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From 2016–2019, dry bulb onions were the suspected cause of three multistate outbreaks in the United States. We investigated a large multistate outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections that caused illnesses in both the United States and Canada in 2020. Epidemiologic, laboratory and traceback investigations were conducted to determine the source of the infections, and data were shared among U.S. and Canadian public health officials. We identified 1127 U.S. illnesses from 48 states with illness onset dates ranging from 19 June to 11 September 2020. Sixty-six per cent of ill people reported consuming red onions in the week before illness onset. Thirty-five illness sub-clusters were identified during the investigation and seventy-four per cent of sub-clusters served red onions to customers during the exposure period. Traceback for the source of onions in illness sub-clusters identified a common onion grower in Bakersfield, CA as the source of red onions, and onions were recalled at this time. Although other strains of Salmonella Newport were identified in environmental samples collected at the Bakersfield, CA grower, extensive environmental and product testing did not yield the outbreak strain. This was the third largest U.S. foodborne Salmonella outbreak in the last 30 years. It is the first U.S. multistate outbreak with a confirmed link to dry bulb onions, and it was nearly 10-fold larger than prior outbreaks with a suspected link to onions. This outbreak is notable for its size and scope, as well as the international data sharing that led to implication of red onions as the primary cause of the outbreak. Although an environmental assessment at the grower identified several factors that likely contributed to the outbreak, no main reason was identified. The expedient identification of the outbreak vehicle and response of multiple public health agencies allowed for recall and removal of product from the marketplace, and rapid messaging to both the public and industry on actions to protect consumers; these features contributed to a decrease in cases and expeditious conclusion of the outbreak.
Herein, we contextualize, problematize, and offer some insights for moving beyond the problem of monolingual comparative normativity in (psycho) linguistic research on bilingualism. We argue that, in the vast majority of cases, juxtaposing (functional) monolinguals to bilinguals fails to offer what the comparison is supposedly intended to do: meet the standards of empirical control in line with the scientific method. Instead, the default nature of monolingual comparative normativity has historically contributed to inequalities in many facets of bilingualism research and continues to impede progress on multiple levels. Beyond framing our views on the matter, we offer some epistemological considerations and methodological alternatives to this standard practice that improve empirical rigor while fostering increased diversity, inclusivity, and equity in our field.
The study of the brains’ oscillatory activity has been a standard technique to gain insights into human neurocognition for a relatively long time. However, as a complementary analysis to ERPs, only very recently has it been utilized to study bilingualism and its neural underpinnings. Here, we provide a theoretical and methodological starter for scientists in the (psycho)linguistics and neurocognition of bilingualism field(s) to understand the bases and applications of this analytical tool. Towards this goal, we provide a description of the characteristics of the human neural (and its oscillatory) signal, followed by an in-depth description of various types of EEG oscillatory analyses, supplemented by figures and relevant examples. We then utilize the scant, yet emergent, literature on neural oscillations and bilingualism to highlight the potential of how analyzing neural oscillations can advance our understanding of the (psycho)linguistic and neurocognitive understanding of bilingualism.
Supplementing embryonic culture medium with fetal bovine serum (FBS) renders this medium undefined. Glucose and growth factors present in FBS may affect the results of cell differentiation studies. This study tested the hypothesis that FBS supplementation during in vitro culture (IVC) alters cell differentiation in early bovine embryo development. Bovine embryos were produced in vitro and randomly distributed into three experimental groups at 90 h post insemination (90 hpi): the KSOM-FBS group, which consisted of a 5% (v/v) FBS supplementation; the KSOM33 group, with the renewal of 33% of medium volume; and the KSOM-Zero group, without FBS supplementation nor renewal of the culture medium. The results showed that the blastocyst rate (blastocyst/oocytes) at 210 hpi in the KSOM-FBS group was higher than in the KSOM-Zero group but not different from the KSOM33 group. There were no significant changes in metabolism-related aspects, such as fluorescence intensities of CellROX Green and MitoTracker Red or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD+). Immunofluorescence analysis of CDX2 revealed that the lack of FBS or medium supplementation reduced the number of trophectoderm (TE) cells and total cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed a reduction of SOX17-positive cell numbers after FBS supplementation compared with the KSOM33 group. Therefore, we concluded that FBS absence reduced blastocyst rates; however, no reduction occurred when there was a 33% volume renewal of the medium at 90 hpi. We also concluded that FBS supplementation altered TE and primitive endoderm cell allocation during early bovine embryo development.
