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Bruno Tesch was tried and executed for his company's Zyklon B gas used in Nazi Germany's extermination camps. This book examines this trial and the more than 300 other economic actors who faced prosecution for the Holocaust's crimes against humanity. It further tracks and analyses similar transitional justice mechanisms for holding economic actors accountable for human rights violations in dictatorships and armed conflict: international, foreign, and domestic trials and truth commissions from the 1970s to the present in every region of the world. This book probes what these accountability efforts are, why they take place, and when, where, and how they unfold. Analysis of the authors' original database leads them to conclude that 'corporate accountability from below' is underway, particularly in Latin America. A kind of Archimedes' lever places the right tools in weak local actors' hands to lift weighty international human rights claims, overcoming the near absence of international pressure and the powerful veto power of business.
Dietary protein adjustments can reduce environmental impact and economic losses in production systems. However, we lack information regarding nitrogen (N) metabolism and protein requirements for maintenance of crossbred animals such as Red Norte breed, precluding a precise dietary management. The objective was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary CP levels (9%, 11%, 13%, 15% and 17%) on intake, digestibility and N balance, as well as to estimate the metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance (MPm) of growing Red Norte bulls. Thirty five animals averaging 280 ± 4.0 kg BW were fed during 45 days in a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio diet in which the last 5 days were used for the digestibility trial. Intakes of CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFCs) and feed efficiency linearly increased (P < 0.05) as CP levels increased, while DM, NDF, nitrogen efficiency use and ether extract were not influenced by CP levels (P > 0.05). Digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ether extract, NFC and CP as well as metabolizable energy intake linearly increased (P < 0.05), and true digestibility of CP was not affected (P > 0.05) by treatments. Urinary N and retained N linearly increased (P < 0.05) with the increase in dietary N. The MPm were estimated as 4.46 g/BW0.75 and the efficiency of use of MPm was 0.673. In conclusion, obtained MPm requirements of growing Red Norte bulls are greater than the values reported in literature for Zebu cattle and dietary CP levels of 15% and 17% exhibited great responses for growing Red Norte cattle. However, a cost-benefit evaluation should be done before its use.
Litter breakdown is an important ecological process at the bottom of food webs in streams. Previous studies have been based only on a temporal interval of a single season, thus ignoring seasonal variation in litter input and community structure. We investigated organic matter input in a Brazilian savanna stream and the influence of its associated hyphomycetes on the invertebrate community. Organic matter input was sampled monthly and the leaves submitted to decomposition experiments. There were lower breakdown rates and higher invertebrate species richness and abundance during the dry season, which reached their maximum in July due to low stream discharge. Invertebrate composition was best explained by hyphomycetes (mainly by Flagellospora curvula and Anguillospora filiformis). Hyphomycetes have the capacity to degrade complex compounds of litter and to rapidly absorb nutrients by growing branched filaments, thus making the leaves more favourable for consumption by invertebrates. Shredder abundance was negatively related to litter richness, indicating possible species-specific relationships. We observed a sequential process with increased leaf litter input promoting an increase in hyphomycetes biomass, which in turn favoured invertebrate density.
The burrower bug Scaptocoris castanea Perty, 1830 (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) is an agricultural pest feeding on roots of several crops. The histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands of S. castanea were described. The salivary system has a pair of principal salivary glands and a pair of accessory salivary glands. The principal salivary gland is bilobed with anterior and posterior lobes joined by a hilus where an excretory duct occurs. The accessory salivary gland is tubular with a narrow lumen that opens into the hilus near the excretory duct, suggesting that its secretion is stored in the lumen of the principal gland. The cytoplasm of the secretory cells is rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles with different electron densities and mitochondria. At the base of the accessory gland epithelium, there were scattered cells that do not reach the gland lumen, with the cytoplasm rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating a role in protein production. Data show that principal and accessory salivary glands of S. castanea produce proteinaceous saliva. This is the first morphological description of the S. castanea salivary system that is similar to other Hemiptera Pentatomomorpha, but with occurrence of basal cells in the accessory salivary gland.
