To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This volume compares the evolution and current status of two of the world's major languages, English and Spanish. Parallel chapters trace the emergence of Global English and Spanish and their current status, covering aspects such as language and dialect contact, language typology, norm development in pluricentric languages, and identity construction. Case studies look into the use of English and Spanish on the internet, investigate mixed and alternating lects, as well as ongoing change in Spanish-speaking minorities in the US. The volume thus contributes to current theoretical debates and provides fresh empirical data. While offering an in-depth treatment of the evolution of English and Spanish to the reader, this book introduces the driving factors and the effects of the emergence of world languages in general and is relevant for researchers and students of sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, and typology alike.
Affecting an estimated 2.5 million people worldwide, multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurological cause of debilitation in young adults. Incurable, and with the precise causes still unknown, both diagnosis and management of the condition is complicated. This book summarizes the latest understanding of the causes of the disease, using accessible, bullet-point text to describe key clinical features and diagnostic criteria. Disease-modifying therapies and management of symptoms, including fatigue, tremor and cognitive changes, are covered in detail. With a chapter focusing solely on presentations in the emergency room, the importance of recognizing these neurological emergencies is emphasised, along with indications for admission in MS patients. The impact of MS on women's reproductive health and the increasing recognition of MS in pediatric patients is also explored. An up-to-date and practical approach to the accurate diagnosis and management of MS, this is an invaluable resource for both hospital and outpatient settings.
Chapter 5 draws on the description of the meaning and form of directive speech acts reported in Chapter 4 in order to offer a collection of practical activities for their teaching. Activities will be grouped attending to the semantic, formal, or contrastive aspects that need to be taught. Some of them will be designed to improve the students recognition and production of those illocutionary constructions and linguistic realisation procedures which allow the communication of the different illocutionary forces.
Others will be devoted to help teachers and textbook developers show students (1) the motivation of the form of directive speech acts in their underlying semantics and force dynamics, (2) the role of conceptual metonymy in the production of directive speech acts, and (3) the existence of families of speech act base constructions whose illocutionary force can be further modulated by means of linguistic realisation procedures.
Chapter 2 provides an accessible outlook on contemporary research on speech acts, explaining and illustrating the latest pragmatic, functional, conversational, and cognitive/constructional contributions to the understanding of illocutionary acts. The chapter advocates a contrastive, cognitive/constructional theory of speech acts, showing how this approach is capable of integrating pragmatic, semantic, and formal aspects of speech acts into a unified and comprehensive account that is compatible with current psycholinguistic knowledge on speech acts production and understanding. This chapter sets the theoretical foundations for Chapters 4 and 5, offering a fully-fledged theoretical proposal on the semantic and formal features of directive speech acts in terms of illocutionary constructions and metonymic operations. The semantic side of the constructions is captured in the form of illocutionary ICMs, and the formal side takes the form of inventories of base constructions and linguistic realisation procedures. It is further argued that speakers can modulate the explicitness of their directive speech acts through (multiple-source)-in-target metonymies.
The final chapter summarises the main contributions made in each of the chapters of this book, connects them to current trends, and specifies the needs for future research. Among the latter, it is suggested that the findings of the present investigation could be extended to the analysis of non-directive speech acts (e.g. commissive, expressive, representative, etc.). Additionally, it is argued that empirical validation from other disciplines and from experimental analyses, both in the fields of psycholinguistics and foreign language learning/teaching, will also be needed to lend a stronger support to the claims presented in this book.
Chapter 3 reports the results of a study which looks into a collection of ten textbooks for advanced EFL students in order to assess their treatment of directive speech acts. This chapter considers aspects related to (1) the quantitative representation of directive speech acts in the textbooks (i.e. determining if there is a balanced portrayal of the most frequent categories of directive speech acts), and (2) the qualitative treatment of directive speech acts (i.e. assessing if the depiction of directive speech acts in EFL textbooks has incorporated the main research advancements described in ). In particular, this chapter offers an account of the treatment of constructional, conversational, and contrastive aspects of directive speech acts in EFL textbooks for advanced EFL Spanish students.
