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Written as the decade-long Syria conflict nears an end, this is the first book-length treatment of how the Syrian war has changed international law. In The Syrian Conflict's Impact on International Law, the authors explain the history of the current conflict in Syria and discuss the principles and process of customary international law formation and the phenomenon of accelerated formation of customary international law known as Grotian Moments. They then explore specific examples, including how use of force against ISIS in Syria has changed the law of self-defense against non-state actors, how the allied airstrikes in response to Syria's use of chemical weapons have changed the law of humanitarian intervention, and others. This book seeks to contribute both to understanding the concept of accelerated formation of customary international law and the specific ways the Syria conflict has led to development of new norms and principles in several areas of international law.
The climate crisis requires nations to achieve human well-being with low national levels of carbon emissions. Countries vary from one another dramatically in how effectively they convert resources into well-being, and some nations with low levels of emissions have relatively high objective and subjective well-being. We identify urgent research and policy agendas for four groups of countries with either low or high emissions and well-being indicators. Least studied are those with low well-being and high emissions. Understanding social and political barriers to switching from high-carbon to lower-carbon modes of production and consumption, and ways to overcome them, will be fundamental.
Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) was used to diffuse boron into tantalum using plasma initiated from a feedgas mixture containing hydrogen and diborane. The role of substrate temperature and substrate bias in influencing surface chemical structure and hardness was investigated. X-ray diffraction shows that increased temperature results in increased TaB2 formation (relative to TaB) along with increased strain in the tantalum body-centered cubic lattice. Once the strained tantalum becomes locally supersaturated with boron, TaB and TaB2 precipitate. Additional boron remains in a solid solution within the tantalum. The combination of precipitation and solid solution hardening along with boron-induced lattice strain may help explain the 40 GPa average hardness measured by nanoindentation. Application of negative substrate bias did not further increase the hardness, possibly due to etching from increased ion bombardment. These results show that MPCVD is a viable method for synthesis of superhard borides based on plasma-assisted diffusion.
Terrorist attacks have increased globally since the late 1990s with clear evidence of psychological distress across both adults and children and young people (CYP). After the Manchester Arena terrorist attack, the Resilience Hub was established to identify people in need of psychological and psychosocial support.
To examine the severity of symptoms and impact of the programme.
The hub offers outreach, screening, clinical telephone triage and facilitation to access evidenced treatments. People were screened for trauma, depression, generalised anxiety and functioning who registered at 3, 6 and 9 months post-incident. Baseline scores were compared between screening groups (first screen at 3, 6 or 9 months) in each cohort (adult, CYP), and within groups to compare scores at 9 months.
There were significant differences in adults' baseline scores across screening groups on trauma, depression, anxiety and functioning. There were significant differences in the baseline scores of CYP across screening groups on trauma, depression, generalised anxiety and separation anxiety. Paired samples t-tests demonstrated significant differences between baseline and follow-up scores on all measures for adults in the 3-month screening group, and only depression and functioning measures for adults in the 6-month screening group. Data about CYP in the 3-month screening group, demonstrated significant differences between baseline and follow-up scores on trauma, generalised anxiety and separation anxiety.
These findings suggest people who register earlier are less symptomatic and demonstrate greater improvement across a range of psychological measures. Further longitudinal research is necessary to understand changes over time.
Stellarators are a promising route to steady-state fusion power. However, to achieve the required confinement, the magnetic geometry must be highly optimized. This optimization requires navigating high-dimensional spaces, often necessitating the use of gradient-based methods. The gradient of the neoclassical fluxes is expensive to compute with classical methods, requiring
flux computations, where
is the number of parameters. To reduce the cost of the gradient computation, we present an adjoint method for computing the derivatives of moments of the neoclassical distribution function for stellarator optimization. The linear adjoint method allows derivatives of quantities which depend on solutions of a linear system, such as moments of the distribution function, to be computed with respect to many parameters from the solution of only two linear systems. This reduces the cost of computing the gradient to the point that the finite-collisionality neoclassical fluxes can be used within an optimization loop. With the neoclassical adjoint method, we compute solutions of the drift kinetic equation and an adjoint drift kinetic equation to obtain derivatives of neoclassical quantities with respect to geometric parameters. When the number of parameters in the derivative is large (
), this adjoint method provides up to a factor of 200 reduction in cost. We demonstrate adjoint-based optimization of the field strength to obtain minimal bootstrap current on a surface. With adjoint-based derivatives, we also compute the local sensitivity to magnetic perturbations on a flux surface and identify regions where tight tolerances on error fields are required for control of the bootstrap current or radial transport. Furthermore, the solve for the ambipolar electric field is accelerated using a Newton method with derivatives obtained from the adjoint method.
