, and aim of aporia, their views on its function and value, and ideas about the proper means of generating such a state among thinkers who were often otherwise opposed in their overall philosophical orientation. Discussing issues of method, dialectic, and knowledge, the volume will appeal to those interested in ancient philosophy and in philosophical enquiry more generally.
Statistical mechanics has been proven to be successful at describing physical systems at thermodynamic equilibrium. Since most natural phenomena occur in nonequilibrium conditions, the present challenge is to find suitable physical approaches for such conditions: this book provides a pedagogical pathway that explores various perspectives. The use of clear language, and explanatory figures and diagrams to describe models, simulations and experimental findings makes the book a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, and also for lecturers organizing teaching at varying levels of experience in the field. Written in three parts, it covers basic and traditional concepts of nonequilibrium physics, modern aspects concerning nonequilibrium phase transitions, and application-orientated topics from a modern perspective. A broad range of topics is covered, including Langevin equations, Levy processes, directed percolation, kinetic roughening and pattern formation.