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Shakespeare, Spectatorship and Technologies of Performance examines how rapid changes in performance technologies affect modes of spectatorship for early modern drama. It argues that seemingly disparate developments – such as the revival of early modern architectural and lighting technologies, digital performance technologies and the hybrid medium of theatre broadcast – are fundamentally related. How spectators experience performances is not only affected in medium-specific ways by particular technologies, but is also connected to the plays' roots in early modern performance environments. Aebischer's examples range from the use of candlelight and re-imagined early modern architecture, to set design, performance capture technologies, digital video, social media, hologram projection, biotechnologies and theatre broadcasts. This book argues that digital and analogue performance technologies alike activate modes of ethical spectatorship, requiring audiences to adopt an ethical standpoint as they decide how to look, where to look, what medium to look through, and how to take responsibility for looking.
The incidence of paediatric venous thromboembolism has steadily increased in the past decade, by nearly 10% per year. Deep venous thrombosis may remain completely asymptomatic during the acute phase and symptoms may occur later, due to complications. We related the case of a 9-month-old child with increasing cyanosis. A computed tomography (CT) angiography showed a thrombosis of the superior vena cava (SVC) with the development of collateral flow from the systemic to the pulmonary veins. Transcatheter shunt occlusion after SVC recanalization was successfully performed. We discussed the characteristics of these cases and the consequence on our practice in term of treatment (anticoagulation, transcatheter, intervention) and screening.
Investigated in this paper is the stability of the gravity-driven flow of a liquid layer laden with soluble surfactant down a heated incline. A mathematical model incorporating variations in surface tension with surfactant concentration and temperature has been formulated. A linear stability analysis is carried out both asymptotically for small wavenumbers and numerically for arbitrary wavenumbers. An expression for the critical Reynolds number has been derived which accounts for thermocapillary and solutocapillary effects, and reduces to known documented results for special cases. Also, a nonlinear reduced model has been derived using weighted residuals, and solved numerically to simulate the instability of the equilibrium flow and the development of permanent surface waves that arise. The nonlinear simulations were found to be in good agreement with the linear stability analysis.
Microstructural evolution of Cu–Nb oxide nanocomposite alloys during ball milling is investigated using a two-step ball-milling approach. In the first step, Cu and Nb powders are milled to create a two-phase alloy comprising a Cu-rich matrix containing a high density of 20- to 30-nm Nb precipitates. In the second step, this nanocomposite is co-milled with CuO, resulting in the reduction of CuO and the oxidation of the Nb nanoprecipitates. Transmission electron microscopy characterization shows that three distinct types of Nb oxide precipitates evolve at different levels of strain. First, nanocrystalline NbO particles (∼10 nm) are formed by dissolved Nb in Cu reacting with oxygen evolved from the CuO. Next, the Nb nanoprecipitates in Cu further reduce CuO to form Nb/Nb oxide and NbO/Nb oxide core–shell inclusions (20–30 nm). These inclusions coalesce during additional milling to form amorphous Nb oxide agglomerates (>700 nm after 50 h). The growth of Nb precipitates during step-one milling, the initial growth of NbO nanoparticles, and the formation of core–shell Nb oxide precipitates during step-two milling are attributed to the convective transport of atoms and clusters combined with shear-induced agglomeration.
Aphasia recovery depends on neural reorganization, which can be enhanced by speech-language therapy and noninvasive brain stimulation. Several studies suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) associated with speech-language therapy may improve verbal performance evaluated by analytic tests, but none focused on spontaneous speech. We explored the effect of bihemispheric tDCS on spontaneous speech in patients with poststroke aphasia.
In this multicentric controlled randomized cross-over double-blind study, we included 10 patients with poststroke aphasia (4 had aphasia >6 months and 6 with aphasia <6 months). We combined the sessions of speech-language therapy and bihemispheric tDCS (2 mA, 20 min). After three baseline speech evaluations (1/week), two different conditions were randomly consecutively proposed: active and sham tDCS over 3 weeks with 1 week of washout in between. The main outcome measure was the number of different nouns used in 2 min to answer the question “what is your job.”
There was no significant difference between conditions concerning the main outcome measure (p = .47) nor in the number of verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, repetitions, blank ideas, ideas, utterances with grammatical errors or paraphasias used. Other cognitive functions (verbal working memory, neglect, or verbal fluency) were not significantly improved in the tDCS group. No adverse events occurred.
