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Placental lipids transfer is essential for optimal fetal development, and alterations of these mechanisms could lead to a higher risk of adverse birth outcomes. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), and scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) genes are encoding lipoprotein receptors expressed in the placenta where they participate in cholesterol exchange from maternal to fetal circulation. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the association between maternal lipid changes occurring in pregnancy, placental DNA methylation (DNAm) variations at LDLR, LRP1, and SCARB1 gene loci, and newborn’s anthropometric profile at birth. Sixty-nine normoglycemic women were followed from the first trimester of pregnancy until delivery. Placental DNAm was quantified at 43 Cytosine-phosphate-Guanines (CpGs) at LDLR, LRP1, and SCARB1 gene loci using pyrosequencing: 4 CpGs were retained for further analysis. Maternal clinical data were collected at each trimester of pregnancy. Newborns’ data were collected from medical records. Statistical models included minimally newborn sex and gestational and maternal age. Maternal total cholesterol changes during pregnancy (ΔT3-T1) were correlated with DNAm variations at LDLR (r = −0.32, p = 0.01) and LRP1 (r = 0.34, p = 0.007). DNAm at these loci was also correlated with newborns’ cord blood triglyceride and leptin levels. Mediation analysis supports a causal relationship between maternal cholesterol changes, DNAm levels at LRP1 locus, and cord blood leptin concentration (pmediation = 0.02). These results suggest that LRP1 DNAm link maternal blood cholesterol changes in pregnancy and offspring adiposity at birth, which provide support for a better follow-up of blood lipids in pregnancy.
The work described in this Research Communication concerns the production of Dulce de leche (DL), that is a traditional product from South America obtained by concentration. Maillard reaction (MR) products are mainly responsible for the formation of color and flavor in this product. Lactose-hydrolyzed products have been developed to supply consumer demand, but this hydrolysis may affect the flavor, color, taste, texture and even some nutritional aspects of the product. We studied the influence of different levels of lactose-hydrolysis, sucrose addition and initial pH on the development of MR, appraised by the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A process simulator with multi-monitoring system was used to produce 15 DL. Box-Behnken 33 experimental design was applied for the three factors: pH, lactose-hydrolysis level and sucrose concentration. Lipids, protein, ashes, carbohydrates, water activity, dissolved solids, colorimetric analysis and HMF (free and total) are among the physicochemical attributes and MR indicators analyzed in this work. The products showed significant differences in composition but all the values were in agreement with the literature. Moreover, higher levels of lactose hydrolysis and higher pH presented a direct relation with the development of MR, observed by an increase in coloration (lower luminosity) and more formation of HMF, both free and total. The present study expands the knowledge about DL spread made of lactose-hydrolyzed milk, allowing the food industries to produce a lactose free DL with nutritional and sensory characteristics closer to the traditional product.
Lead carbonates were used as cosmetic and pigment since Antiquity. The pigment, known as lead white, was generally composed of cerussite and hydrocerussite. Unlike most ancient pigments, lead white was obtained by a synthetic route involving metallic lead, vinegar and organic matter. Fermentation of organic matter produces heat and CO2 emission, leading to the formation of carbonates. As lead white is formed by trapping CO2, radiocarbon (14C) dating can thus be considered. We have developed a protocol to prepare lead white. We selected modern pigments for the experiment implementation and ancient cosmetic and paintings for dating. After characterization of the samples by XRD, thermal decomposition of cerussite at various temperatures was explored in order to select the appropriate conditions for painting samples. CO2 extraction yield, SEM and XPS were used to characterize the process. Thermal decomposition at 400°C was successfully applied to mixtures of lead white with other paint components (oil as binder, calcite as filler/extender) and to historical samples. We obtained radiocarbon measurements in agreement with the expected dates, demonstrating that thermal decomposition at 400°C is efficient for a selective decomposition of lead white and that paintings can be directly 14C-dated by dating lead white pigment.
