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This paper describes a method to analyze open or closed elliptical structures with constant axial ratio by a Body-of-Revolution (BoR) Finite Element Method (FEM). The method is based on Transformation Optics, a coordinate transformation that maps the elliptical shape to a circular shape, for which BoR-FEM represents a greatly efficient tool for the analysis.
To compare post-operative audiometric outcomes for the two prevailing surgical approaches for isolated malleus and/or incus fixation: ossicular mobilisation with preservation of the ossicular chain, and disruption and reconstruction of the ossicular chain.
A search was conducted, in December 2016, of PubMed, Scopus, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature articles written in English. Papers presenting original data regarding post-operative audiometric outcomes in patients who underwent surgical treatment for malleus and/or incus fixation with a mobile and intact stapes were included. A risk of bias assessment was performed on the 14 selected papers and a tier system was developed. Meta-analysis was accomplished by comparing pooled rates of surgical success by chi-square test and calculating odds ratios by logistical regression. Analysis was performed using Revman5 and R software.
Results and conclusion
Analysis of the literature revealed no differences in audiometric outcomes between ossicular chain mobilisation and ossicular chain reconstruction in patients with isolated malleus and/or incus fixation. A large, prospective study comparing both short- and long-term hearing results for ossicular chain mobilisation and ossicular chain reconstruction in this population may identify whether a difference in outcomes exists between the two approaches.
Irrigation according to reliable estimates of crop water requirements (CWR) is one of the key strategies to ensure long-term sustainability of irrigated agriculture. In southern Mediterranean regions, during the irrigation season, CWR is almost totally controlled by the potential evapotranspiration of the irrigated crop. An innovative system for forecasting crop potential evapotranspiration (ETp) has been implemented recently in the Campania region (southern Italy). The system produces ETp forecasts with a lead time of up to 5 days, by coupling the visible and near-infrared crop imagery with numerical weather prediction outputs of a limited area model. The forecasts are delivered to farmers with a simple and intuitive web app interface, which makes daily real-time ETp maps accessible from desktop computers, tablets and smartphones. Forecast performances were evaluated for maize fields of two farms in two irrigation seasons (2014–2015). The mean absolute bias of the forecasted ETp was <0.3 mm/day and the RMSE was <0.6 mm/day, both for lead times up to 5 days.
Nitrogen fertilization of silage maize in Central Italy is typically carried out with two applications at early stages of crop development: 2nd (V2) and 6th (V6) leaf respectively. In such conditions, the crop has not yet fully covered the soil and proximal or remote sensing of the canopy is hindered by the strong soil background signal. There is thus great interest in rapid and inexpensive approaches to N fertilization prescription. Therefore, an indirect method for inferring information on yield potential and soil variability, through a field-based clustering of multi-temporal satellite data, has been developed using archive Landsat images to identify temporally constant patterns. This method is potentially useful for the creation of prescription maps. The usefulness of the method was evaluated during an N fertilisation field trial in Maccarese (Central Italy), in 2016. At the V2 stage, both uniform and variable rate applications were performed and compared. A pseudo-cross variogram and a standardized ordinary co-kriging methodology was used to highlight spatially variable significant differences among the treatments.
A high-fat diet is known to induce atherosclerosis in animal models. Dietary factors and timing of atherogenic food delivery may affect plasma lipoprotein content composition and its potential atherogenic effect. Increasingly often, humans spend periods/days eating in a completely unregulated way, ingesting excessive amounts of food rich in oils and fats, alternating with periods/days when food intake is more or less correct. We investigate the effect on lipid homeostasis of a high-fat diet administered either continuously or intermittently. We investigated control pigs receiving standard diet (C, n=7), pigs receiving a high-fat diet every day for 10 weeks (CHF, n=5), and pigs receiving a high-fat diet every other week for 10 weeks (IHF, n=7). IHF animals were shown to have a different lipid profile compared with CHF animals, with a significant increase in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) levels with respect to C and CHF groups. CHF also showed significantly higher values of TC/HDL cholesterol compared with C and IHF. Hepatic expression analysis of genes involved in lipid homeostasis showed an increasing trend of nuclear receptor LXRα along with its target genes in the CHF group and in the IHF group, whereas SREBP2 and LDLr were significantly inhibited. A significant correlation was found between ABCA1 expression and circulating levels of HDL-C. Periodic withdrawals of a high-fat atherogenic diet compared with a regular administration results in a different adaptive response of lipoprotein metabolism, which leads to a significantly higher plasma level of HDL-C and lower TC/HDL-C.