Our results differed from previous studies using tDCS to improve naming in patients with poststroke aphasia possibly due to bihemispheric stimulation, rarely used previously. The duration of the rehabilitation period was short given the linguistic complexity of the measure. This negative result should be confirmed by larger studies with ecological measures.
The accumulation region of Fedchenko Glacier represents an extensive snow reservoir in the Pamir Mountains feeding the longest glacier in Central Asia. Observed elevation changes indicate a continuous ice loss in the ablation region of Fedchenko Glacier since 1928, while the mass balance of the accumulation region is largely unknown. In this study, we show that accumulation varies considerably in the main accumulation basin, with accumulation rates up to 2400 mm w.e. a−1 in the West, decreasing to <1000 mm w.e. a−1 in the center, although the elevation difference is <200 m. The combination of snow/firn samples and ground-penetrating radar profiles suggests that this accumulation pattern is persistent during the recent past. The recent accumulation history is reconstructed from internal radar reflectors using a firn densification model and shows strong interannual variations, but near constant mean values since 2002. Modeling of trajectories, based on accumulation and glacier geometry, results in an estimate of the depth/age relation close to the main divide. This region provides one of the most suitable locations for retrieving climate information with temporal high resolution for the last millennium, with a potential to cover most of the Holocene in less detail.
Brain tumours are relatively rare disease but present a large medical challenge as there is currently no method for early detection of the tumour and are typically not diagnosed until patients have progressed to symptomatic stage which significantly decreases chances of survival and also minimises treatment efficacy. However, if brain cancers can be diagnosed at early stages and also if clinicians have the potential to prospectively identify patients likely to respond to specific treatments, then there is a very high potential to increase patients’ treatment efficacy and survival. In recent years, there have been several investigations to identify biomarkers for brain cancer risk assessment, early detection and diagnosis, the likelihood of identifying which group of patients will benefit from a particular treatment and monitoring patient response to treatment.
Materials and methods:
This paper reports on a review of 21 current clinical and emerging biomarkers used in risk assessment, screening for early detection and diagnosis, and monitoring the response of treatment of brain cancers.
Understanding biomarkers, molecular mechanisms and signalling pathways can potentially lead to personalised and targeted treatment via therapeutic targeting of specific genetic aberrant pathways which play key roles in malignant brain tumour formation. The future holds promising for the use of biomarker analysis as a major factor for personalised and targeted brain cancer treatment, since biomarkers have the potential to measure early disease detection and diagnosis, the risk of disease development and progression, improved patient stratification for various treatment paradigms, provide accurate information of patient response to a specific treatment and inform clinicians about the likely outcome of a brain cancer diagnosis independent of the treatment received.
Southern Iceland is one of the main outlets of the Icelandic ice sheet and is subject to seismicity of both tectonic and volcanic origins along the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ). A sedimentary complex spanning Marine Isotopic Stage 6 (MIS 6) to the present includes evidence of both activities. It includes a continuous sedimentary record since the Eemian interglacial period, controlled by a rapid deglaciation, followed by two marine glacioisostasy-forced transgressions, separated by a regression phase connected to an intra-MIS 5e glacial advance. This record has been constrained by tephrostratigraphy and dating. Analysis of this record has provided better insights into the interconnectedness of hydrology and volcanic and tectonic activity during deglaciations and glaciations. Low-intensity earthquakes recurrently affected the water-laid sedimentation during the early stages of unloading, accompanying rifting events, dyke injection, and fault reactivations. During full interglacial periods, earthquakes were significantly less frequent but of higher magnitude along the SISZ, due to stress accumulation, favored by low groundwater levels and more limited magma production. Occurrence of volcanism and seismicity in Iceland is commonly related to rifting events. Subglacial volcanic events seem moreover to have been related to stress unlocking related to limited or full unloading/deglaciation events. Major eruptions were mostly located at the melting margin of the ice sheet.
This study was focused on reviewing the emergency and disaster preparedness of European hospital pharmacists.
An online survey based on International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) guidelines for natural disasters was sent to European hospital pharmacies, with the support of the European Association of Hospital Pharmacists. Additional questions were added about the characteristics of respondents, as well as preparedness and experience of manmade disasters. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results.
