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New Zealand's ageing population and health inequities for Māori (Indigenous peoples) have prompted calls for innovative, culturally based approaches to improving health and wellbeing, and managing transitions in later life. This is particularly important for kaumātua (Māori elders) who, despite cultural strength and resilience, carry a significant burden in health, economic and social inequities. This paper describes the culture-centred development of a ‘tuakana‒teina’ (elder sibling‒younger sibling) peer support education programme designed to help kaumātua support other kaumātua experiencing transitions in later life. Taking a strengths-based approach that highlights ‘kaumātua mana motuhake’ (elder independence and autonomy), the study used kaupapa Māori (Māori approach, knowledge, skills, attitudes and values) and community-based participatory research methodology, to develop and pilot a culture-centred tuakana‒teina/peer education programme. Methods included establishing two advisory groups (one of kaumātua and one of sector experts); holding five focus groups with kaumātua; and running a pilot programme with 21 kaumātua. The findings demonstrate the value in a strengths-based approach that centralises Māori culture and kaumātua potential, capacity and ability, and recognises the continuing value and contribution of kaumātua to society. The study helps shift the focus from dominant stereotypes of ageing populations as a burden on society and shows the value of kaumātua supporting others during transitions in later life.
Introduction: The diagnosis of Salter-Harris Type 1 fractures in the Emergency Department (ED) is primarily clinical, as radiographs are usually unrevealing. We hypothesize that bilateral asymmetry of the growth plate, detected using bedside ultrasound (US), could improve the accuracy of this diagnosis in the ED. This study seeks to determine growth plate size according to age, and to establish normal variation in bilateral symmetry of growth plate cartilage, for the ulna, radius, tibia, and fibula, using bedside US in normal healthy children. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a convenience sample of children ages 0-17 during planned visits to an elementary school, high school, and an outpatient pediatric clinic. A sample size of 177 was determined with a linear regression model using previously published data on the subject. The study was approved by the hospital and universitys ethics board. After a medical questionnaire with a research nurse, the participants underwent ultrasound evaluation of bilateral ulnae, radii, fibulae, and tibiae, to obtain still images of the physes from two orthogonal views. The evaluations were performed by 3 medical residents, 1 medical student, and by the supervising emergency physician. All ultrasonographers were EDE1 certified and specifically trained for growth plate imagery. The still images were evaluated ulteriorly and measurements taken of the physeal cartilage. Ten percent of the patients had their images re-evaluated by the supervising physician to determine inter-rater reliability. Results: A total of 227 patients were recruited. The median age was 8 years old with an interquartile range of (3;14). Mean growth plate size by age was determined, confirming decreasing growth plate size with advancing age for all articulations. The percentage of absolute difference between right and left, for all growth plates together, was a mean of 17% with a 95% CI of 16-19%. The overall inter-rater reliability was excellent at 0.84. Conclusion: This study establishes a reproducible technique of measuring growth plates with ultrasound. We suspect that increased asymmetry at the growth plate, beyond this established normal variation, may signify a physis widening or hematoma consistent with a Salter-Harris Type 1 fracture; this will be evaluated in a second study.
Research suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents have a higher risk of suicidal behaviours than their heterosexual peers, but little is known about specific risk factors.
To assess sexual orientation as a risk factor for suicidal behaviours, and to identify other risk factors among LGB adolescents and young adults.
A systematic search was made of six databases up to June 2015, including a grey literature search. Population-based longitudinal studies considering non-clinical populations aged 12–26 years and assessing being LGB as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour compared with being heterosexual, or evaluating risk factors for suicidal behaviour within LGB populations, were included. Random effect models were used in meta-analysis.
Sexual orientation was significantly associated with suicide attempts in adolescents and youths (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.60–3.20). Gay or bisexual men were more likely to report suicide attempts compared with heterosexual men (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.21–4.04). Based on two studies, a non-significant positive association was found between depression and suicide attempts in LGB groups.
Sexual orientation is associated with a higher risk of suicide attempt in young people. Further research is needed to assess completed suicide, and specific risk factors affecting the LGB population.
We propose here a class of numerical schemes for the approximation of weak solutions to nonlinear hyperbolic systems in nonconservative form—the notion of solution being understood in the sense of Dal Maso, LeFloch, and Murat (DLM). The proposed numerical method falls within LeFloch-Mishra's framework of schemes with well-controlled dissipation (WCD), recently introduced for dealing with small-scale dependent shocks. We design WCD schemes which are consistent with a given nonconservative system at arbitrarily high-order and then analyze their linear stability. We then investigate several nonconservative hyperbolic models arising in complex fluid dynamics, and we numerically demonstrate the convergence of our schemes toward physically meaningful weak solutions.