The aim of this article is to review and synthesize the evidence on end-of-life in burn intensive care units.
Systematic scoping review: Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews extension for Scoping Reviews was used as a reporting guideline. Searches were performed in 3 databases, with no time restriction and up to September 2021.
A total of 16,287 documents were identified; 18 were selected for analysis and synthesis. Three key themes emerged: (i) characteristics of the end-of-life in burn intensive care units, including end-of-life decisions, decision-making processes, causes, and trajectories of death; (ii) symptom control at the end-of-life in burn intensive care units focusing on patients’ comfort; and (iii) concepts, models, and designs of the care provided to burned patients at the end-of-life, mainly care approaches, provision of care, and palliative care.
Significance of results
End-of-life care is a major step in the care provided to critically ill burned patients. Dying and death in burn intensive care units are often preceded by end-of-life decisions, namely forgoing treatment and do-not-attempt to resuscitate. Different dying trajectories were described, suggesting the possibility to develop further studies to identify triggers for palliative care referral. Symptom control was not described in detail. Palliative care was rarely involved in end-of-life care for these patients. This review highlights the need for early and high-quality palliative and end-of-life care in the trajectories of critically ill burned patients, leading to an improved perception of end-of-life in burn intensive care units. Further research is needed to study the best way to provide optimal end-of-life care and foster integrated palliative care in burn intensive care units.
The home-field advantage (HFA) hypothesis establishes that plant litter decomposes faster at ‘home’ sites than in ‘away’ sites due to more specialized decomposers acting at home sites. This hypothesis has predominantly been tested through ‘yes or no’ transplanting experiments, where the litter decomposition of a focal species is quantified near and away from their conspecifics. Herein, we evaluated the occurrence and magnitude of home-field effects on the leaf litter decomposition of Myrcia ramuliflora (O.Berg) N. Silveira (Myrtaceae) along a natural gradient of conspecific litterfall input and also if home-field effects are affected by litter and soil traits. Litter decomposition of M. ramuliflora was assessed through litterbags placed in 39 plots in a tropical heath vegetation over a period of 12 months. We also characterized abiotic factors, litter layer traits, and litter diversity. Our results indicated the occurrence of positive (i.e. Home-field advantage) and negative (i.e. Home-field disadvantage) effects in more than half of the plots. Positive and negative effects occurred in a similar frequency and magnitude. Among all predictors tested, only the community weighted mean C/N ratio of the litterfall input was associated with home-field effects. Our results reinforce the lack of generality for home-field effects found in the literature and thus challenge the understanding of litter-decomposer interaction in tropical ecosystems.
Assessing the conservation status of species is essential for implementing appropriate conservation measures. A lack of evidence of threats, rather than showing an absence of impacts, could reflect a lack of studies on how human activities could result in species population declines. The range of Prince Bernhard's titi monkey Plecturocebus bernhardi is restricted to the Arc of Deforestation, a deforestation hotspot in south-eastern Amazonia. Despite this, it is categorized as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. To reassess the conservation status of P. bernhardi, we carried out surveys during 2015–2017 to delimit the geographical distribution of the species and estimate its population density and abundance. We then used spatial predictive modelling to examine future habitat and population loss within its range. Plecturocebus bernhardi occurs over an area of 131,295 km2. Its mean group size was 2.8 individuals/group and its density 10.8 individuals/km2 and 3.8 groups/km2. Habitat loss was estimated to be 58,365 km2 (44.5% of its current range) over the next 24 years (three P. bernhardi generations) under a conservative governance model of deforestation and 105,289 km2 (80.2%) under a business-as-usual model. These numbers indicate that P. bernhardi is threatened and should be categorized as Vulnerable, at least, using the IUCN Red List criteria. We recommend the reassessment of other Least Concern primate species from the Arc of Deforestation using a similar approach.
To explore the relationship between ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption and dietary, lifestyle and social determinants using pathway analysis in the baseline of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME project).
Cross-sectional study, in which path analysis was used to estimate direct and indirect effects of dietary practices, sleep, time on the computer and professional status on UPF consumption.
Data were collected in 2016, through an online questionnaire composed of sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and dietary practices questions, and a FFQ.
