To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper presents a list of all finite groups having exactly six and seven conjugate classes and an outline of the background necessary for the proof, and gives, in particular, two results which may be of independent interest. In 1903 E. Landau (8) proved, by induction, that for each the equation
has only finitely many solutions over the positive integers.
This paper consisted of a running commentary by Ernest Hildner on the movie as it was shown. The data from the movie has not yet been fully analyzed and will be published elsewhere. Discussion immediately followed the movie. (ed.)
Dementia is a major health problem with a growing number of people affected by the condition, both directly and indirectly through caring for someone with dementia. Many live at home but little is known about the range and intensity of the support they receive. Previous studies have mainly reported on discrete services within a single geographical area. This paper presents a protocol for study of different services across several sites in England. The aim is to explore the presence, effects, and cost-effectiveness of approaches to home support for people in later stage dementia and their carers.
This is a prospective observational study employing mixed methods. At least 300 participants (people with dementia and their carers) from geographical areas with demonstrably different ranges of services available for people with dementia will be selected. Within each area, participants will be recruited from a range of services. Participants will be interviewed on two occasions and data will be collected on their characteristics and circumstances, quality of life, carer health and burden, and informal and formal support for the person with dementia. The structured interviews will also collect qualitative data to explore the perceptions of older people and carers.
This national study will explore the components of appropriate and effective home support for people with late stage dementia and their carers. It aims to inform commissioners and service providers across health and social care.
The coronagraph has obtained observations, both by astronaut and ground command, spaced periodically throughout the mission on a time center of approximately six to eight hours. Programs of more frequent operation – to examine short-term temporal variations and transient activity in the corona – have also been run at various times during the mission. The initial coronagraph observations of structures near limb passage experimentally verify that there are several time scales on which visual changes in these structures occur: (a) approximately one-half rotation, presumably accompanying major reorientations of coronal magnetic fields governing large scale coronal structures, (b) hours to days wherein changes to smaller coronal features are due either to structural changes of particular coronal features or to perspective effects and (c) less than hours – during coronal transients – which caused major reorientation of coronal structures by their passage through the coronal medium. Observations of the latter phenomena have provided some of the more spectacular results from the coronagraph (see Figure 1). The particular case illustrated was one stage of a complex series of events associated with activity in region 137, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration numbering, near east limb passage on 10 June 1973. The limb exhibited a major system of active prominences extended from the equator to north 25° and produced surges and sprays through the early hours of the day. From approximately 0700 to 0900 UT several Hα and small X-ray flares occurred and 0815 an eruptive prominence was observed by ground-based telescopes to ascend to 1.4 R⊙. This latter event is presumably the source of the transient observed by the coronagraph between 0929 and 1001 by ground command. During this period the material front moved with the apparent projected velocity of 450 km s−1 from 3.6 to 4.8 R⊙, while the arch-like structure expanded to a diameter greater than 2 R⊙. Figure 1 shows the event at 0943 GMT; it is one photograph of the 144 obtained. Within the structure are numerous bright areas and extended structures apparently mapping the distended magnetic field configuration. The general appearance of this transient is indicative of a large magnetic loop, or bottle, expanded outward from the Sun, its leading edge compressed by interaction with the ambient corona. Although there apparently was not a metric radio burst associated with this event, other transients observed later in the mission have associated metric wavelength activity.
Tailored psychosocial interventions can help families to manage
behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD), but carer
responses to their relative's behaviours contribute to the success of
To understand why some family carers have difficulty in dealing with
BPSD, in order to improve the quality of personalised care that is
A systematic review and meta-ethnographic synthesis was conducted of
high-quality quantitative and qualitative studies between 1980 and
We identified 25 high-quality studies and two main reasons for behaviours
being reported as challenging by family carers: changes in communication
and relationships, resulting in ‘feeling bereft’; and perceptions of
transgressions against social norms associated with ‘misunderstandings
about behaviour’ in the relative with dementia. The underlying belief
that their relative had lost, or would inevitably lose, their identity to
dementia was a fundamental reason why family carers experienced behaviour
Family carers' perceptions of BPSD as challenging are associated with a
sense of a declining relationship, transgressions against social norms
and underlying beliefs that people with dementia inevitably lose their
‘personhood’. Interventions for the management of challenging behaviour
in family settings should acknowledge unmet psychological need in family
The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Soho, is a joint venture of ESA and NASA. The main objectives of Soho are: a) the study and understanding of solar coronal phenomena; and b) the study of the solar structure and interior dynamics from its core to the photosphere. The primary goals of the coronal and solar wind studies are to understand the coronal heating mechanism and its expansion into the solar wind.
