To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We test the interpretation of pronominal forms in L2 speakers of English whose L1 is Spanish. Previous research on learners of nonnull subject languages has shown conflicting results. The aim of the present study is to reconcile previous evidence and shed light on the factors that determine learners’ difficulty to interpret pronominal forms in the L2. In six comprehension experiments, we found that intermediate L2 speakers did not show increased difficulty compared to native speakers in integrating multiple sources of information (syntactic, discourse, pragmatic) to resolve ambiguous pronouns in intrasentential anaphora and cataphora conditions. However, we also found that when two referents with equal prominence are introduced using a conjoined noun phrase in the preceding context, the learner’s performance is significantly different than the performance of the native speakers, both in intrasentential and intersentential anaphora. We suggest that L2 speakers may encounter difficulties evaluating the salience of the antecedents during pronoun resolution.
Our objective was to determine the frequency of zika (ZIKV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus coinfection and describe the mortality cases that occurred during the epidemiologic surveillance of the ZIKV epidemic in Colombia. We analysed all cases of suspected ZIKV infection that were reported to the National Institute of Health (October 2015–December 2016). DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV RNA were detected in serum or tissue samples using polymerase chain reaction assay. Medical records of the fatal cases were reviewed. We identified that 23 871 samples were processed. The frequency of viral agents was 439 (1.84%) for DENV, 257 (1.07%) for CHIKV and 10118 (42.38%) for ZIKV. Thirty-four (0.14%) cases of coinfection were identified. The CHIKV–ZIKV coinfection was present in 28 cases (82.3%), DENV–CHIKV in three (8.8%) and DENV–ZIKV in three (8.8%). Seven (20.6%) coinfection cases were fatal (two DENV–CHIKV cases and five CHIKV–ZIKV cases). Two cases were foetal deaths and the others were related to neurological syndrome and sepsis. In conclusion, the frequency of arbovirus coinfection during epidemic of ZIKV was low, and CHIKV–ZIKV coinfection was the most common. Mortality was high among coinfection patients. The role of each virus in the mortality cases of coinfection warrants further studies.
Prodiplosis longifila is reported as a pest of a wide range of species cultivated in America, including citrus, solanaceous species and asparagus. This species has different behavioural traits that are primarily centred on the oviposition habit and the feeding of larvae, which can change depending on the host. However, scarce information is available on population studies and the natural history of this insect, and uncertainty exists about the taxonomic identity and the geographic distribution of this species. The main objective was to perform a phylogenetic and genetic study of P. longifila populations and to define whether the North American and South American populations belong to the same species or whether a differentiation process had occurred due to geographic distance. A second objective was to determine whether this species showed genetic differentiation by host specialization in South America. The phylogenetic and population analyses based on DNA barcodes (cytochrome oxidase I gene) and a region of the ribosomal DNA (ITS2) revealed divergent clades attributable to geographic distance and host specificity. The North American and South American P. longifila insects were confirmed to be genetically distinct, and the genetic distances exceeded the values expected for intraspecific variation. In South America, the population analysis of P. longifila from tomato, sweet pepper (Solanaceae), Tahiti lime and key lime (Rutaceae) hosts evidenced high genetic differentiation between populations associated with different hosts and an absence of gene flow between these groups, suggesting the corresponding formation of cryptic species.
Is the specific consonant–vowel (CV) letter combination of a word a basic source of information for lexical access in the early stages of processing? We designed two masked priming lexical decision experiments to respond to this question by directly examining the role of CV skeletal structure in written-word recognition. To that aim, each target word was preceded by a one-letter different nonword prime that kept the same CV skeletal structure or not. We also included an identity prime as a control. Results showed faster word identification times in the CV congruent condition than in the CV incongruent condition when a consonant was replaced from the target (paesaje–PAISAJE < parsaje–PAISAJE), but not when it was a vowel (alusno–ALUMNO = alueno–ALUMNO). This dissociation poses problems for those accounts based on an early activation of the CV skeletal structure during lexical processing. Instead, this pattern of data favors the view that it is the word's consonant skeleton rather than the CV skeletal structure that is the key element in the early phases of word processing. We discuss the theoretical and methodological implications of these findings.
Objectives: The reduction in cognitive decline depends on timely diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the current available information and communication technologies-based instruments for cognitive decline early screening and detection in terms of usability, validity, and reliability.