The Very High Frequency (VHF) Data Exchange System (VDES) is a new radio communication system being developed by the international maritime community, with the principal objectives to safeguard existing Automatic Identification System (AIS) core functions and enhance maritime communication applications, based on robust, efficient and secure data transmission with wider bandwidth than the AIS. VDES is also being considered as a potential component of the R-mode concept, where the same signals used for communication are also used for ranging, thus mitigating the impact of disruptions to satellite positioning services. This paper establishes statistical performance bounds on the ranging precision of VDES R-mode, assuming an additive white Gaussian noise propagation channel. Modified Cramér-Rao bounds on the pseudorange estimation error are provided for all waveforms currently proposed for use in terrestrial VDES communications. These are then used to estimate the maximum usable ranges for AIS/VDES R-mode stations. The results show that, under the assumed channel conditions, all of the new VDES waveforms provide better ranging performance than the AIS waveform, with the best performance being achieved using the 100 kHz bandwidth terrestrial VDE waveforms.
Between 1976 and 1979 Byron Preiss operated as a book packager specializing in graphic novels, bringing comics creators together on original stories and licensed properties and delivering the finished product to publishing houses. Far from being praised for his efforts, Preiss was attacked by fans and comics professionals for betraying the very medium he professed to uplift. This article explains the industrial shifts behind the rise of Byron Preiss Visual Publications and book-format comics, as well as accounting for the hostility directed against Preiss, a level of vitriol that increased after his collaborators on Empire (1978) expressed their dismay at the changes he made to the graphic novel before publication.
Research showing that risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychosis, and other psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in adulthood is multidetermined has underscored the necessity of studying the additive and interactive factors in childhood that precede and predict future disorders. In this study, risk for the development of psychosis-spectrum disorders was examined in a 2-generation, 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 3,905 urban families against a sociocultural backdrop of changing economic and social conditions. Peer nominations of aggression, withdrawal, and likeability and national census information on neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood, as well as changes in neighborhood socioeconomic conditions over the lifespan, were examined as predictors of diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychosis-spectrum disorders in adulthood relative to developing only nonpsychotic disorders or no psychiatric disorders. Individuals who were both highly aggressive and highly withdrawn were at greater risk for other psychosis-spectrum diagnoses when they experienced greater neighborhood disadvantage in childhood or worsening neighborhood conditions over maturation. Males who were highly aggressive but low on withdrawal were at greater risk for schizophrenia diagnoses. Childhood neighborhood disadvantage predicted both schizophrenia and bipolar diagnoses, regardless of childhood social behavior. Results provided strong support for multiple-domain models of psychopathology, and suggest that universal preventive interventions and social policies aimed at improving neighborhood conditions may be particularly important for decreasing the prevalence of psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in the future.
Synthetic biology has a huge potential to produce the next generation of advanced materials by accessing previously unreachable (bio)chemical space. In this prospective review, we take a snapshot of current activity in this rapidly developing area, focusing on prominent examples for high-performance applications such as those required for protective materials and the aerospace sector. The continued growth of this emerging field will be facilitated by the convergence of expertise from a range of diverse disciplines, including molecular biology, polymer chemistry, materials science, and process engineering. This review highlights the most significant recent advances and addresses the cross-disciplinary challenges currently being faced.