These goal will be achieved both by remote sensing of the solar atmosphere with high resolution spectrometers and telescopes and by “in situ” measurement of the composition and energy of the resulting solar wind and the energetic particles that propagate through it. The structure and interior dynamics will be studied by helio-seismological methods and the measurement of solar irradiance variations. The Soho spacecraft will be three-axis stabilized and located in a halo orbit around the L1 Lagrangian point (approximately 1% of the distance from the Earth to the Sun). It is currently scheduled for launch in July 1995.
SOHO (SUMER/CDS) observed an eruptive prominence on May 1,1996, associated with a CME observed by LASCO. We investigate the physical conditions of this prominence in order to quantify velocity, temperature, and density. SUMER spectra in Si IV and O IV lines are used to obtain Doppler-shift images of the prominence. The prominence shows large-scale red and blueshifted regions, revealing a large helical structure with a global twist. In addition, fine structure analysis shows multiple components in the line profile, suggesting integration of many threads along the line-of-sight with a large dispersion of velocities (±50 km s−1).
An arch-shaped prominence was observed with SUMERSOHO spectrometer on March 31–April 1, 1996. The observations were performed at three wavelengths in the Lyman continuum. Ten successive images were obtained at 41 minute time intervals. Based on the computed models of Gouttebroze-Heinzel-Vial we have determined the temperature distribution of the prominence using the intensity ratio of 876 Å and 907 Å. The observed time sequence shows that the prominence disappears by heating, i.e., ionization of hydrogen: a thermal DB. We model the heat input with the linearized MHD equations using a prescribed initial density and a broad-band spectrum of Alfvén waves and find a good qualitative agreement with observations. In the model the prominence is heated by the resonant absorption of Alfvén waves with frequencies that match the resonant condition for a particular flux tube structure that is determined by the magnetic field topology and density.
During the June 1996 campaign using the MSDP spectrograph at Pic du Midi and SUMER/CDS (JOP 12) on board SOHO, quiescent prominences were observed. We present observations and physical quantities of the June 5 prominence. Doppler shifts, temperatures and electron densities of fine structures were deduced from Hα data.
We present preliminary results on solar filaments observed from the ground and from SOHO in September 1996. Motions in the network and close to the filament “barbs” are shown at different levels of the chromosphere and the transition region.
As of summer 2014, the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has become established in 24 states in the United States of America and has killed tens of millions of ash trees since its introduction into Michigan in the 1990s. Considerable research has been conducted on many aspects of EAB life history, natural history, ecology, and management strategies in an attempt to contain this devastating pest. In this article, we review the life history, mating behaviours, and host plant selection by EAB in North America as well as host resistance to EAB attack.
Many older women reduce the amount of cooking and food preparation they do in later life. While cooking may be seen as traditionally associated with women's family roles, little is known about the impact of such reduced engagement with food on their lives. This paper presents the findings from a one-year qualitative study (Changes Around Food Experience, CAFE) of the impact of reduced contact with preparing and cooking meals from scratch for 40 women, aged 65–95 years, living in Norfolk, United Kingdom. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, focus groups and observations. Women's reasons for reducing food-related activities included changes in health, loss of a partner or a caring role, and new patterns of socialising. Disengagement from cooking and shopping was not found to entail predominantly negative feelings, passive acceptance or searching for forms of support to re-enable more cooking from scratch. Accounts evidenced the dynamic adaptability of older women in actively managing changed relationships with food. In exploring new meal options, older women were not simply disengaging from their environments. CAFE findings linked women's engagement with their environments to how they were using formal services and, even more, to the value they placed on social engagement and being out and about. Through the connections they fostered with friends, family and community, older women actively enabled their continued involvement in their social, public and family spheres. Reduced contact with preparing and cooking meals from scratch, therefore, did not induce or imply passivity or debility in the CAFE cohort. By contrast, it involved their exploring new means of retaining what was important to them about food in the context of their lived situation and social connections with friends, family, the community and public spheres.
Because of the live viral backbone of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), questions have arisen regarding infection control precautions and restrictions surrounding its use in healthcare personnel (HCP). This document provides guidance from the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America regarding use of LAIV in HCP and the infection control precautions that are recommended with its use in this population.
The widespread and increasing use of carbon nanotubes in scientific and engineering research and their incorporation into manufactured goods has urged an assessment of the risks and hazards associated with exposure to them. The field of nanotoxicology studies the toxicology of nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and has become a major growth area aimed towards risk assessment of nanoparticles. Compiled by a team of leading experts at the forefront of research, this is the first book dedicated to the toxicology of carbon nanotubes. It provides state-of-the-science information on how and why they are so potentially dangerous if breathed in, including their similarities to asbestos. The book examines various aspects of carbon nanotubes, from their manufacture and aerodynamic behaviour to their effects at molecular level in the lungs. It is invaluable to the many groups involved with research in this area, as well as to regulators and risk assessors.