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Facilitating the application of machine learning (ML) to materials science problems requires enhancing the data ecosystem to enable discovery and collection of data from many sources, automated dissemination of new data across the ecosystem, and the connecting of data with materials-specific ML models. Here, we present two projects, the Materials Data Facility (MDF) and the Data and Learning Hub for Science (DLHub), that address these needs. We use examples to show how MDF and DLHub capabilities can be leveraged to link data with ML models and how users can access those capabilities through web and programmatic interfaces.
The discovery and optimization of phase-change and shape memory alloys remain a tedious and expensive process. Here a simple computational method is proposed to determine the ideal phase- change material for a given alloy composed of three elements. Using first-principles calculations, within a high-throughput framework, the ideal composition of a phase-change material between any two assumed phases can be determined. This ideal composition minimizes the interface strain during the structural transformation. Then one can target this ideal composition experimentally to produce alloys with low mechanical failure rates for a potentially wide variety of applications. Here we will provide evidence of the effectiveness of our calculations for a well-known phase- change material in which we predict the ideal composition and compare it to experimental results.
Little information is available on the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 eating disorders in adolescence, and eating disorders remain unique in the DSM for not systematically including a criterion for clinical significance. This study aimed to provide the first prevalence report of the full suite of DSM-5 eating disorders in adolescence, and to examine the impact of applying a criterion for clinical significance.
In total, 5191 (participation rate: 70%) Australian adolescents completed a survey measuring 1-month prevalence of eating disorder symptoms for all criterial, ‘other specified’ and unspecified eating disorders, as well as health-related quality of life and psychological distress.
The point prevalence of any eating disorder was 22.2% (12.8% in boys, 32.9% in girls), and ‘other specified’ disorders (11.2%) were more common than full criterial disorders (6.2%). Probable bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, but not anorexia nervosa (AN), were more likely to be experienced by older adolescents. Most disorders were associated with an increased odds for being at a higher weight. The prevalence of eating disorders was reduced by 40% (to 13.6%) when a criterion for clinical significance was applied.
Eating disorders, particularly ‘other specified’ syndromes, are common in adolescence, and are experienced across age, weight, socioeconomic and migrant status. The merit of adding a criterion for clinical significance to the eating disorders, similar to other DSM-5 disorders, warrants consideration. At the least, screening tools should measure distress and impairment associated with eating disorder symptoms in order to capture adolescents in greatest need for intervention.
Geophysical survey and excavations from 2010–2016 at Lawrenz Gun Club (11CS4), a late pre-Columbian village located in the central Illinois River valley in Illinois, identified 10 mounds, a central plaza, and dozens of structures enclosed within a stout 10 hectare bastioned palisade. Nineteen radiocarbon (14C) measurements were taken from single entities of wood charcoal, short-lived plants, and animal bones. A site chronology has been constructed using a Bayesian approach that considers the stratigraphic contexts and feature formation processes. The village was host to hundreds of years of continuous human activity during the Mississippi Period. Mississippian activity at the site is estimated to have begun in cal AD 990–1165 (95% probability), ended in cal AD 1295–1450 (95% probability), and lasted 150–420 yr (95% probability) in the primary Bayesian model with similar results obtained in two alternative models. The palisade is estimated to have been constructed in cal AD 1150–1230 (95% probability) and was continuously repaired and rebuilt for 15–125 yr (95% probability), probably for 40–85 yr (68% probability). Comparison to other studies demonstrates that the bastioned palisade at Lawrenz was one of the earliest constructed in the midcontinental United States.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Life’s Simple 7 (LS7) metric was created by the American Heart Association with the goal of educating the public on seven modifiable factors that contribute to heart health. While it is well documented that these ideal health behaviors lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, the association between the LS7 ideal health metrics and end stage renal disease (ESRD) risk has not been examined in a lower socioeconomic population at high risk for both ESRD and CVD. Our objective is to examine the association between the LS7 score and incident ESRD in a cohort of white and black men and women in the southeastern US, where rates of CVD and ESRD are high. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Southern Community Cohort Study recruited ~86,000 low-income blacks and whites in the southeastern US (2002-2009). Utilizing a nested case-control design, our analysis included 1628 incident cases of ESRD identified via linkage of the cohort with the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from January 1, 2002 to March 31, 2015. Controls (n = 4884) were individually matched 3:1 with ESRD cases based on age, sex, and race. Demographic, medical, and lifestyle information were obtained via baseline questionnaire. The AHA definitions for ideal health were used for non-smoking (never or quit >12 months), body mass index (BMI<25kg/m2) and physical activity (>75 min/week of vigorous physical activity or >150min/week of moderate/vigorous activity). Modified definitions were used for consuming a healthy diet [Healthy Eating Index (HEI10) score>70] and for blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol, based on self-reported no history of diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia, respectively. The number of ideal health parameters were summed to generate the LS7 score, which ranged from 0-7 with higher scores indicating more ideal health. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident ESRD associated with LS7 score were calculated using conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for income and education. The SCCS ESRD case-cohort dataset will be available by TS 2019 and analyses will be completed to adjust for baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a marker of kidney function and to examine whether eGFR modifies the relationship between LS7 and incident ESRD. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: At baseline, mean age was 54 years, 55% (3600) of participants were women, and 87% (5656) were black. A total of 58% (943) of ESRD cases were non-smokers compared to 54% (2633) of controls. ESRD cases had higher prevalence of BMI>25 kg/m2 (81% vs. 74%), hypertension (84% vs. 59%), hypercholesterolemia (48% vs. 34%), and diabetes (66% vs. 22%) compared to controls. A total of 18% (839) of controls and 12% (194) of ESRD cases met ideal exercise recommendations, and 20% of either cases (302) or controls (916) had a HEI10 score above 70. The median LS7 score for controls and ESRD cases was 3 and 2, respectively, and 17% (983) of participants had a low score (0-1) while 2% (105) met 6 or 7 ideal health metrics. Higher LS7 score was associated with lower odds of ESRD (P-trend<0.001). Participants with LS7 score >3 (above median) had 75% reduced odds of ESRD (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.22, 0.29) compared to those with a score of 2 or less. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In the SCCS population, the presence of any 3 or more ideal health behaviors is associated with reduced odds of developing ESRD. The components of the LS7 represent important modifiable risk factors that may be targets for future interventions driven by the patient. The attributable risk due to each factor is needed to dissect which ideal behaviors are the most beneficial.
The preconception, pregnancy and immediate postpartum and newborn periods are times for mothers and their offspring when they are especially vulnerable to major stressors – those that are sudden and unexpected and those that are chronic. Their adverse effects can transcend generations. Stressors can include natural disasters or political stressors such as conflict and/or migration. Considerable evidence has accumulated demonstrating the adverse effects of natural disasters on pregnancy outcomes and developmental trajectories. However, beyond tracking outcomes, the time has arrived for gathering more information related to identifying mechanisms, predicting risk and developing stress-reducing and resilience-building interventions to improve outcomes. Further, we need to learn how to encapsulate both the quantitative and qualitative information available and share it with communities and authorities to mitigate the adverse developmental effects of future disasters, conflicts and migrations. This article briefly reviews prenatal maternal stress and identifies three contemporary situations (wildfire in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada; hurricane Harvey in Houston, USA and transgenerational and migrant stress in Pforzheim, Germany) where current studies are being established by Canadian investigators to test an intervention. The experiences from these efforts are related along with attempts to involve communities in the studies and share the new knowledge to plan for future disasters or tragedies.
Children who undergo short, painful procedures at hospitals are given different kinds of pain relief (analgesics), often in combination with drugs for relaxation (sedatives). Nitrous oxide (NO) is a drug administered for pain relief and relaxation, it is applied by inhalation and its effects are analgesic, anxiolytic and sedative. It is used in several countries, but is not normally used as a sedation method for children in Norwegian hospitals, although widely used in maternity wards during labor. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this sedation regimen in children. However, we also wanted to assess safety for health personnel after repetitive or long-term exposure.
We performed a systematic review on effectiveness and safety of nitrous oxide for sedation in children. For evidence on efficacy and safety in children, only randomized controlled trials (RCT) were included. For safety of health personnel we also accepted other study designs. For all endpoints, we presented the evidence in summary of finding tables.
We retrieved twenty-two randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness or safety in children undergoing sedation with nitrous oxide. Outcomes were hospital procedure satisfaction or characteristics, and pain relief. Safety was reported as acute adverse events. None of the RCTs reported evidence on safety for health personnel. We are currently exploring different ways to systematically assess safety for health personnel within the form of an HTA otherwise designed for a different population.