For decades, international investment law has focused on investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS). The academic and policy debate has polarized into two competing camps arguing in favor and against this dispute settlement mechanism. A fundamental issue is whether ISDS can be consistent with an appropriate interpretation of states’ right to regulate. There is nothing surprising in this debate. The private vs. public or international vs. domestic tensions are recurrent topics nowadays. What is surprising, however, is how both promoters and critics of ISDS have managed to narrow down the complex and multifaceted field of foreign investment governance to ISDS and how investment tribunals resolve certain high-profile cases, such as the famous tobacco saga. This limited view does not acknowledge the complexity of foreign investment relations and how the benefits, costs and risks of large investment projects are allocated. Also, international investment law makes some interests and their actors less visible— or even invisible— potentially reducing their benefits and increasing their costs and risks. The most paradigmatic case is that of local communities.
The literature on international investment law and policy has consistently avoided the role and interests of local communities. This is especially troublesome in natural resource and infrastructure projects, as local communities live near these projects and are often the most affected. Experience shows that foreign investment in natural resources can lead to overexploitation, environmental harm and, just as important, social conflict. However, there is little evidence that host states will necessarily use their regulatory powers to promote and protect local communities. Host states play an ambivalent role, facilitating foreign investment first and responding to local demands only when resistance escalates to unacceptable levels, such as in the case of Cochabamba, Bolivia (Aguas del Tunari v. Bolivia), which illustrates the potentially tragic consequences of a foreign investment and how difficult it is for local communities to find relief in either domestic or international jurisdictions.
This essay explores how the international investment regime makes things more difficult for local communities. This regime is not the sole reason for their problems, but it does deteriorate their situation vis-à-vis foreign investors and states. The good news is that there is no rationale for a narrow international investment regime. The crisis of ISDS can be an opportunity to move from foreign investment dispute settlement to foreign investment governance, ensuring local participation before, during and after the investment.
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
Introduction: Transcutaneous cardiac pacing (TCP) is recommended for the treatment of symptomatic bradycardia, a life-threatening condition. Although TCP is taught in ACLS (advanced cardiac life support) courses, it is a difficult skill to master for junior residents. The main objective of this study is to measure the impact of having access to a checklist on successful TCP implementation. Our hypothesis was that the availability of a CL would improve performance of junior residents in the management of symptomatic bradycardia by facilitating TCP. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, single-site study. First-year residents entering postgraduate programs and taking a mandatory ACLS course were enrolled. Students had didactic sessions on the management of symptomatic bradycardia followed by hands-on teaching on a low-fidelity manikin (ALS® simulator, Laerdal) using a CL conceived for this project as a teaching tool. Study participants were then assessed with a simulation scenario requiring TCP. Participants were randomly assigned to groups with and without CL accessibility. Performances were graded on six critical tasks. The primary outcome was the successful use of TCP, defined as having completed all tasks. Participants then completed a post-test questionnaire. Sample size estimation was based on a previous project (Ranger et al., 2018). Accepting an alpha error of 0.05 and a power of 80%, 45 participants in each group would permit the detection of 26.5% in performance gain. Results: Of 250 residents completing the ACLS course in 2017, 85 voluntary participants were randomized to a control group (no CL available during testing, n = 42) or an experimental group (CL available during testing, n = 43). Six participants in the experimental group adequately used TCP compared to five participants in the control group (p = 0.81, chi-squared test). Out of the 43 participants who had access to the CL, only 2 (5%) used it. Reasons why the CL was infrequently used were stated as the following: 24 participants (56%) mentioned not realizing it was available, 8 (19%) considered it was of little to no utility and 5 (19%) forgot a CL existed. Conclusion: Availability of a checklist previously used during simulation teaching did not increase junior residents’ capacity to correctly apply TCP. Non-recognition of CL availability and decreased perceived need for it were the main reasons for marginal use. Our results suggest that there are many limiting factors to CL effectiveness.
The dynamics of electron-plasma waves is described at arbitrary collisionality by considering the full Coulomb collision operator. The description is based on a Hermite–Laguerre decomposition of the velocity dependence of the electron distribution function. The damping rate, frequency and eigenmode spectrum of electron-plasma waves are found as functions of the collision frequency and wavelength. A comparison is made between the collisionless Landau damping limit, the Lenard–Bernstein and Dougherty collision operators and the electron–ion collision operator, finding large deviations in the damping rates and eigenmode spectra. A purely damped entropy mode, characteristic of a plasma where pitch-angle scattering effects are dominant with respect to collisionless effects, is shown to emerge numerically, and its dispersion relation is analytically derived. It is shown that such a mode is absent when simplified collision operators are used, and that like-particle collisions strongly influence the damping rate of the entropy mode.