Hospital pharmacists in France (20%) and Spain (19%) returned most of the 306 questionnaires completed in 27 countries. Half of the respondents had analyzed their regional disaster risk, but 65% had never practiced emergency drills. Fifteen percent of respondents had experienced at least 1 major emergency or disaster event in the last 5 years. Fifty-six percent of those respondents who experienced a disaster subsequently created and promoted internal standard operating procedures (SOPs) for future emergencies, versus 23% for those who had not experienced disasters. Among pharmacists having experienced disasters, 40% organized a post-disaster debriefing to improve their future response.
Results highlighted that most European hospital pharmacists were not fully compliant with FIP guidelines. However, respondents who had experienced disasters were more likely to create and promote SOPs for future disasters. Further worldwide analysis and benchmarking are necessary, and FIP guidelines should be more strongly promoted.
The high-Alpine ice-core drilling site Colle Gnifetti (CG), Monte Rosa, Swiss/Italian Alps, provides climate records over the last millennium and beyond. However, the full exploitation of the oldest part of the existing ice cores requires complementary knowledge of the intricate glacio-meteorological settings, including glacier dynamics. Here, we present new ice-flow modeling studies of CG, focused on characterizing the flow at two neighboring drill sites in the eastern part of the glacier. The3-D full Stokes ice-flow model is thermo-mechanically coupled and includes firn rheology, firn densification and enthalpy transport, and is implemented using the finite element software Elmer/Ice. Measurements of surface velocities, accumulation, borehole inclination, density and englacial temperatures are used to validate the model output. We calculate backward trajectories and map the catchment areas. This constrains, for the first time at this site, the so-called upstream effects for the stable water isotope time series of the two ice cores drilled in 2005 and 2013. The model also provides a 3-D age field of the glacier and independent ice-core chronologies for five ice-core sites. Model results are a valuable addition to the existing glaciological and ice-core datasets. This especially concerns the quantitative estimate of upstream conditions affecting the interpretation of the deep ice-core layers.
Although there is a plethora of cancer associated-factors that can ultimately culminate in death (cachexia, organ impairment, metastases, opportunistic infections, etc.), the focal element of every terminal malignancy is the failure of our natural defences to control unlimited cell proliferation. The reasons why our defences apparently lack efficiency is a complex question, potentially indicating that, under Darwinian terms, solutions other than preventing cancer progression are also important contributors. In analogy with host-parasite systems, we propose to call this latter option ‘tolerance’ to cancer. Here, we argue that the ubiquity of oncogenic processes among metazoans is at least partially attributable to both the limitations of resistance mechanisms and to the evolution of tolerance to cancer. Deciphering the ecological contexts of alternative responses to the cancer burden is not a semantic question, but rather a focal point in understanding the evolutionary ecology of host-tumour relationships, the evolution of our defences, as well as why and when certain cancers are likely to be detrimental for survival.
In this chapter, I argue that while the scope of copyright protection of graffiti and street art may be on the whole, fairly easily ascertainable and may offer a desirable level of protection to their authors, the rights of the public with respect to graffiti and street art remain fragmented, somewhat unclear and likely too limited. This finding gives a sobering account of the extent to which Canadian copyright law succeeds in adequately addressing competing interests, such as where allowances for communication and access between the graffiti or street artist, their work of art and the public should be at their highest. I refer to “graffiti” for writings depicted in public spaces and to “street art” as a more general term encompassing graffiti and any other form of visual art (drawing, painting, sculpture, structure, object) located in public spaces. I refer to neither graffiti or street art with a connotation of legality or illegality and I will specifically refer to their (il)legality as the context may dictate from time to time.