A new portable device for ice-core drilling, specially designed for thin tephra-layer sampling, was tested on the South Shetland glaciers during the 1994-95 Antarctic summer. The machine is based on a combination of the standard paleomagnetism drilling machine and a specially built drill-bit designed for ice-coring.
Providing support to “civil society” in the form of funding to non-governmental organizations (NGOs) became a central aspect of development engagement in Kyrgyzstan and other post-socialist countries in the 1990s, seen as a means of ensuring “good governance,” promoting participation, and providing a safety net of sorts to those who were left vulnerable by the market reforms that followed the collapse of Communism. Since then, donor engagement in Kyrgyzstan has led to the development of a thriving NGO sector, taken to embody “civil society” and to be a sign of the country's democratization, in comparison to its neighbors. However, this sector is dependent on support from international donors, and faces increasing hostility for supposedly representing outside interests, rather than effectively addressing the needs of the Kyrgyzstani population. This is particularly the case in regard to work on women's rights and gender equality. Based on interviews with 16 self-described activists working on gender issues, this paper explores what it is like to “do” gender activism in this practical and discursive environment. For my respondents, activity in the NGO sector emerges as not only a process that goes far beyond the straightforward implementation of donor agendas, but also one that does not necessarily “fit” with dominant understandings of what constitutes civil society activism.
Professor J. Lorand Matory's thorough critique of the English translation of my book, which was first published in Brazil in 2006, did not come to me as a complete surprise. He and I have known each other for some years, and we have shared with each other interests in the cultural history of Candomblé, in particular the place and role of the Jeje nation. We have discussed our interpretative divergences in private and in public, and I have referred to some of them in writing (Nagôization, 2005; Birth, 2005; Formation). I do appreciate and feel honored that such a distinguished scholar has devoted some of his precious time to reviewing my book, giving me the chance to revisit my over-a-decade-old argument in the light of his provoking challenges. Yet, after reading his essay (certainly more than a standard review), I wondered why he had taken the effort to write 15 single-spaced pages of meticulous criticism on a work he ultimately dismisses as theoretically old-fashioned and full of errors and inconsistencies. If it is so worthless, why care about it in the first place?
In 1969, Robert E. Gregg collected five species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in three Subarctic localities near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, which he documented in a 1972 publication in The Canadian Entomologist. To determine whether there have been any additions to the local fauna – as might be predicted to occur in response to a warming climate and increased traffic to the Port of Churchill in the intervening 40 years – we re-collected ants from the same localities in 2012. We identified the ants we collected from Gregg’s sampling sites using both traditional morphological preparations and DNA barcoding. In addition, we examined specimens from Gregg’s initial collection that are accessioned at the Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America). Using this integrative approach we report seven species present at the same sites Gregg sampled 40 years earlier. We conclude that the apparent increase is likely not due to any arrivals from more southerly distributed ants, but to the increased resolution provided by DNA barcodes to resident species complexes with a complicated history. We provide a brief synopsis of these results and their taxonomic context.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset disease characterized by the selective degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord resulting in progressive paralysis and death. Current diagnosis of ALS is based on clinical assessment of related symptoms, which appear only late in the disease course after degeneration of a significant number of motor neurons. As a result, the identification and development of disease-modifying therapies is difficult, making ALS an incurable disease. Novel strategies for early diagnosis of ALS, to monitor disease progression and to assess response to existing and future treatments are urgently needed.
Many neurological disorders, including ALS, are accompanied by skin changes that often precede the onset of neurological symptoms. We have developed a unique ALS tissue-engineered skin model (ALS-TES), derived from the cells of ALS patients, in order to study the earliest stages of ALS-related skin pathology. For each participant, two skin biopsies were collected using a 6-mm diameter punch biopsy. Tissue-engineered skin was then generated from isolated keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and examined by routine histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, as well as by confocal microscopy. The ALS-TES model presents a number of striking features including altered epidermal differentiation, abnormal dermo-epidermal junction, delamination, keratinocyte infiltration, collagen disorganization and cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions, which are not seen in skin models derived from healthy subjects. The same abnormal skin model changes were detected skin models derived from the cells of pre- symptomatic C9orf72-linked ALS patients carrying the GGGGCC DNA repeat expansion. Consequently, our ALS-TES skin model could represent a renewable source of human tissue to better understand the physiopathological mechanisms underlying this disease, including cytoplasmic TDP43 accumulation, and lead to better tools for early diagnosis and disease monitoring.