This article analyses domestic law cases brought by former slaves during the decade following the Civil War. It argues that ending slavery was a long and complex process that included not only granting rights to freedpeople, but also subtracting the incapacities previously imposed by bondage and applying certain rights retroactively. Reconstruction-era judges, throughout the era and across the South, overlooked the realities of slavery as a lived institution. Instead, they reimagined slavery as a collection of legal disabilities that could simply be subtracted and summarily resolved. This is how they would carry out abolition. The notion that slavery had to be undone stands in contrast to prevailing scholarship that emphasizes the acquisition and exercise of rights as demonstrative of consummate freedom. Instead, this article shows that even when positive law and judicial rulings were used to deconstruct the peculiar institution, slavery, as a legal construct, could not be fully demolished. Judges and freedpeople alike were left to face troubling legacies for which there was no remedy. No performance of legal acrobatics could alter, undo, or fully resolve the myriad ways slavery continued to affect many former slaves and influence the direction of their free lives. Abolition would remain incomplete.
International investment law is relational. It is about how we define and govern the relationship between the actors involved in and affected by foreign investment projects. Most international investment law literature confirms the relational nature of this field. The scholarship has analyzed the resolution of specific disputes and the regulatory relationship between foreign investors and host states. As could be expected, some of the key issues that have emerged include states’ right to regulate, the risk of regulatory chill, and how to review state regulation. There is, however, an important blind spot in this relational approach. A look at many foreign investment disputes, particularly in the natural resource extraction sector, shows that local communities are also central protagonists of foreign investment projects. These communities have a lot at stake but have remained almost invisible to the international investment regime. Apart from the ability to submit amicus curiae briefs, they have neither rights nor remedies in this regime. This essay discusses international investment law from an inclusive relational perspective, and shows how, contrary to this perspective, recent awards in investor-state dispute settlement continue to render invisible local communities and their rightful aspirations.
This chapter evaluates the potential for the governance of access and benefit-sharing in Canada through the lens of different layers of government: federal, provincial, territorial and Indigenous. The emphasis of the chapter is on how the nation-to-nation approach could be an effective way to integrate Indigenous peoples’ claim to genetic resources (GR) and their traditional knowledge (TK) as aspects of their self-determination. A nation-to-nation approach recognizes Indigenous peoples as stakeholders in access and benefit-sharing (ABS) in ways that advance the pursuit of justice and reconciliation in Canada. With the backdrop of ongoing policy initiatives and multifaceted attempts at renewing Canadian-Indigenous relations, the chapter underscores the federal government’s role in driving the charge. It will also require a commitment on the part of provincial governments, and overall political will across Canada, to draw in Indigenous peoples as genuine partners in order to fully integrate their legal traditions. Before Canada can implement the Nagoya Protocol, and any other ABS vision for that matter, all governments need to take the nation-to-nation mantra seriously and to articulate the legal status of GR and TK in Canada.
This Research Paper addresses the hypothesis that the type of dulce de leche formula affects formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during production and storage. Milk and sweetened condensed milk are products in which the Maillard reaction (MR) defines important characteristics such as colour and taste. There are few studies on the effects of pH, time, concentration, and sugar type on the formation of HMF or other MR markers in DL. Four formulas (varying in the addition of sodium bicarbonate and the type of sugar) were analysed for moisture, lipid, protein, ash, carbohydrate, water activity (Aw), and soluble solids. We found low variability in physicochemical and compositional attributes, but an elevation of HMF indices throughout the manufacturing. We determined that the addition of glucose and the use of relatively high concentrations of sodium bicarbonate caused these HMF indicator increases. These results inform DL research and production by the dairy industries and the scientific community, and highlight the importance of control in manufacturing.