Chapter 4 applies the cognitive-constructional theoretical model of speech acts proposed in Chapter 2 to the task of providing an exhaustive description of the meaning and form of the six directive speech acts under consideration (i.e. orders, requests, beggings, suggestions, advice acts, and warnings). The ensuing portrayal of directive speech acts also includes contrastive considerations about their linguistic realisations in Spanish (L1) and English (L2). The description of the form-meaning constructional nature of the aforementioned directive speech acts takes the form of a Cognitive Pedagogical Grammar. Information is, thus, presented in an accessible, largely jargon-free manner, so that it can be used by teachers and textbook developers for the explicit teaching of the workings of directive illocutions to advanced Spanish EFL students. For each directive category, this chapter offers relevant information about its semantics (i.e. know-what) and its formal configurations (i.e. know-how).
This chapter offers an introduction to the topic of the book. It includes some reflections on the relevance of mastering the use of directive speech acts for EFL learners. It describes the objectives of the investigation, the methodological decisions taken for the study, and the corpus of data used for the analysis. Finally, it offers a summary of chapter contents.
For some years, the historiography on Francoist violence has engaged with debates developed by European scholars on the importance of citizen collaboration in authoritarian regimes. In some cases, denunciations made by ‘ordinary men’ have been quantified to establish the extent of violence in everyday life, without taking other qualitative criteria into account. This article explores the importance of urban criteria such as neighbourhood, sociability and mobility in the scope of Francoist violence, taking the military occupation of Madrid at the end of the Spanish Civil War as a case-study.
The objective of this study was to assess the psychosocial distress and associated factors in advanced cancer patients consulting at the outpatient Palliative Care Unit at the National Cancer Institute in Mexico City.
A retrospective study was conducted using electronic records (June 2015 to December 2016).
A total of 646 patients with advanced cancer during their first visit to the outpatient palliative care unit at the National Cancer Institute in Mexico were evaluated using the Distress Thermometer (DT) and ECOG performance status scores.
Overall, 62% were women, with a median age of 57 years, and married (54.8%). The most frequent diagnosis was gastrointestinal cancer (28.6%), and 38.9% had a functional performance status of ECOG 2. The median DT score was 4.0 (IQR = 2–6), with 56% reporting DT scores ≥4. The three most frequent problems ≥4 were sadness (82.6%), feeling weak (81.2%), worry (79.6%), and <4 were feeling weak (57.7%), fatigue (55.6%), and financial security (52.1%). The variables associated with distress according to the multiple logistic regression analysis were problems with housing (OR = 2.661, 95% CI = 1.538–4.602), sadness (OR = 2.533, 95% CI = 1.615–3.973), transportation (OR = 1.732, 95% CI = 1.157–2.591), eating (OR = 1.626, 95% CI = 1.093–2.417), nervousness (OR = 1.547, 95% CI = 1.014–2.360), and sleep (OR = 1.469, 95% CI = 1.980–2.203).
The principal factors were related to distress levels, housing problems, transportation issues, and emotional problems such as sadness, nervousness, lower functionality, and younger age. Therefore, psychosocial support is of considerable relevance in palliative care. These findings will help clinicians understand the distress of patients with advanced cancer in palliative care in Latin American countries.
Among different possible energy sources, in the search for fossil fuel substitutes, hydrogen and fuel cells are presented as one of the most promising alternatives, with great potential, in the development of devices for the generation of clean electrical energy. Recently, lanthanum based compounds have been studied due to their interesting transport properties, which led these products to be applied as possible cathode materials in a solid oxide fuel cell. In this work, a lanthanum based material with a perovskite structure, La0.7Sr0.3Fe0.7Co0.3O3±δ (LSFC), was synthesized, from nitrates, by sonochemistry. This product was structurally characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and morphological studies were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed a nanostructured material with a crystal size in de order of 14 nm and a cubic perovskite structure with cell parameters of a = 3.8927 Å. Morphological characterization indicated a porous material formed by grains of homogeneous size, pores had an average length of 17 nm and area of 36 nm2, showing a channel shape distribution.