Dietary patterns have been pointed out as useful diet quality indicators, but evidence about their relationship to metabolic phenotypes is still scarce. Thus, the present study aimed to verify the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotypes in Brazilian adults.
Cross-sectional study. A food consumption frequency questionnaire assessed food consumption profiles. Metabolic phenotypes were defined based on the criteria of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: overweight or normal weight and metabolically healthy (MHOW and MHNW) or unhealthy (MUOW and MUNW). Dietary patterns were established through exploratory factor analysis and principal component analysis. The associations were tested using multinomial logistic regression.
Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Individuals (n 896) aged 20–59 years of both sexes, selected using probabilistic sampling.
Three dietary patterns were identified: Unhealthy pattern (alcoholic beverages, oils and fats, condiments, soda and juice, sugars and sweets, snacks, and meat and derivatives), Traditional pattern (culinary preparations, beans, milk and dairy products, and coffee and tea) and Healthy pattern (vegetables and fruits, whole grains, chicken and fish, and skimmed milk). Unhealthy pattern was positively associated with the MHOW and MUOW phenotypes in the fourth quartile (OR = 1·84; 95 % CI 1·06, 3·22) and in the third (OR = 1·94; 95 % CI 1·11, 3·39) and fourth (OR = 2·56; 95 % CI 1·41, 4·64) quartiles of consumption, respectively. Healthy pattern was also associated with these phenotypes.
Both the pattern comprising energy-dense foods and the healthier pattern were associated with overweight phenotypes among Brazilian adults.
The growing aging population and the high prevalence of several concomitant chronic diseases have contributed to the elevated rates of caregiver burden and suffering in patients. In turn, intending to relieve unnecessary pain in patients, there has been a rapid growth of outpatient palliative care programs. However, little has been studied about caregiver burden as a relevant factor potentially affecting the effectiveness of these programs. This study aimed to determine the extent of caregiver burden as a possible mediator on the effectiveness of a home-based palliative care program.
Sixty-six palliative patients (56% women; mean age + SD = 71, 6 ± 17.7) and their caregivers were assessed with measures for physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms before and 1 month after the start of a home-based palliative care program.
The association between caregiver burden and palliative outcomes was corroborated with a categorical regression model (p < 0.01). Caregiver burden was found to be a significant mediator in the relationship between outcome measures for palliative care at baseline and after 1 month of enrollment in the program.
Significance of results
To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the role of caregiver burden in the effectiveness of a home-based palliative care program. Although further work is required, the results indicate that a patient-focused intervention does not have the same beneficial effect if the caregiver burden is not addressed. Future home-based palliative care programs should focus on caregivers as well as patients, with particular attention to psychosocial intervention on caregivers.
Despite alefforts for a sustainable production system, many companies are still struggling to implement environmental aspects in their daily product development processes. Among the evaluation and improvement methods, life cycle assessment (LCA) is one of the most popular tools to achieve this goal. Up to date, LCA has been applied to many products, services, and industrial systems to evaluate their environmental impact aspects. However, there is a wide range of indicators available to be applied for LCA, and choosing an inappropriate indicator may lead the product designer to achieve wrong and weak results. Therefore, this paper proposes to overcome this difficulty by developing a method that can be used as a knowledge transfer to product designers and LCA practitioners in order to help them to make the most appropriate choice of LCA indicators. This method should have some characteristics, such as (a) to be adaptable to a given context and (b) to be dynamic, scalable, and easy to learn. The purpose of this paper is to present the Evaluation Method for Choosing Indicator (EMCI) developed to facilitate the learning process of LCA methods and to quickly select their most appropriate indicators. To validate the EMCI method, a case study on a French textile industry has been implemented. The focus was to evaluate how LCA indicators and methods were chosen to be integrated into the suitable eco-design LCA tool.