The nature of the cross-scale connections between the inertial-range turbulent energy cascade and the small-scale kinetic processes in collisionless plasmas is explored through the analysis of two-dimensional hybrid Vlasov–Maxwell numerical simulation (HVM), with
particles, and through a proxy of the turbulent energy transfer rate, namely the local energy transfer (LET) rate. Correlations between pairs of variables, including those related to kinetic processes and to deviation from Maxwellian distributions, are first evidenced. Then, the general properties and the statistical scaling laws of the LET are described, confirming its reliability for the description of the turbulent cascade and revealing its textured topology. Finally, the connection between such proxy and the diagnostic variables is explored using conditional averaging, showing that several quantities are enhanced in the presence of large positive energy flux, and reduced near sites of negative flux. These observations can help in determining which processes are involved in the dissipation of energy at small scales, as for example the ion-cyclotron or mirror instabilities typically associated with perpendicular anisotropy of temperature.
Quebec City (Canada) is well-known for its unique wild environments and its protected cultural heritage, which have attracted tourists to the area for centuries. Often taken for granted or overlooked, the interactions between its natural and cultural landscape have been scantly investigated in a diachronic perspective in archaeology. This article explores the relationship between Quebec City's colonists/inhabitants and their surrounding territory, through the study of food plants for the period between 1535 and 1900. It contrasts visitors’ accounts and official discourses with daily experience using a combination of historical and archaeobotanical evidence to unravel how changing historical, social, and political contingencies impacted past perceptions of “wilderness” as manifested in food choices. In this process, the consumption of local indigenous plants has been interpreted as a form of incorporation of local environments that can enlighten us about popular attitudes toward the New World's natural features.
The main objective of this report is to present the dating process routinely applied to different types of samples at the Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (LMC14). All the results and protocols refer to our procedures over the last 5 years. A description of the sorting and chemical pretreatments of the samples as well as the extraction and graphitization of CO2 are reported. Our last study concerning the degradation of the blank level according to the storage time of the targets between graphitization and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement is also presented. This article also provides information on how to submit a valid laboratory sample. We give details relating to sampling procedures on site as well as contamination issues relative to the 14C dating methodology.
Introduction: Transcutaneous cardiac pacing (TCP), a skill taught in Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) courses, is recommended to treat unstable bradycardia. Training manikins currently available fail to reproduce key features of TCP and might be suboptimal to teach this procedure.The objective of this study was to measure the impact of a modified high-fidelity manikin on junior residents’ TCP competency during an ACLS course. We hypothesized that the use of this high-fidelity manikin improves junior residents’ performances. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted at the Université de Montréal in July 2015 and 2016. First-year residents undergoing their mandatory ACLS course were enrolled. The control group (2015) received the traditional curriculum, which includes hands-on teaching on Advanced Life Support manikins. The intervention group (2016) received a similar curriculum, but used a modified high-fidelity manikin that reproduces key features of TCP (e.g. use of multifunction pads, TCP induced patient twitching, ECG artifacts). Cohorts were tested with a simulation scenario requiring TCP. Performances were graded based on six critical tasks: turns on pacer function, applies multifunction pads, recognizes TCP is ineffective, achieves captures, verifies mechanical capture and prescribes sedation. Our primary outcome was successful use of TCP defined as having completed all tasks. Secondary outcomes were the success rates for each task. These were compared using Pearson’s chi-squared test. We anticipated that the success rate of TCP would increase from 20% to 50%. To obtain a power of more than 90%, 48 participants were needed in both cohorts. Results: A total of 50 residents were recruited in both cohorts. No resident that received the traditional curriculum was able to successfully establish TCP while 18 residents trained on the modified high-fidelity manikin succeeded (0 vs 36%, P<0.001). Furthermore, the latter were more likely to recognize when pacing was inefficient (12 vs 86%, P<0.001), obtain ventricular capture (2 vs 48%, P<0.001), and check for a pulse rate to confirm capture (0 vs 48%, P<0.001). Conclusion: Successful use of TCP is a difficult skill to master for junior residents. A modified high-fidelity manikin during ACLS training significantly improves their ability to establish effective pacing.
The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved. THOR is a mission designed to answer the questions of how turbulent plasma is heated and particles accelerated, how the dissipated energy is partitioned and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. THOR is a single-spacecraft mission with an orbit tuned to maximize data return from regions in near-Earth space – magnetosheath, shock, foreshock and pristine solar wind – featuring different kinds of turbulence. Here we summarize the THOR proposal submitted on 15 January 2015 to the ‘Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESAs Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4)’. THOR has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) for the study phase.