Baseline participants from the CUME Project (n 2826), adults who graduated from Universidade Federal de Viçosa or Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Being employed (P = 0·024), the time spent on the computer (P = 0·031) and the frequency of fried food intake (P < 0·001) were positively and directly associated with UPF consumption, whereas the sleep duration (P = 0·007) and the number of meals per d (P < 0·001) were negatively and directly associated with UPF consumption. Indirect effects were observed between being employed, mediated by the sleep duration (P = 0·032) and fried food intake (P = 0·005), whereas being a student is mediated by the time on the computer (P = 0·048).
The time spent on the computer, sleep duration and fried food consumption showed direct effects on UPF consumption. They also acted as mediators on the relationship between professional status and UPF consumption. Besides, the number of meals eaten each day also was directly associated with UPF consumption.
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is critical for cell homeostasis but its role on bovine oocyte maturation is not well known. We investigated the importance of Hsp90 for competence of bovine oocyte using 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG), an inhibitor of Hsp90, during in vitro maturation (IVM). Three experiments evaluated the effect of 17AAG on developmental competence of oocytes matured in vitro under thermoneutral (38.5ºC) or heat shock (HS; 41.5ºC) temperatures. The first experiment found that the blastocyst rates were lower (P < 0.05) with 2 µM 17AAG compared with the untreated control (0 µM). The abundance of HSF1 transcripts was higher in oocytes matured with 2 µM than with 0 and 1 µM 17AAG, whereas the abundance of HSP90AA1 and HSPA1A transcripts was lower (P < 0.05) with 1 and 2 µM than with 0 µM. The second experiment found that 2 µM 17AAG for 12 or 24 h during IVM decreased (P < 0.05) the blastocysts rates. In the third experiment, the association of 2 μM 17AAG with HS for 12 h during IVM resulted in lower (P < 0.05) blastocysts rates than 17AAG, HS or untreated control. In conclusion, inhibition of Hsp90 during in vitro maturation compromises further embryo development; the association of Hsp90 inhibition with HS aggravates the deleterious effect of both on oocyte developmental competence.
The ichthyofauna of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts off the American continent is very rich. Consequently, a high biodiversity of nematodes parasitizing these vertebrates is also expected. Currently, data on nematode parasites of marine fish off the Americas are fragmented. A review of all adult nematode species reported parasitizing marine fish from off the American continent is herein presented, as well as comments on their patterns of diversity, life cycles and advances in the taxonomic and phylogenetic knowledge. A total of 209 valid species, 19 species inquirendae and 6 dubious records have been recorded, the majority from the fish taxa Eupercaria and Perciformes. The families Sciaenidae, Serranidae and Lutjanidae, as well as the tropical and temperate Atlantic waters, exhibited the highest records of parasitic nematodes. The Cucullanidae, Philometridae and Cystidicolidae were the most speciose families of nematodes, which may be related to technological advances and relatively recent efforts of taxonomists, resulting in description of new taxa and the resolution of taxonomic problems. Numerous taxonomic questions still need resolution and, even though genetic data have been important for this process, the database is very scarce. This is the first review on all currently known nematode species parasitizing marine fish off the Americas and may serve as an important basis of reference for future approaches on these organisms.
Exposure to a diet with a high saturated fat content can influence the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract, causing losses in the absorption of nutrients and favoring the appearance of diseases. The objective was to assess the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) in the perinatal (pregnancy and lactation) and post-weaning period on the histomorphometry, neuroplasticity, and histopathology of the ileum. Wistar rats were divided into four subgroups: Control/Control (CC, n = 10) rats fed a control diet (C) throughout the trial period; Control/HFD (CH, n = 9) rats fed diet C (perinatal) and HFD after weaning; HFD/Control (HC, n = 10) rats fed HFD (perinatal) and diet C (post-weaning); HFD/HFD (HH, n = 9) rats fed HFD throughout the experimental period. There was atrophy of the Ileum wall with a reduction in the muscular tunic, submucosa, and mucosa thickness in the HH group of 37%, 28%, and 46%, respectively (p < 0.0001). The depth of the crypts decreased by 29% (p < 0.0001) and height increased by 5% (p < 0.0013). Villus height decreased by 41% and 18% in HH and HC groups (p < 0.0001) and width decreased by 11% in the HH (p < 0.0001). The height of the enterocytes decreased by 18% in the HH (p < 0.0001). There was a decrease in the area of the myenteric and submucosal plexus ganglia in the HH and HC groups (p < 0.0001). The number, occupation, and granules of Paneth cells increased in the HH and HC groups (p < 0.0001). Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) increased in all groups exposed to the HFD. Goblet cells decreased in groups CH and HH (p < 0.0001). The evidence from this study suggests that the HFD had altered the histomorphometry, neuroplasticity, and histopathology of the ileum of the rats.