Assessing safety of new technologies, methods or procedures through HTAs is a crucial point. However, assessing the long-term safety of the health personnel should also be included, but evidence will often not be retrieved through literature search designed for the patient group, and long-term safety data is in general difficult to retrieve for exposure to a novel technology. We will discuss our approach to this challenge.
Despite the high prevalence of mental disorders, mental health literacy has been comparatively neglected. People's symptom-management strategies will be influenced by their mental health literacy. This study sought to determine the feasibility of using the World Health Organization mhGAP-Intervention Guide (IG) as an educational tool for one-on-one contact in a clinical setting to increase literacy on the specified mental disorders.
This study was conducted in 20 health facilities in Makueni County, southeast Kenya which has one of the poorest economies in Kenya. It has no psychiatrist or clinical psychologist. We recruited 3267 participants from a community that had already been exposed to community mental health services. We used Mental Health Knowledge Schedule to measure the changing patterns of mental health knowledge after a period of 3 months, following a training intervention using the WHO mhGAP-IG.
Overall, there was a significant increase in mental health related knowledge [mean range 22.4–23.5 for both post-test and pre-test scores (p < 0.001)]. This increase varied with various socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, marital status, level of education, employment status and wealth index.
mhGAP-IG is a feasible tool to increase mental health literacy in low-resource settings where there are no mental health specialists. Our study lends evidence that the WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020 and reduction of the treatment gap may be accelerated by the use of mhGAP-IG through improving knowledge about mental illness and potentially subsequent help seeking for early diagnosis and treatment.
Stigma can have a negative impact on help-seeking behaviour, treatment adherence and recovery of people with mental disorders. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of the WHO Mental Health Treatment Gap Interventions Guidelines (mhGAP-IG) to reduce stigma in face-to-face contacts during interventions for specific DSM-IV/ICD 10 diagnoses over a 6-month period.
This study was conducted in 20 health facilities across Makueni County in southeast Kenya which has one of the poorest economies in the country and has no psychiatrist or clinical psychologist. We recruited 2305 participants from the health facilities catchment areas that had already been exposed to community mental health services. We measured stigma using DISC-12 at baseline, followed by training to the health professionals on intervention using the WHO mhGAP-IG and then conducted a follow-up DISC-12 assessment after 6 months. Proper management of the patients by the trained professionals would contribute to the reduction of stigma in the patients.
There was 59.5% follow-up at 6 months. Overall, there was a significant decline in ‘reported/experienced discrimination’ following the interventions. A multivariate linear mixed model regression indicated that better outcomes of ‘unfair treatment’ scores were associated with: being married, low education, being young, being self-employed, higher wealth index and being diagnosed with depression. For ‘stopping self’ domain, better outcomes were associated with being female, married, employed, young, lower wealth index and a depression diagnosis. In regards to ‘overcoming stigma’ domain; being male, being educated, employed, higher wealth index and being diagnosed with depression was associated with better outcomes.
The statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of discrimination following the interventions by trained health professionals suggest that the mhGAP-IG may be a useful tool for reduction of discrimination in rural settings in low-income countries.
In this paper we consider two natural notions of connectivity for hypergraphs: weak and strong. We prove that the strong vertex connectivity of a connected hypergraph is bounded by its weak edge connectivity, thereby extending a theorem of Whitney from graphs to hypergraphs. We find that, while determining a minimum weak vertex cut can be done in polynomial time and is equivalent to finding a minimum vertex cut in the 2-section of the hypergraph in question, determining a minimum strong vertex cut is NP-hard for general hypergraphs. Moreover, the problem of finding minimum strong vertex cuts remains NP-hard when restricted to hypergraphs with maximum edge size at most 3. We also discuss the relationship between strong vertex connectivity and the minimum transversal problem for hypergraphs, showing that there are classes of hypergraphs for which one of the problems is NP-hard, while the other can be solved in polynomial time.