Sample preparation techniques for radiocarbon analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwater, as well as CO2 and CH4 in gas mixtures are presented. Focused efforts have been on developing a robust and low-background wet oxidation extraction method for DOC in freshwater, following routine methods developed for stable carbon isotope analysis and adapted for radiocarbon (14C) analysis. DIC (by acidification) and DOC (by wet oxidation) are converted to CO2 in pre-baked septum-fitted borosilicate bottles, where the resulting CO2 is extracted from the dissolved and headspace portions on a low-flow He-carrier flow-through system interfaced to a vacuum extraction line. A peripheral CH4 extraction line interfaces to the flow line to separate CH4 from environmental samples following the methods of Pack et al. 2015. High sample throughput and low blanks are achievable with this method. DIC and DOC blanks are consistently <0.7 pMC, while CO2 and CH4 blanks are typically <0.1 pMC.
To characterize the association of longitudinal changes in maternal anthropometric measures with neonatal anthropometry and to assess to what extent late-gestational changes in maternal anthropometry are associated with neonatal body composition.
In a prospective cohort of pregnant women, maternal anthropometry was measured at six study visits across pregnancy and after birth, neonates were measured and fat and lean mass calculated. We estimated maternal anthropometric trajectories and separately assessed rate of change in the second (15–28 weeks) and third trimester (28–39 weeks) in relation to neonatal anthropometry. We investigated the extent to which tertiles of third-trimester maternal anthropometry change were associated with neonatal outcomes.
Women were recruited from twelve US sites (2009–2013).
Non-obese women with singleton pregnancies (n 2334).
A higher rate of increase in gestational weight gain was associated with larger-birth-weight infants with greater lean and fat mass. In contrast, higher rates of increase in maternal anthropometry measures were not associated with infant birth weight but were associated with decreased neonatal lean mass. In the third trimester, women in the tertile of lowest change in triceps skinfold (−0·57 to −0·06 mm per week) had neonates with 35·8 g more lean mass than neonates of mothers in the middle tertile of rate of change (−0·05 to 0·06 mm per week).
The rate of change in third-trimester maternal anthropometry measures may be related to neonatal lean and fat mass yet have a negligible impact on infant birth weight, indicating that neonatal anthropometry may provide additional information over birth weight alone.
The Glen Rose and Walnut formations of southcentral and northcentral Texas comprise shallow-water carbonates deposited during the late Aptian to middle Albian on a carbonate platform. The formations are famous for their rich fossil faunas. Although bryozoans are absent in late Aptian sediments, they are frequently found encrusting bivalve shells from the early to middle Albian parts of these formations. Here, we describe the cyclostome bryozoan fauna, which includes six species; Stomatopora sp., Oncousoecia khirar n. sp., Reptomultisparsa mclemoreae n. sp., Hyporosopora keera n. sp., Mesonopora bernardwalteri n. sp., and ?Unicavea sp. Most cyclostomes are found encrusting rudist shells from Unit 2 of the Lower Member of the Glen Rose Formation and units 3 and 6 of the Upper Member of the Glen Rose Formation.
Gymnolaemate bryozoans are common encrusters on bivalve shells from the early to middle Albian parts of the Glen Rose and Walnut formations of southcentral and northcentral Texas. Here, we report for the first time the presence of seven gymnolaemate bryozoans, all of which represent new species. They include the bioimmured ctenostome Simplicidium jontoddi n. sp., and the cheilostomes Rhammatopora glenrosa n. sp., Iyarispora ikaanakiteeh n. gen. n. sp., Iyarispora chiass n. gen. n. sp., Charixa bispinata n. sp., Charixa sexspinata n. sp., and Charixa emanuelae n. sp. The Glen Rose bryozoans slightly antedate the commencement of an explosive bryozoan radiation and the first appearance of neocheilostomes in the late Albian. Although the diversity of cheilostomes in the Glen Rose and Walnut formations is similar to that of cyclostomes, cheilostomes are more abundant and produced larger colonies. These formations therefore yield the oldest known bryozoan assemblage dominated in terms of biomass by cheilostomes. The genus concept of Charixa is discussed and amended.