Starchy diets can induce hindgut dysbiosis in horses. The present study evaluated the impact of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and microalgae (Aurantiochytrium limacinum) supplementation on caecal, colonic and faecal microbial ecosystem and on blood inflammatory parameters of horses fed high-fibre or high-starch diets. Six fistulated geldings in a 2 × 2 Latin-square design were alternatively supplemented and received during each period 100 % hay (4 weeks) followed by a 56/44 hay/barley diet (3 weeks). Caecal, colonic and faecal samples were collected 4 h after the morning meal three times per diet, at 5-d intervals, to measure bacterial composition and microbial end products. Blood was simultaneously collected for measuring inflammatory markers. The starchy diet clearly modified the microbial ecosystem in the three digestive segments, with an increase of the amylolytic function and a decrease of the fibrolytic one. However, no effect of the diet was observed on the blood parameters. When horses were supplemented, no significant change was found in lipopolysaccharides, PG-E2, serum amyloid A concentrations and complete blood count neither in cellulose-utilising, starch-utilising and lactate-utilising bacteria concentrations nor in the volatile fatty acids and lactate concentrations and pH. Under supplementation, relative abundance of Family XIII Clostridiales increased in caecum and faeces irrespective of diet and relative abundance of Veillonellaceae was higher during the hay/barley diet in colon and faeces. Most variations of faecal bacterial taxa under supplementation were not observed in the hindgut. However, all variations suggested that supplementation could increase fibrolytic function whatever the diet and limit dysbiosis when the horses’ diet changed from high fibre to high starch.
Our objective was to explore the processes and determinants leading physicians to integrate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in their drug prescriptions
Access to patients’ eGFR would allow primary care pharmacists to optimise their role in the procedure of safe prescribing. Some rare physicians actively integrate eGFR in their prescriptions, in a sporadically and uncoordinated manner.
Qualitative study using semi-directed interviews conducted among 12 French physicians who integrated eGFR in their drug prescriptions, (February 2016–April 2017). These voluntary participants were recruited through different means: Twitter®, forums, direct contact and snowball sampling. Data analysis was based on the grounded theory approach, underpinned by a comprehensive perspective of interactionist orientation.
Residency and training, professional experience – including experiences of adverse drug reactions – and the membership in various communities of professionals were key drivers for the integration of eGFR in prescriptions. The theoretical aim was above all safe prescribing in order to reduce adverse drug reactions, with the control by a dispensing pharmacist and/or other healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, none of the physicians had received any feedback from any healthcare professionals. Despite their disappointment, the physicians remained convinced of the interest of integrating eGFR in their prescriptions and would continue to do so. Characteristics associated with integration of eGFR in drug prescriptions belong partly to Roger’s theory of innovations. If a widespread diffusion of this habit takes place, it will be necessary to evaluate its adoption by both physicians and pharmacists.
Numerous interventions to address posttraumatic stress (PTS) in youth exposed to mass trauma have been delivered and evaluated. It remains unclear, however, which interventions work for whom and under what conditions. This report describes a meta-analysis of the effect of youth mass-trauma interventions on PTS to determine if interventions were superior to inactive controls and describes a moderator analysis to examine whether the type of event, population characteristics, or income level of the country where the intervention was delivered may have affected the observed effect sizes. A comprehensive literature search identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of youth mass-trauma interventions relative to inactive controls. The search identified 2,232 references, of which 25 RCTs examining 27 trials (N = 4,662 participants) were included in this meta-analysis. Intervention effects were computed as Hedge’s g estimates and combined using a random effects model. Moderator analyses were conducted to explain the observed heterogeneity among effect sizes using the following independent variables: disaster type (political violence versus natural disaster); sample type (targeted versus non-targeted); and income level of the country where the intervention was delivered (high- versus middle- versus low-income). The correlation between the estimates of the intervention effects on PTS and on functional impairment was estimated. The overall treatment effect size was converted into a number needed to treat (NNT) for a practical interpretation. The overall intervention effect was statistically significant (g = 0.57; P < .0001), indicating that interventions had a medium beneficial effect on PTS. None of the hypothesized moderators explained the heterogeneity among the intervention effects. Estimates of the intervention effects on PTS and on functional impairment were positively correlated (Spearman’s r = 0.90; P < .0001), indicating a concomitant improvement in both outcomes. These findings confirm that interventions can alleviate PTS and enhance functioning in children exposed to mass trauma. This study extends prior research by demonstrating improvement in PTS with interventions delivered to targeted and non-targeted populations, regardless of the country income level. Intervention populations and available resources should be considered when interpreting the results of intervention studies to inform recommendations for practice.
