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Deinotheriidae Bonaparte, 1845 is a family of browsing proboscideans that were widespread in the Old World during the Neogene. From Miocene deposits in the Indian subcontinent, deinotheres are known largely from dental remains. Both large and small species have been described from the region. Previously, only small deinothere species have been identified from Kutch in western India. In the fossiliferous Tapar beds in Kutch, dental remains have been referred to the small species Deinotherium sindiense Lydekker, 1880, but the specimens are too fragmentary to be systematically diagnostic. Here, we describe a large p4 of a deinothere from the Tapar beds and demonstrate that it is morphologically most similar to Deinotherium indicum Falconer, 1845, a large species of deinothere, thereby confirming the identity of deinotheres at Tapar. Deinotherium indicum from Tapar is larger than other deinotheres identified from Kutch and is the first occurrence of the species in the region. This new specimen helps constrain the age of the Tapar beds to the Tortonian and increases the biogeographic range of this species—hitherto only known from two localities on the subcontinent. This specimen also highlights the morphological diversity of South Asian deinothere p4s and allows us to reassess dental apomorphies used to delimit Indian deinothere species. Lastly, we argue that by the late Miocene, small deinotheres in Kutch were replaced by the large Deinotherium indicum.
The effect of hot streaks from a gas turbine combustor on the thermodynamic load of internally air-cooled nozzle guide vanes (NGVs) and shrouds has been numerically investigated under flight conditions. The study follows two steps: one for the high-fidelity 60° combustor sector with simplified ten NGVs and three thermocouples attached; and the other for the NGV sectors where each sector consists of one high-fidelity NGV (probe NGV) and nine dummy NGVs. The first step identifies which NGV has the highest thermal load and provides the inlet flow boundary conditions for the second step. In the second step, the flow fields and thermal loads of the probe NGVs are resolved in detail.
With the systematically validated physical models, the two-phase flowfield of the combustor-NGVs sector has been successfully simulated. The predicted mean and maximum temperature at the combustor sector exit are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which provides a solid basis for the hot-streak effect investigation. The results indicate that the second NGV, looking upstream from left, has the highest thermal load. Its maximum surface temperature is 8.4% higher than that for the same NGV but with the mean inlet boundary conditions, and 14.1% higher than the ninth NGV. The finding is consistent with the field-observed NGV damage pattern. To extend the service life of these vulnerable NGVs, some protection methods should be considered.
This study aims to investigate the sliding wear behavior of Al0.4FeCrNiCox (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mol) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) under oil lubricating conditions at room temperature. Phase and microstructural characterizations of HEAs are performed by utilizing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The compressive yield strength of Al0.4FeCrNiCox (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mol) HEAs is observed to decrease from 1169.35 to 257.63 MPa. Plastic deformation up to 75% is achieved in the case of Al0.4FeCrNiCox=1 HEA. The microhardness of HEA samples is found to decrease from 377 to 199 HV after the addition of cobalt content from x = 0 to 1.0 mol. Thermal analysis is performed using a differential scanning calorimeter. It is confirmed that Al0.4FeCrNiCox (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mol) HEAs do not undergo any phase change up to 1000 °C. The specific wear rate of Al0.4FeCrNiCox=1 HEA is observed to be highest in all wear conditions. The worn surfaces were analyzed by SEM with attached energy-dispersive spectroscopy, 3D profiling, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
Trait-specific characterization of rice landraces has significant potential for germplasm management, varietal identification and mining of novel gene/allele for various traits. In the current study, we have characterized 98 unique rice landraces collected from coastal regions of India, affected by submergence and salinity, based on Sub1 and Saltol quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked microsatellite markers. Among these genotypes, four genotypes (IC536558, IC536559, IC536604 and IC536604-1) collected from Kerala and two genotypes (AC34902 and IC324589) collected from West Bengal were identified with tolerance to submergence and salinity stress. A high level of genetic diversity of He = 0.349 and 0.529 at Sub1 and Saltol QTL region was detected by QTL-linked microsatellite markers, respectively. At Sub1 region one genotype, AC34902, was detected with maximum allelic similarity with FR13A, a known submergence tolerant variety. Besides, five genotypes (IC211188-1, IC536604-1, IC536604, IC536558 and IC536559) showed comparatively close genetic relationship with the salt tolerant variety FL478 for Saltol QTL and were clustered together in the neighbour joining dendrogram. Considering the haplotype structure, five genotypes (IC203801, IC203778, IC324584, IC413608 and IC413638) were identified which did not contain any common allele similar to FR13A but were still tolerant to submergence. These individuals need further characterization for identification of new alleles responsible for their tolerance.
To present the profile of patients undergoing surgical treatment for vertigo at a contemporary institutional vertigo clinic.
A retrospective analysis of clinical charts.
The charts of 1060 patients, referred to an institutional vertigo clinic from January 2003 to December 2012, were studied. The clinical profile and long-term outcomes of patients who underwent surgery were analysed.