Previous work of our group and data from the literature show that in the polytraumatic patient the metabolic status is characterized by a severe and persistent catabolic situation involving carbohydrate, protein, lipid, mineral metabolism and hormonal and chemical mediators. This situation is clinically expressed by the so-called “post stress syndrome.”
Total parenteral nutrition has assumed a major role in the treatment of polytrauma patients and its application has produced a significant modification of the physiopathological evolution and improvement of the clinical outcome.
To review outcomes following implantation of an 8.5 mm bone-anchored hearing aid abutment, as regards post-operative management of scalp soft tissue overgrowth.
Retrospective chart review of paediatric and adult patients implanted with bone-anchored hearing aids between 2003 and 2008 who subsequently underwent revision surgery for excessive soft tissue growth.
A tertiary referral centre and a private otology and neurotology clinic.
A total of 80 patients underwent bone-anchored hearing aid placement between 2003 and 2008. Of these patients, 14 had significant scalp soft tissue overgrowth unresponsive to first-line, nonsurgical local wound care.
Fourteen patients underwent an average of 2.1 surgical procedures each for soft tissue overgrowth around their bone-anchored hearing aid abutment. The mean time between initial implantation and revision surgery was 13.6 months. Of these 14 patients, 11 were eventually fitted with an 8.5 mm abutment. Following placement of the longer abutment, only one patient required additional surgical reduction of soft tissue overgrowth (mean follow-up time 11.8 months). All patients were able to use their bone-anchored hearing aid.
The 8.5 mm bone-anchored hearing aid abutment is successful in preventing the need for additional surgical intervention in the small but significant number of patients with post-implantation soft tissue overgrowth. Early consideration should be given to this option when first-line soft tissue care is inadequate.
The influence of the substrate on composition and CuPt-type spontaneous order of MOVPE lattice matched InGaP/GaAs layers was studied. The study was carried out by microRaman and microphotoluminescence. The order was determined by the band gap, while the Raman parameters were also contributed by the surface topography that was also related to the type of substrate. The spontaneous order increases with Si- doping of the substrates. Doping the layers with Zn randomises the alloy.
By studying InP epitaxies it has been found that optimum growth conditions are not achieved under low growth rate regimes, which, on the contrary, yield a defect density nearly as high as under high growth rate conditions, due to the creation of a very high density of point defects from which dislocation loops originate. Such loops are generated not only at the substrate-epilayer interface but also throughout the layer and depend on the supersaturation of the feeding phases. Under conditions yielding high dislocation density both layer and hillock growth mainly occur by spiral growth.
Two regimes of defect generation have been found in MOVPE GaAs/Ge layers upon changing the V/III ratio between 1.3 and 11.8. For low V/III ratio the layers contained misfit dislocations along with stacking faults that had been generated by dissociation of the misfit dislocations. The stacking fault density increased with decreasing V/III ratio. This might be explained by an enhanced mobility of the dissociated partials due the reduced unintentional doping of the layer caused by reduced Ge outdiffusion from the substrate when V/III is small. The secon regime corresponds to high V/III ratios and is characterized by the absence of misfit dislocations and the presence of a high density of planar defects. This means that breakdown of the 2D layer-by-layer growth occurred and 3D island growth prevailed.
InGaP layers grown on non-polar and polar GaAs substrate faces are investigated by Raman spectroscopy, microphotoluminescence and cathodoluminescence. The growth on polar faces benefits disorder respect to the layers grown on non polar (001) faces. It is shown that both (111)Ga and (111)As faces result in disordered InGaP layers. However, the layers grown on (111)As faces present inhomogeneous composition. The layers grown on (111)Ga faces present homogeneous composition close to lattice matching and are almost disordered.