Circadian rhythm (CR) dysfunction is a prominent feature in bipolar disorder (BD) and sleep disturbances are characteristic, although not essential to the diagnosis.
To review the literature regarding the CR dysfunction and its impact on the onset and clinical course of BD.
We conducted a MEDLINE search using bipolar disorder, circadian rhythm and sleep as keywords, selecting studies written in English.
CR dysfunction is a trait marker of BD. It’s known that during depressive episodes insomnia is present, with difficulty falling asleep/ maintaining sleep and early awakening. Regarding mania, decreased need for sleep is a critical marker. During the euthymic period significant alterations in sleep pattern have been described. It’s also known that changes in the sleep pattern occur prior to those in mood patterns, indicating that sleep dysregulation may trigger the onset of mood episodes or relapses. Therefore, CR disruption may be associated with the pathophysiology of BD and some factors have already been identified: irregularity of the sleep-wake rhythm, eveningness chronotype, abnormality of melatonin secretion, vulnerability of clock genes and the irregularity of social zeitgeber.
Disturbances of sleep are pervasive, and an essential feature of BD, worse during mood episodes, but still present during euthymic periods. It remains to determine whether circadian rhythm dysfunction is a trait marker or mood state dependent. Further studies are warranted to clarify this association.
The Short Form of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-SF; Raes et al. 2011) is composed of 12 items that evaluate the same six dimensions (Self-Kindness/SK, Self-Judgement/SJ, Common Humanity/CH, Isolation, Mindfulness/M, Over-Identification/OI) as the long scale (26 items). The Portuguese version of the SCS-SF (Castilho et al. 2015) was validated in a vast sample from clinical and general populations, the latter being composed of students, other than from medicine courses.
To analyze the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the SCS-SF in a sample of Medicine/Dentistry students.
Participants were 666 Portuguese medicine (82.6%) and dentistry (17.4%) students (81.8% girls); they answered an online survey including the SCS and other validated questionnaires from the OECD Study on Social and Emotional Skills/SSES: Stress resistance, Emotional control, Optimism and Persistence.
Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that the model composed of six factors, two second order factors (positive and negative) and one third order factor (total) presented good fit indexes (χ2/df=3.013; RMSEA=.0066, p<.001; CFI=.970; TLI=.948, GFI=.947). The Cronbach’s alfas were .892, .869 and .877 respectively for the total, self-compassion and self-criticism dimension. Pearson correlations of the SCS-SF total score, self-compassion and self-criticism dimensional scores were moderate to high with the SSES measures, from .272/-.236/.247 with Persistence to .709/-.634/.615 with Optimism.
Although reduced to less than half than the original SCS, the SCS–SF is a valid and useful alternative to measure general self-compassion and their positive and negative components in an ongoing longitudinal research with medicine/dentistry students.
Pisa syndrome (PS) is a type of dystonia of rare occurrence, first described in 1972 as an adverse effect of neuroleptic agents. It is used to describe a postural abnormality that includes trunk flexion in the coronal plane and axial rotation, which improves in the supine position.
In this work, we aim to conduct a brief review of Pisa Syndrome aetiology, pathophysiology and treatment.
A non-systematic search was conducted through the PubMed database for “pisa syndrome”. Articles were screened for relevant information on PS aetiology, pathophysiology and treatment.
Pisa syndrome has been associated as an adverse effect of multiple drugs from different classes, mainly antipsychotics, dopaminergic agents and cholinesterase inhibitors. The underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Nevertheless, one of the most consensual hypothesis considers PS as a consequence of a cholinergic-dopaminergic imbalance that can be caused by antipsychotic treatment. Some factors have been associated with increased risk for developing PS such as old age and polypharmacy. PS appears to be better treated with the reduction or interruption of the agent(s) associated with its onset.
Despite its low incidence, Pisa syndrome can occur as a side effect of a number of different medications and the identification of the trigger-drug is fundamental so it can be reduced or interrupted in order to treat this condition.
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) consist of paroxysmal changes in responsiveness, movements, or behaviour that superficially resemble epileptic seizures.
Presentation of a clinical case of a PNES in a patient with a diagnose of secondary epilepsy, illustrating the relevance of an adequate evaluation, differential diagnosis, and intervention.