As of 2015, with the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the United Nations has a new roadmap for development that will guide global and national agendas for the next 15 years. Mental health was explicitly included in the SDGs, for the first time being recognised as an essential component of development. This is a major achievement that has taken decades of unrelenting advocacy. Still, mental health lacks clear, measurable indicators within the SDGs, threatening its progress in the realm of global development. The task now is for the global mental health community to actively work within health systems, and with other sectors, to integrate mental health interventions and indicators into programmes aimed at other goals and targets. In this way, the direct impact of mental health on development and the impact of mental health on other development goals will be recognised and quantified.
Most of the by-products from fish go into the production of fish meal and fish oil, the latter going directly to the human food chain, and therefore do not really come under the heading of industrial by-products and waste per se. Broadly speaking, fish meal made from fish offal is a by-product which otherwise would have been wasted. This paper discusses the quantities involved and the nutritional properties offish meal, and in addition, the contribution to fish meal and fish oil made from species which are not suitable for human consumption (e.g. sandeels) or where the quantities caught exceed the demand for human consumption (e.g. sprats).
Any method of utilizing fish by-products for animal feeding should minimize chemical changes in the product to avoid reduction in the nutrients which are present at the time of catching. In some respects chemical changes in fish by-products are brought about in a similar way to those in grass, cut for preservation. The fish material has a high water content, around 75%, and from the time of catching is subject to chemical changes by enzymes in the fish and also by bacterial action. Fish, however, differs from grass in that it contains oil and virtually no carbohydrates. The demersal, or lean fish, for example, cod, haddock, plaice, saithe, etc., contain high levels of oil in the liver which are removed for separate processing, but little in the flesh and in the offal produced. The ‘industrial’ fish caught are mainly pelagic species with high levels of oil in the flesh.
Background: The effective treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) presents healthcare providers with a significant challenge. The evidence base remains limited partially due to a lack of professional consensus and service user involvement regarding ways of measuring change. As a result, the limited evidence that is available draws on such a wide range of outcome measures, that comparison across treatment types is hindered, maintaining a lack of clarity regarding the clinical needs of this group. Aims: This investigation aimed to follow the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE, 2009) research recommendations by asking service users about meaningful change within their recovery. This forms a starting point for the future development of a tailored outcome measure. Method: Fifteen service users with a diagnosis of BPD participated in three focus groups across two specialist Personality Disorder services. The focus groups were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Results: Two superordinate themes were synthesized from the data: (1) recovery to what?: ‘How do you rewrite who you are?’; and (2) conditions for change. Each superordinate theme further consisted of three subordinate themes which elucidated the over-arching themes. Conclusion: This investigation highlights the complex nature of measuring change in people who have received a BPD diagnosis. Further research is needed to develop meaningful ways of measuring change according to the needs and priorities of people with BPD.
Pre-weaning mortality is a major source of economic loss to the pig industry which despite improvements in husbandry and farrowing crate design remains about 10% of piglets borne alive. The causes of death are multi-factorial (Varley, 1995) but a large proportion may be due to low neonatal vigor. Commercial pig diets do not normally contain long chain n-3 fatty acids, a deficiency of which has been implicated in reduced visual and neural development in premature human babies and in experimental animals. The objectives of the present experiment were to quantify the causes of piglet mortality in sows of modern genotype and to determine the effects of salmon oil supplementation of the diet of the sow, providing long-chain n-3 fatty acids, on this mortality.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study describes the design, operation, and evaluation of a community-based research (CBR) consult service within the setting of a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) institution. To our knowledge, there are no published evaluations of a CBR consult service at a CTSA hub. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A CBR consult service was created to support faculty, healthcare providers/research coordinators, trainees, community-based organizations, and community members. A framework was developed to assess the stages of client engagement and to foster clear articulation of client needs and challenges. A developmental evaluation system was integrated with the framework to track progress, store documents, continuously improve the consult service, and assess research outcomes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This framework provides information on client numbers, types, services used, and successful outreach methods. Tracking progress reveals reasons that prevent clients from completing projects and facilitates learning outcomes relevant to clients and funding agencies. Clients benefit from the expert knowledge, community connections, and project guidance provided by the consult service team, increasing the likelihood of study completion and achieving research outcomes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our evaluation suggests that clients benefit by (1) gaining the collective knowledge of the experts comprising the team, (2) learning the process of doing CBR, including the required steps to reach completion, and (3) gaining a project management mentality promoting translational research outcomes. This study offers a framework by which CTSA institutions can expand their capacity to conduct and evaluate CBR while addressing challenges that inhibit community engagement.