We explored the role of lipid accumulation products and visceral adiposity on the association between red meat consumption and markers of insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation in US adults. Data on red meat consumption, and health outcome measurements were extracted from the 2005-2010 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Overall 16,621 participants were included in the analysis (mean age = 47.1 years, 48.3% men). Analysis of co-variance and “conceptus causal mediation” models were applied, while accounting for survey design. In adjusted models, a lower red meat consumption was significantly associated with a cardio-protective profile of IR and inflammation. Body mass index (BMI) had significant mediation effects on the associations between red meat consumption and C-reactive protein (CRP), Apolipoprotein-B, fasting glucose (FBG), insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) IR and β-cell function, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride to high density lipoprotein (TG:HDL) ratio and triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index (all p < 0.05). Both waist circumference and anthropometrically predicted visceral adipose tissue (apVAT) mediated the association between red meat consumption with CRP, FBG, HbA1c, TG: HDL ratio and TyG index (all p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that adiposity, particularly the accumulation of abdominal fat, accounts for a significant proportion of the associations between red meat consumption IR and inflammation.
This chapter presents the history of the lexicography of the Romance languages, from the eighteenth century to the present day. In practice, emphasis is placed on French, Italian, and Spanish, together with Portuguese and Romanian. Behind these languages of the first rank, there are other languages, which will as far as possible be mentioned in this discussion.
Historians of the Romance languages distinguish the Gallo-Romance linguistic domain (comprising French, Francoprovençal, Occitan, and Gascon), the Italo-Romance domain (Italian, Friulian, Ladin, and Romansh), and the Ibero-Romance languages (Spanish, Portuguese, Galician, Asturian, Aragonese, and Catalan), to which I add the Romanian domain (divided grosso modo into two main varieties, Daco-Romanian and Aromanian) and Sardic. If one likewise takes account of the geolinguistic varieties present within these various linguistic domains, the number of Romance language varieties capable of being made the objects of lexicographical description is considerable.
l-Carnitine is essential for mitochondrial β-oxidation and has been used as a lipid-lowering feed additive in humans and farmed animals. d-Carnitine is an optical isomer of l-carnitine and dl-carnitine has been widely used in animal feeds. However, the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine are difficult to study because of the endogenous l-carnitine background. In the present study, we developed a low-carnitine Nile tilapia model by treating fish with a carnitine synthesis inhibitor, and used this model to investigate the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine in nutrient metabolism in fish. l- or d-carnitine (0·4 g/kg diet) was fed to the low-carnitine tilapia for 6 weeks. l-Carnitine feeding increased the acyl-carnitine concentration from 3522 to 10 822 ng/g and alleviated the lipid deposition from 15·89 to 11·97 % in the liver of low-carnitine tilapia. However, as compared with l-carnitine group, d-carnitine feeding reduced the acyl-carnitine concentration from 10 822 to 5482 ng/g, and increased lipid deposition from 11·97 to 20·21 % and the mRNA expression of the genes involved in β-oxidation and detoxification in the liver. d-Carnitine feeding also induced hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. A metabolomic investigation further showed that d-carnitine feeding increased glycolysis, protein metabolism and activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, l-carnitine can be physiologically utilised in fish, whereas d-carnitine is metabolised as a xenobiotic and induces lipotoxicity. d-Carnitine-fed fish demonstrates increases in peroxisomal β-oxidation, glycolysis and amino acid degradation to maintain energy homeostasis. Therefore, d-carnitine is not recommended for use in farmed animals.
We present TreeFrog, a massively parallel halo merger tree builder that is capable comparing different halo catalogues and producing halo merger trees. The code is written in c++11, use the MPI and OpenMP API’s for parallelisation, and includes python tools to read/manipulate the data products produced. The code correlates binding energy sorted particle ID lists between halo catalogues, determining optimal descendant/progenitor matches using multiple snapshots, a merit function that maximises the number of shared particles using pseudo-radial moments, and a scheme for correcting halo merger tree pathologies. Focusing on VELOCIraptor catalogues for this work, we demonstrate how searching multiple snapshots spanning a dynamical time significantly reduces the number of stranded halos, those lacking a descendant or a progenitor, critically correcting poorly resolved halos. We present a new merit function that improves the distinction between primary and secondary progenitors, reducing tree pathologies. We find FOF accretion rates and merger rates show similar mass ratio dependence. The model merger rates from Poole, et al. [2017, 472, 3659] agree with the measured net growth of halos through mergers.