Description of the clinical case, with brief literature review and discussion. A search was conducted on PubMed and other databases, using the MeSH terms “nonepileptic seizure”, and “epileptic seizure”.
We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient, brought to the emergency department because of tonic axial and limb nonsynchronous movements, closed eyes, long duration, with immediate awareness, no desaturation, tongue bite, facial flushing, dyspnoea or sphincter incontinency. She was medicated with clonazepam 1 mg and levetiracetam 1000 mg ev. TC-CE had no acute alteration. Bloodwork had no other major alteration except valproic acid below therapeutic levels (her usual medication, along with other antiepileptic drugs, antidepressant and antipsychotic). The antecedents of the patient: mild intellectual disability and an accidental traumatic brain injury in infancy, with secondary epilepsy. She was transferred to Psychiatry department. No electroencephalogram (EEG) was realized, because she had a recent one confirming PNES, and many other emergency observations with the diagnosis of PNES.
This clinical case showcases the diagnostic difficulties that clinicians face when there is an overlap in symptoms, emphasizing the need to combine patient history, witness reports, clinician observations, and ictal and interictal EEG to help distinguish these different clinical identities.
The COVID-19 crisis has generated an increasing stress throughout the population.
To develop and validate the Adherence Scale to the Recommendations for Mental Health during the COVID-19 pandemic from the Portuguese General Directorate of Health (GDH) (ASR-MH-COVID19).
The items content was based on the GDH guides for the prevention of mental health and psychosocial well-being of the general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. After content and facial validity analysis, the preliminary version of the ASR-MH-COVID19 (8 items to be answered on a Likert scale) was completed by 413 individuals (69.2% female; mean age=31.02±14,272), in September-December 2020 (Sample1) and then by 967 (70.9% female; mean age=34.02±14,272), in February-May 2021 (Sample2). Sample1 was randomly divided in two sub-samples. Sample1A was used for exploratory factor analysis/EFA and Sample1B for confirmatory factor analysis/CFA; CFA was then replicated with Sample2. The online surveys also included the Adherence Scale to the Recommendations of Portuguese GDH to minimize the impact of COVID-19 (ASR-COVID-19; Pereira et al. 2020).
CFAs were informed by EFA and showed that the unidimensional model presented acceptable-good fit indexes (Sample1B: χ2/df=2.747; RMSEA=.0980, p<.001; CFI=.973; TLI=.918, GFI=.972; Sample2: χ2/df=3.327; RMSEA=.0490, p<.001; CFI=.993; TLI=.983, GFI=.990). Cronbach’s alfas were α<.850. Pearson correlations between ASR-MH-COVID19 and ASR-COVID19 were significant (p<.01) and moderate-high for the total (r=.753) and dimensional scores (Distance and respiratory hygiene, r=.739; House and personal hygiene, r=.584; Use of remote services and isolation r=.425).
The new ASR-MH-COVID19 has shown validity and reliability, allowing the investigation of this (mental) health behaviour.
Almost 5 million people worldwide have lost their lives due to SARS-CoV-2 (source: WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard, data of 1.10.2021; https://covid19.who.int/) and therefore, globally, there is an increase of people in grief due to the death of a significant other.
To study psychological correlates of grief during the COVID-19 pandemic.
591 university students, with a mean age of 23.84±7.95 years (range 18-65 years; 76.8% women; 91.2% Portuguese) completed an online questionnaire during the second COVID-19 confinement (from 15.02 to 13.03.2021), with sociodemographic questions, the Pandemic Stress Index, the Mental Health Inventory, Insomnia Scale, questions on physical/ psychological health, and social isolation.
Students bereaving the death of a significant other (n=93, 15.7%; n=25, 26.9% reported cause was SARS-CoV-2; time since death: < 3 months to 1-year), compared to those who did not (n= 498; 84.3%), described poorer psychological health, higher psychological distress (depression, anxiety, lack of control) and sleep difficulties, higher levels of stress (higher impact of COVID pandemic in daily life, and higher behavior changes in response to COVID-19) and more social isolation.
COVID-19 pandemic-related stress is a source of additional stress for bereaved students. Grief is also associated with social isolation, poor mental health (depression, anxiety, lack of control) and sleep difficulties. Screening efforts, guidance, and counseling from professionals of mental health care, primary health care, and universities health care services during and after the COVID-19 pandemic could be extremely beneficial for bereaved students, particularly for those at higher risk of developing prolonged grief disorder.