Children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome are at a risk for neurodevelopmental delays. Current guidelines recommend systematic evaluation and management of neurodevelopmental outcomes with referral for early intervention services. The Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial represents the largest cohort of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome ever assembled. Data on life events and resource utilisation have been collected annually. We sought to determine the type and prevalence of early intervention services used from age 1 to 4 years and factors associated with utilisation of services.
Data from 14-month neurodevelopmental assessment and annual medical history forms were used. We assessed the impact of social risk and geographic differences. Fisher exact tests and logistic regression were used to evaluate associations.
Annual medical history forms were available for 302 of 314 children. Greater than half of the children (52–69%) were not receiving services at any age assessed, whereas 20–32% were receiving two or more therapies each year. Utilisation was significantly lower in year 4 (31%) compared with years 1–3 (with a range from 40 to 48%) (p<0.001). Social risk factors were not associated with the use of services at any age but there were significant geographic differences. Significant delay was reported by parents in 18–43% of children at ages 3 and 4.
Despite significant neurodevelopmental delays, early intervention service utilisation was low in this cohort. As survival has improved for children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, attention must shift to strategies to optimise developmental outcomes, including enrolment in early intervention when merited.
Assessment of changes in terrestrial ecosystems since Cretaceous time, until recently, has had to rely on paleobotany (including paleopalynology) and vertebrate paleontology to provide data for analysis. Insects contribute a major portion of the terrestrial diversity in any ecosystem, but their fossil record and state of preservation had discouraged paleoecological study beyond the Pleistocene. With the discovery of prolific Upper Cretaceous amber deposits in Russia and Canada, and the investigation of Tertiary amber deposits from the Baltic, the Dominican Republic, Mexico and the USA, the prospect of clarifying changes in insect diversity and ecology over time becomes real. Methods are reported which allow the description of species richness and relative abundance of arthropod taxa from an Upper Cretaceous (Campanian: 75 MYA) amber deposit in Alberta, Canada. Diversity and abundance are described at the Order level for hexapods, and for the Acarina and Araneae. Taxa present, in order of abundance, are Homoptera (66 specimens/kg of amber), Diptera (28/kg), Acarina (21/kg), Hymenoptera (13/kg), Araneae (12/kg), Psocoptera (4/kg), Coleoptera (2/kg), Blattodea (1/kg), Thysanoptera (1/kg), Trichoptera (0.6/kg). Other orders present are Lepidoptera, Collembola, Dermaptera, Mantodea, and Ephemeroptera. In total, of 35 identified families, 8 are extinct. There are about 20 genera identified, of which only 1 is extant. All identified species are extinct. Estimated species richness is about 100 species of arthropods. In comparison, virtually all Families reported from Baltic amber (Oligocene) are still extant, as are the majority of genera. Morphology and feeding structures are well within the variation seen in modern insects. This suggests that throughout the Tertiary, Entomologists would feel quite at home with the insect fauna, and during the Upper Cretaceous, they would have little difficulty identifying insects at least to the family level. It is hypothesized that the taxonomic structure of modern insect communities was well established before the end of the Cretaceous, and that the structure and interrelationships of insect guilds were also very similar to those of today.
We investigated the association between maternal expressed emotion and twin relationship quality, after controlling for a maternal questionnaire measure of the mother–child relationship. This was explored within a community sample of 156 mothers and their two young twin children (Mchild age = 3.69 years; SDchild age = 0.37). Mothers reported on the twin–twin relationship and the mother–child relationship via questionnaire. They were also interviewed about each child using the innovative Preschool Five Minute Speech Sample (Daley et al., 2003), which yields information about relative positive:negative maternal expressed emotion. Mothers who expressed more family-wide positive emotion and less family-wide negative emotion also reported more positivity, but not negativity, within the twin relationship — even when controlling for questionnaire reports of the mother–child relationship. Counter to expectations, discrepancies in mothers’ expressed emotion between their twins also predicted more positive sibling relationships. Our findings corroborate the well established spill-over effect, whereby families are viewed as emotional units of interdependent individuals, none of whom can be understood in isolation from one another. Most importantly, the Preschool Five Minute Speech Sample provides information about mothering that questionnaire reports may not, and thus it is a useful tool in better understanding the twin family system.