Of 1060 patients, 12 (1.13 per cent) were managed surgically. Of these, disease-modifying surgical procedures included perilymphatic fistula repair (n = 7) and microvascular decompression of the vestibular nerve (n = 1). Labyrinth destructive procedures included transmastoid labyrinthectomy (n = 2) and labyrinthectomy with vestibular nerve section (n = 1). One patient with vestibular schwannoma underwent both a disease-modifying and destructive procedure (translabyrinthine excision). All patients achieved excellent vertigo control, classified as per the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 1995 criteria.
With the advent of intratympanic treatments, surgical treatments for vertigo have become further limited. However, surgery with directed intent, in select patients, can give excellent results.
To report the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance data from 40 hospitals (20 cities) in India 2004–2013.
Surveillance using US National Healthcare Safety Network’s criteria and definitions, and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium methodology.
We collected data from 236,700 ICU patients for 970,713 bed-days
Pooled device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates for adult and pediatric ICUs were 5.1 central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)/1,000 central line–days, 9.4 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAPs)/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days, and 2.1 catheter-associated urinary tract infections/1,000 urinary catheter–days
In neonatal ICUs (NICUs) pooled rates were 36.2 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days and 1.9 VAPs/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days
Extra length of stay in adult and pediatric ICUs was 9.5 for CLABSI, 9.1 for VAP, and 10.0 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Extra length of stay in NICUs was 14.7 for CLABSI and 38.7 for VAP
Crude extra mortality was 16.3% for CLABSI, 22.7% for VAP, and 6.6% for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult and pediatric ICUs, and 1.2% for CLABSI and 8.3% for VAP in NICUs
Pooled device use ratios were 0.21 for mechanical ventilator, 0.39 for central line, and 0.53 for urinary catheter in adult and pediatric ICUs; and 0.07 for mechanical ventilator and 0.06 for central line in NICUs.
Despite a lower device use ratio in our ICUs, our device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates are higher than National Healthcare Safety Network, but lower than International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Report.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):172–181
A novel asymmetric “+” shaped fractal slotted circularly polarized microstrip antenna with a Yagi–Uda structure is proposed. Four asymmetric plus shape slots are embedded symmetrically in the center of all four quadrants of a square patch. To suppress undesirable higher modes, dumbbell-shaped defected ground structure (DGS) is introduced at the ground layer of the antenna. We introduce a method to compensate the reduction in gain occurring due to the presence of DGS, without changing in the overall size of the antenna. A 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 4 MHz at center frequency of 862 MHz, 10 dB impedance bandwidth of 13.20 MHz and a gain of 4.25 dB is achieved with the proposed antenna. A laboratory prototype of the proposed antenna is made to cross-verify the simulation results. Very good agreements between the two are obtained. The proposed antenna may prove useful for International Mobile Telecommunication application for designing high-gain arrays.
The correct theorizing of the questions of food security and poverty has become particularly important at the present time, which is one of rapid changes in the economic environment in which small producers including farmers and workers are living. In a poor developing country, the incidence of poverty is very closely linked to the availability of food, in which the staple foodgrains still remain predominant, accounting for three-fifths of the daily energy intake of the population. The measurement of poverty in India has traditionally adopted a nutritional norm specified in terms of an average daily energy intake measured in calories. The National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau has informed us that,
the NNMB has consistently confirmed in successive surveys that the main bottleneck in the dietaries of even the poorest Indians is energy and not protein as was hitherto believed […] the data also indicate that the measurement of consumption of cereals can be used as a proxy for total energy intake. This observation is of considerable significance as it helps to determine rapid, though approximate, estimates of energy intake at the household level.
(Krishnaswamy et al. 1997, emphasis added)
It is this strong link between the staple foodgrains intake and poverty based on a nutritional norm which enables us to put forward an analysis of the recent trends in food security and in poverty, in light of the impact of changing economic policies during the last 15 years.
The economics profession in the country has never been as sharply divided as it has been on the issue of ‘liberalization’ and ‘globalization’. The moment we step outside of the economics profession and take cognizance of the views of other social scientists the disquiet among them over the implications of ‘liberalization’ and ‘globalization’ appears even greater than among the economists. And of course if we look at the wider circle of social activists and intellectuals, this disquiet is even greater. Much of this disquiet does not get adequately reflected in the popular print or electronic media. Besides, linguistic subterfuge is disingenuously used by the defenders of neoliberal policies to claim a consensus for it: ‘Everybody is for reforms’, goes the refrain, without mentioning the fact that everybody is not for the neoliberal reforms. The sleight-of-hand appropriation of the term ‘reform’ exclusively for the neoliberal agenda has the desired effect of misleading the unwary into a belief in the universal acceptance of neoliberalism. As a matter of fact, however, we have to honestly accept that we are sharply divided over the desirability of the neoliberal agenda and over the implications of our pursuit of it since the beginning of the '90s.
To be sure, the disquiet over the pursuit of this agenda has grown over time. In the beginning many believed that it would provide a way out of the impasse that the dirigiste strategy had got the economy into, that it would introduce a rule-governed system, admittedly the rules of the market, in the place of rampant cronyism, arbitrariness and corruption of the dirigiste era, and that it would enable us to achieve the remarkable growth rates that China and the other economies of East and Southeast Asia were achieving.