The main objective of this book has been to understand if and how the Platonic analysis of the musical phenomenon can throw light on Plato's ideas of the relationships between soul and body and of cognitive, emotive and perceptive processes. But it has also been necessary to confront general themes relative to ancient Greek music, in two areas in particular: the theories on the representative, expressive and formative possibilities of music; and the acoustic theories of the creation, diffusion and perception of sound.
With regard to the first of these areas, the analysis of musical paideia in Resp. ii–iii and Leg. ii and vii has brought to light a notion of mousikē with two distinct characteristics: (1) its ability to represent very precise contents and to impress them on the psychē; (2) the close interconnection between its components (words, harmony, rhythm and dance), according to precise hierarchical relationships. We should certainly not ignore the ideal and projective character of mousikē; nevertheless we can consider (1) and (2) typical aspects of ancient Greek music, at least to a certain extent and at a certain point. That which Plato attempts to invigorate, and ends up by transforming, is a traditional ideal of music.
The analysis undertaken in this study has offered lines of inquiry that lead to an understanding of the relationship between (1) and (2). When considering the representative and formative powers of mousikē we should bear in mind that it could count on various languages to communicate its contents.
The image of Plato on basic musical paideia is well known, and the utilisation of music in education is easily the most studied aspect of all the Platonic reflections on the phenomenon of music. Great attention has been paid to the interesting accounts – developed above all in the Republicii–iii and in the Lawsii and vii – of a State music, a powerful instrument in forming and directing the emotivity and morality of citizens.
In this first chapter, we will analyse musical paideia in the Republic and the Laws, as we consider that it implies important psychological questions. The interaction between soul and body will be evaluated, for example, with respect to the particular condition of infants; there will follow an analysis of the description, in physical or magical terms, of the formative effect that music has on the soul and we will endeavour to characterise the physiognomy of the psychic interlocutor of music, or rather that part of the soul on which music chiefly acts. For most of the chapter, I will try to reconstruct the form that the ēthos theory assumes in contact with Platonic psychology and to clarify the psychological mechanisms that Plato held to be operative behind the idea that music conditions the character and represents mental states.
If there is no doubt that the break-up of sound is the point ‘where everything ought to arrive’, (530e6) for the interlocutors of the Republic, it is not necessarily Plato's last word on music. I would like to consider taking a different route through the dialogues (in particular the Republic and the Timaeus), following sonority and endeavouring to define the features of the presence of music in the body and soul.
In the first part of the chapter, I will deal with the passages in which Plato treats the acoustic phenomena and their perception. Firstly, we will consider the literary aspect, which is also important when highlighting the attention that Plato dedicates to the dimensions of sound and hearing. Then we will tackle the analysis of two passages in the Timaeus that are fundamental to Plato's treatment of the reception of musical phenomena, but which are relatively problematic. We will evaluate these passages in relation to the theories of perception in the Timaeus and the ancient theories of music and acoustics.
Following on, in the second half of the chapter I will concentrate on the parts in which the psychē and the correct functioning of the psychē are described in musical and harmonic terms. Socrates rejects a theory of soul-harmony in the Phaedo, but we shall see that, through the dialogues, Plato retrieves and re-elaborates the idea of a harmonic order of the soul as he moves from the Republic to the Timaeus.
Proceeding with the analysis of the ways in which music intervenes on rationality, we encounter a part of Plato's reflection on music that is as famous as it is debated: the treatment of harmonic science in Resp. vii. The condition in which music, as a science of harmony, is admitted into the curriculum preparatory to dialectic is that it represents a discipline of conversion from sensible to intelligible. In the first part of the chapter we will see that this condition is satisfied if the mathēmata train certain psychic processes; and we will see that a study with an empirical stamp represents a risk in the case of the first four disciplines, in particular as regards harmonics' ‘kindred’ science, astronomy. In the second part, I will concentrate on Resp. 530d–531c, where Plato distances himself from both empirical and Pythagorean harmonic science. Here we will endeavour to define the ideal science of harmony and the analysis to which Plato subjects the intelligible and sensible content of music in this context.
HARMONICS BEYOND SOUND
A deep divergence separates the two great reflections on music in the Republic: on the one hand, that on mousikē in a basic paideia for the formation of sensibility, on the other, the reflection on harmonics in a programme of instruction for the future dialectians with the objective of shaping rationality.