Methods: Electronic searches identified 1,785 articles of which thirty-four met the inclusion criteria and were grouped according to their main purpose into test batteries, measures of isolated tasks, behavioral measures, and diagnostic tools.
Results: Thirty one instruments were analyzed. Fifty-two percent were personal computer based, 26 percent tablet, 13 percent laptop, and 1 was mobile phone based. The most common input method was touchscreen (48 percent). The instruments were validated with a total of 4,307 participants: 2,146 were healthy older adults (M = 73.59; SD = 5.12), 1,104 had dementia (M = 74.65; SD = 3.98) and 1,057 mild cognitive impairment (M = 74.84; SD = 4.46). Only 6 percent were administered at home, 19 percent reported outcomes about usability, and 22 percent about understandability. The methodological quality of the studies was good, the weakest methodological area being usability. Most of the instruments obtained acceptable values of specificity and sensitivity.
Conclusions: It is necessary to create home delivered instruments and to include usability studies in their design. Involvement of people with cognitive decline in all phases of the development process is of great importance to obtain valuable and user-friendly products. It would be advisable for researchers to make an effort to provide cutoff points for their instruments.
N-body models were run in order to test the mass estimators considered by Heisler, Tremaine and Bahcall (1985, HTB), when systems with a large number of mass-points with a non-flat mass-spectrum are considered. The initial conditions of the models were a analytic King profile for the number density, a Gaussian velocity distribution function and a Schechter-type mass spectrum. The models were left to evolve from a far from virial initial configuration, so a violent collapse occurs before the system reachs equilibrium. The code we use was NBODY2 code kindly provided to us by Dr. S. Aarseth.
The activity of music has always played a crucial role in my life as a teacher, scholar, musician, and human being. While changes in the technologies used to listen to music are often phrased in terms of “replacing” what came before for the sake of convenience, superior sound quality, or some other benefit, I find that my music collection at home still contains fairly equal parts vinyl, cassette, compact disc, and mp3. As a professional musician and scholar of American Indian musics, I have found that no single recording medium can serve all my needs. This is especially visible and audible when I look and listen to my collection of powwow music, in which homemade and commercially produced cassettes outnumber other formats.
This paper will reflect upon my lived experiences using both analog and digital recording technologies as a means to learn, archive, and disseminate powwow music. In this way the present work is broadly inspired by my correspondence with Professor David McAllester, in in which Professor McAllester once remarked that “much of the future of American Indian ethnomusicology will be ‘homework’ rather than ‘fieldwork’ and in the hands of Native musicologists.” As an urban Native (ethno)musicologist of Mescalero Apache, Irish, German, and Chicano descent, my homework for this chapter begins by situating myself more specifically in relation to relevant studies in ethnomusicology and American Indian Studies. I then discuss my formative period utilizing analog technology to learn Northern Plains powwow singing under the tutelage of Dr. Bernard Hoehner (Lakhǒta) as an undergraduate student at San Francisco State University (SFSU) in the mid-1990s. I then turn to my experiences utilizing analog and digital technologies while co-leading the Sweetwater Singers and teaching American Indian music at universities in the San Francisco Bay Area from the early 2000s to the present.
In the context of this volume, the practices and experiences discussed in this chapter address “the ways in which Indigenous people have utilized digital technologies to revive … and transmit musical traditions in complex articulations of Indigeneity.”
A number of experiments have shown that, in skilled adult readers, a small increase in interletter spacing speeds up the process of visual word recognition relative to the default settings (i.e., judge faster than judge). The goal of the present experiment was to examine whether this effect can be generalized to a more ecological scenario: text reading. Each participant read two stories (367 words each) taken from a standardized reading test. The stories were presented with the standard interletter spacing or with a small increase in interletter spacing (+1.2 points to default) in a within-subject design. An eyetracker was used to register the participants’ eye movements. Comprehension scores were also examined. Results showed that, on average, fixation durations were shorter while reading the text with extra spacing than while reading the text with the default settings (237 vs. 245 ms, respectively; η2 =. 41, p = .01). However, the number of fixations (while nonsignificant) was slightly higher in the text with extra spacing than in the text with the default spacing, and cancelled out the effect of interletter spacing in total reading times (F < 1). Comprehension scores were similar in the two spacing conditions (F < 1). Thus, at least for skilled adult readers, interletter spacing does not seem to play a consistently facilitative role during text reading.