Timely access to care services is crucial to support people with dementia and their family carers to live well. Carers of people with dementia (N = 390), recruited from eight countries, completed semi-structured interviews about their experiences of either accessing or not using formal care services over a 12-month period in the Access to Timely Formal Care (Actifcare) study. Participant responses were summarised using content analysis, categorised into clusters and frequencies were calculated. Less than half of the participants (42.3%) reported service use. Of those using services, 72.8 per cent reported timely access and of those not using services 67.2 per cent were satisfied with this situation. However, substantial minorities either reported access at the wrong time (27.2%), or feeling dissatisfied or mixed feelings about not accessing services (32.8%). Reasons for not using services included use not necessary yet, the carer provided support or refusal. Reasons given for using services included changes in the condition of the person with dementia, the service's ability to meet individual needs, not coping or the opportunity to access services arose. Facilitators and barriers to service use included whether participants experienced supportive professionals, the speed of the process, whether the general practitioner was helpful, participant's own proactive attitude and the quality of information received. To achieve timely support, simplified pathways to use of formal care services are needed.
This study reports the effects of a high-fat (HF) diet on the iron (Fe) status of growing rats over 8 weeks. Tissue Fe levels were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and whole-body adiposity was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Histopathology and morphometry of adipose tissue were performed. Liver homogenates were used for measuring ferroportin (Fpn)-1 protein levels by immunoblotting, and transcript levels were used for Fe genes measured by real-time PCR. Tissue Fe pools were fit to a compartmental biokinetic model in which Fe was assessed using 14 compartments and 27 transfer constants (kj,i from tissue “i” to tissue “j”) adapted from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 69. Ten kj,i were calculated from the experimental data using nonlinear regression, and 17 were estimated by allometry according to the formula kj,i = a · Mb. Validation of the model was carried out by comparing predicted and analysed Fe pool sizes in red blood cells (RBCs), the liver and the spleen. Body adiposity was negatively associated with serum Fe levels and positively associated with liver Fe stores. An inferred increase in Fe transfer from bone marrow to the liver paralleled higher hepatic Fe concentrations and ferritin heavy-chain mRNA levels in the HF diet-fed animals, suggesting that liver Fe accumulation occurred at least in part due to a favoured liver RBC uptake. If this feeding condition were to be prolonged, impaired Fe decompartmentalization may occur, ultimately resulting in dysmetabolic Fe overload.
Projections of a burgeoning population coupled with global environmental change offer an increasingly dire picture of the state of the world's food security in the not-too-distant future. But how can we transform the current food system to become more sustainable, more equitable and more just? We identify kitchens as sites of transformative innovation in the food system where cooks and chefs can leverage traditional food knowledge about local food species to create delicious and nutritious dishes. Achieving a sustainable food system is a grand challenge, one where cooks in particular are stepping forward as innovators to find solutions.
To evaluate differences in food consumption of Brazilian adults according to the presence of children and adolescents in the household.
Averages of two non-consecutive days of food records from the first Brazilian National Dietary Survey were analysed and classified into eighteen food groups according to nutritional characteristics and use in diet. We compared the mean percentage contribution to total daily energy intake of each food group according to three groups of household composition: adults living alone or with other adults (32·7 %), adults living with children (35·6 %) and adults living with adolescents (31·7 %).
Brazilian nationwide survey, 2008–2009.
Adults aged 20–59 years (n 6312; 52·1 % female).
Women living alone or with other adults had higher consumption of vegetables, milk and other drinks, and lower consumption of beans and rice, compared with those living with children or adolescents. Men living alone or with other adults had higher consumption of sweets & desserts and vegetables, and lower consumption of beans, compared with those living with children or adolescents. According to household income, adults in the highest tertile who lived with children or adolescents presented a mixed consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods, whereas their counterparts in the first income tertile presented a marked consumption of foods considered traditional of the Brazilian population.