It is a real honour for me that I have been asked to deliver the I. S. Gulati Memorial Lecture for 2005. Iqbal Gulati was not only an outstanding economist but also a person of the highest level of integrity. He was not one to change his views for convenience. He would not bend with the wind. He remained true to his basic humane values and made common cause with all those who shared these values. It is a symptom of this integrity that while many who began their careers being far more radical than Iqbal Gulati in their political convictions and academic views drifted into anti-Leftism and propagated the currently dominant IMF–World Bank positions, Iqbal Gulati moved in the opposite direction, coming closer and closer to the Left, and was even writing a regular column for Deshabhimani on economic matters until his failing health prevented it.
Today's occasion is particularly poignant for me since Iqbal was a close personal friend of mine, warm-hearted and generous to a fault. His company and the warm hospitality that he and Leela showered on me over the years were a source of much joy for me. I am grateful that this lecture offers me the opportunity to pay my tribute to this extraordinary man whom I had the privilege of knowing for well over a quarter century.
Iqbal had varied interests in economics, but the one area that claimed his passion was public finance. I have therefore decided to devote this lecture to an examination of certain currently fashionable propositions in public finance.
To determine anatomical variations in the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve in relation to the inferior constrictor muscle, and to propose a rational approach for the preservation of the nerve in thyroid surgery based on anatomical principles.
A cadaveric dissection study of the anatomy of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve in relation to the inferior constrictor muscle was conducted. Twenty-nine formalin-fixed cadavers of both sexes (age 50–70 years), with normal necks, were examined.
In relation to the Friedman classification, three anatomical variations of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve were found. Type 1 variation was found in 57.1 per cent of cases, type 2 in 26.8 per cent and type 3 in 16 per cent.
The prevalence of type 3 variation of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve suggests that the nerve will not be encountered in a certain percentage of individuals as it lies under the cover of the inferior constrictor. Therefore, there is no justification for attempting to identify the nerve in all cases.
Urban airflow that is accompanied by contaminant transport presents new, extremely challenging modeling requirements (e.g., Britter and Hanna 2003). Reducing health risks from the accidental or deliberate release of chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) agents and pollutants from industrial leaks, spills, and fires motivates this work. Configurations with very complex geometries and unsteady buoyant flow physics are involved. The widely varying temporal and spatial scales exhaust current modeling capacities. Crucial technical issues include turbulent fluid transport and boundary condition modeling, and post processing of the simulation results for practical use by responders to actual emergencies.
Relevant physical processes to be simulated include complex building vortex shedding, flows in recirculation zones, and approximating the dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulent and stochastic backscatter. The model must also incorporate a consistent stratified urban boundary layer with realistic wind fluctuations; solar heating, including shadows from buildings and trees; aerodynamic drag and heat losses that are due to the presence of trees; surface heat variations; and turbulent heat transport. Because of the short time spans and large air volumes involved, modeling a pollutant as well mixed globally is typically not appropriate. It is important to capture the effects of unsteady, buoyant flowon the evolving pollutant-concentration distributions. In typical urban scenarios, both particulate and gaseous contaminants behave similarly insofar as transport and dispersion are concerned, so that the contaminant spread can usually be simulated effectively on the basis of appropriate pollutant tracers with suitable sources and sinks. In some cases, the full details of multigroup particle distributions are required. Additional physics includes the deposition, resuspension, and evaporation of contaminants.
We present VLA and MERLIN monitoring data of the JVAS gravitational lens system B1030+074. The system was monitored with the VLA from February 1998 to October 1998 at 8.4-GHz during which the VLA was at its A, BnA and B configuration. The 47 epochs of observations have an average spacing of approximately 5 days. Ten MERLIN snapshots were obtained in the L-band (1.7 GHz) during the months of April, May and June 1998. Preliminary light curves of the two components of the lens system obtained from the VLA data indicate that during the period of the monitoring the A flux density showed a steady decrease. No changes are observed in the B light curve.
Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is a widely used fluorescent marker exhibiting two excitation peaks – a strong peak at 398 nm and a second at 475 nm, with the fluorescence at ca. 510 nm. Its molecular structure consists of a β-barrel composed of 11 β-strands and a central helix containing the fluorophore. Two different forms of the fluorophore – a protonated/neutral fluorophore and a de-protonated/anionic fluorophore – are thought to be responsible for the two distinct spectroscopic states. Notably, the isolated fluorophore in solution is efficiently quenched. Conformational flexibility within the protein cavity is an implicitly important factor that governs the photochemistry of GFP. However, the literature contains accounts of studies that reach conflicting conclusions, claiming that either the fluorophore's barrier to internal rotation is negligibly small or that the protein cavity is not complementary to a planar fluorophore. In this work, we calculate the torsional potential of one of the two exocyclic bonds that connect the two rings in the fluorophore, taking into account its immediate environment by applying a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method, with the ultimate aim of evaluating the protein-environment effects on the fluorescence.