There are differences in food consumption based on the presence of children and adolescents in the household, with greater variation according to gender and household income.
To verify differences in the availability, variety, quality and price of unprocessed and ultra-processed foods in supermarkets and similar establishments in neighbourhoods with different social deprivation levels at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
The Obesogenic Environment Study in São Paulo’s Food Store Observation Tool (ESAO-S) was applied in thirty-three supermarket chains, wholesale and retail supermarkets.
Fruits, vegetables and ultra-processed foods were available in almost all establishments, without differences according to Health Vulnerability Index (HVI; which varies from 0 to 1 point and the higher the worse; P > 0·05). Most establishments were concentrated in low vulnerability areas and offered healthy foods with greater variety and quality, despite higher prices. The Healthy Food Store Index (HFSI; which varies from 0 to 16 points and the higher the best) was calculated from the ESAO-S and the mean score was 8·91 (sd 1·51). The presence and variety of unprocessed foods count as positive points, as do the absence of ultra-processed products. When HFSI was stratified by HVI, low HVI neighbourhoods presented higher HFSI scores, compared with medium, high and very high HVI neighbourhoods (P = 0·001).
Supermarkets and similar establishments are less dense in areas of greater social deprivation and have lower prices of healthy foods, but the variety and quality of those foods are worse, compared with areas of low vulnerability. We found worse HFSI for supermarkets located in areas with greater vulnerability. Those findings can guide specific public policies improving the urban food environment.
The transition from laminar to turbulent flows has challenged the scientific community since the seminal work of Reynolds (Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 174, 1883, pp. 935–982). Recently, experimental and numerical investigations on this matter have demonstrated that the spatio-temporal dynamics that are associated with transitional flows belong to the directed percolation class. In the present work, we explore the analysis of laminar–turbulent transition from the perspective of the recent theoretical development that concerns viscoelastic turbulence, i.e. the drag-reducing turbulent flow obtained from adding polymers to a Newtonian fluid. We found remarkable fingerprints of the variety of states that are present in both types of flows, as captured by a series of features that are known to be present in drag-reducing viscoelastic turbulence. In particular, when compared to a Newtonian fully turbulent flow, the universal nature of these flows includes: (i) the statistical dynamics of the alternation between active and hibernating turbulence; (ii) the weakening of elliptical and hyperbolic structures; (iii) the existence of high and low drag reduction regimes with the same boundary; (iv) the relative enhancement of the streamwise-normal stress; and (v) the slope of the energy spectrum decay with respect to the wavenumber. The maximum drag reduction profile was attained in a Newtonian flow with a Reynolds number near the boundary of the laminar regime and in a hibernating state. It is generally conjectured that, as the Reynolds number increases, the dynamics of the intermittency that characterises transitional flows migrate from a situation where heteroclinic connections between the upper and the lower branches of solutions are more frequent to another where homoclinic orbits around the upper solution become the general rule.
With still limited information on vitamin requirements and considering that many commercial practices adopt dietary vitamin levels above the values suggested by nutritional tables, this study aimed to assess the effect of administering vitamin supplementation to sows in gestation and lactation and to their litters on the reproductive performance and body condition of the sows and on the performance and immune profile of the litters until slaughter. The trial was split into two phases. The first phase used 104 sows, assigned to be randomized to blocks according to parity, submitted until 21 days of lactation to two treatments: control–standard (standard levels of vitamins) and test–elevated (elevated levels of vitamins). Each sow and its respective farrow were considered an experimental unit. The sows underwent evaluations of body condition score, back fat thickness and reproductive performance. In the second phase, 60 barrows and 60 gilts at 21 days of age and mean initial weight of 5.33 ± 1.5 kg until slaughter at 164 days of age. The piglets were assigned to randomized blocks according to the weight and sex of the animals in a 2 × 2 factorial model, with 10 replicates per treatment, where a pen with three animals represented the experimental unit. Following the same treatments of the first phase, the piglets were evaluated for daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate and humoral immune response. Vitamin supplementation had no positive effects on the reproductive parameters or body composition of sows. However, it positively impacted the performance of the litters in the early nursery stage, but did not lead to superior effects on the immune responses to vaccination against circovirus or mycoplasma.
Around 60–80% of oocytes maturated in vivo reached competence, while the proportion of maturation in vitro is rarely higher than 40%. In this sense, butafosfan has been used in vivo to improve metabolic condition of postpartum cows, and can represent an alternative to increase reproductive efficiency in cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of increasing doses of butafosfan during oocyte maturation in vitro on the initial embryo development in cattle. In total, 1400 cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were distributed in four groups and maturated according to supplementation with increasing concentrations of butafosfan (0 mg/ml, 0.05 mg/ml, 0.1 mg/ml and 0.2 mg/ml). Then, 20 oocytes per group were collected to evaluate nuclear maturation and gene expression on cumulus cells and oocytes and the remaining oocytes were inseminated and cultured until day 7, when blastocysts were collected for gene expression analysis. A dose-dependent effect of butafosfan was observed, with decrease of cleavage rate and embryo development with higher doses. No difference between groups was observed in maturation rate and expression of genes related to oocyte quality. Our results suggest that butafosfan is prejudicial for oocytes, compromising cleavage and embryo development.
We argue that how players perceive the attack-defense game might matter far more than its actual underlying structure in determining the outcomes of intergroup conflict. Leaders can use various tactics to dynamically modify these perceptions, from collective victimization to the distortion of the perceived payoffs, with some followers being more receptive than others to such leadership tactics.
We report a summary of Portuguese families and siblings research under the umbrella of the Portuguese Healthy Family Project. Families lived in mainland Portugal, as well as in the Azores and Madeira islands. All samples comprise children and adolescents (9–20 years) and their parents (27–57 years). Recruitment procedures and phenotypes were detailed. Familial resemblance in body shape and composition, metabolic syndrome, physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary behaviors are presented, as well as future research avenues.
This research presents the mineralogical and chemical characterization and beneficiation study of two kaolin deposits from the Borborema Pegmatite Province, Brazil. Seven samples were collected and treated in two different beneficiation routes involving magnetic separation and chemical bleaching. The fractions obtained were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, particle-size analyses, electron paramagnetic resonance and determination of optical properties. The samples are composed mainly of subhedral kaolinite in the form of booklets, as well as muscovite, quartz, microcline and illite impurities. The kaolinite structural formulae indicated significant replacement of Si4+ by Al3+ in tetrahedral sites and low replacement of Fe3+ by Al3+ in the octahedral sites. The first 30 min of chemical bleaching improved significantly the optical properties of kaolin, indicating that the process is more efficient than magnetic separation.
The aim of this work was to use X-ray diffraction to identify substances used for adulteration of raw milk and to determine if crystallographic analysis can detect extraneous substances in milk. Two unknown substances were sent anonymously by employers linked to the dairy chain, who claimed that they were added directly in milk prior to water addition by truck drivers. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and submitted to physicochemical analysis. The first substance was identified by X-ray diffraction as sodium citrate, complying with its physicochemical attributes, such as the powerful ability to decrease the freezing point. The second substance was identified by X-ray diffraction as sucrose and this result was also in agreement with its ability to increase the density, decrease the freezing point and finally, to be positive for sucrose in the resorcinol qualitative test. To evaluate if X-ray diffraction can detect extraneous substances already mixed in milk, fresh raw milk samples tampered with urea, sodium hydroxide, sodium citrate and sucrose were freeze dried and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, with no detection of any extraneous substances at any percentage. This is the first report of attempted diagnosis of extraneous substances in milk by X-ray diffraction. However, this technique can be useful only when applied to identify substances used for adulteration prior to its dilution in milk, since the amorphous nature of milk seems to be a limitation for the accurate detection of extraneous substances.