The existence of sexual dimorphism in the Minorcan horse, an autochthonous breed from Minorca Island in the Balearic archipelago (NW Mediterranean Sea), is established in the official standard, with females being shorter and longer than males as well as having slenderer necks and a squarer croup. However, no study so far has explored the size and shape components of this dimorphism separately. The aim of this study was to analyse the morphology of this breed using geometric morphometric methods in order to find size and shape differences between sire lines. The analysis was based on landmarks digitized in lateral view from 38 registered adult Minorcan horses (20 males and 18 females) within an age range of 3–14 years (average 7 years) with different performance goals. The analyses did not reveal any significant differences between the “shape” and “size” of male and female animals, for the landmarks studied, so the sexes are functionally similar.
This paper analyzes the “Southern” Afro-Brazilian Catholicism which was brought to West Africa by former slaves from Brazil prior to the expansion of the “Northern” European Catholic missions. In examining two significant mass baptisms held in the town of Agoué in 1846 and 1855, this paper explores the religious history of the Aguda or Afro-Brazilian freed slaves, and how they built a network of ethnic, commercial, and affective relationships by means of Catholic baptism and godparenting. The Aguda’s Catholic affiliation (rather than conversion), beyond being coextensive with Brazilian identity, served to produce a merchant community whose main activity, in the early period, was the slave trade. The paper also discusses the methodological potential of cross referencing and fertilizing West African data with Bahian data in order to elucidate how the returnees’ appropriation of Catholic ritual was shaped by their previous Brazilian experience.
The UVMag consortium proposed the space mission project Arago to ESA at its M4 call. Arago is dedicated to the study of the dynamic 3D environment of stars and planets. This space mission will be equipped with a high-resolution spectropolarimeter working from 119 to 888 nm. A preliminary optical design of the whole instrument has been prepared and is presented here. The design consists of the telescope, the instrument itself, and the focusing optics. Considering not only the scientific requirements, but also the cost and size constraints to fit an M-size mission, the telescope has a 1.3 m diameter primary mirror and is a classical Cassegrain-type telescope that allows a polarization-free focus. The polarimeter is placed at this Cassegrain focus. This is the key element of the mission and the most challenging one to be designed. The main challenge lies in the huge spectral range offered by the instrument; the polarimeter has to deliver the full Stokes vector with a high precision from the FUV (119 nm) to the NIR (888 nm). The polarimeter module is then followed by a high-resolution echelle-spectrometer achieving a resolution of 35000 in the visible range and 25000 in the UV. The two channels are separated after the echelle grating, allowing specific cross-dispersion and focusing optics for the UV and the visible ranges. Considering the large field of view and the high numerical aperture, the focusing optics for both the UV and the visible channels is a Three-Mirror-Anastigmatic (TMA) telescope, needed to focus the various wavelengths and many orders onto the detectors.
This article examines the remedies available in Ontario to families whose children are identified as having special education needs, focusing specifically on the situation of the Francophone minority, which is often neglected in the research. Policies that promote an inclusive approach to education encourage parents and school personnel to work together to provide the best learning situations for all students. However, the literature and a search of the case law show that parents’ involvement is usually post facto, when parents challenge the services their children are receiving. The article first considers the policies that promote inclusive education in Ontario, and it looks also at the situation in Manitoba and New Brunswick, which were selected as comparisons because of the large Francophone minorities in those provinces. It then identifies the appeal procedures made available to parents in very specific situations. The article concludes with an analysis of cases that have been appealed, with an emphasis on appeals made by Francophone families to the Ontario Special Education Tribunal (OSET). The results show that there have been fewer appeals to OSET by Francophone families than by Anglophone families, and that a majority of the decisions have found for the school boards rather than for the parents. In addition, despite parents’ calls for a review of educational programming, OSET has chosen to examine only those decisions that relate to identification and placement of students. In this respect, the situation in Ontario differs from that in the two provinces used for comparison. Further, the forms of the remedies in the other two provinces differ from those in Ontario, where the proceedings have a high degree of formality but do not afford parents a better opportunity to be heard. The article concludes with a discussion of the effectiveness of the remedies for achieving the objective of inclusion.
The traditional definition of a Fürstensitz, outlined in 1969 by W. Kimmig, is in need of modification. Greater precision is needed in the interpretation of imported and imitated Mediterranean pottery and élite burials. From our discussion, it becomes clear that both rich settlements and burials underwent crucial changes within the late Hallstatt period: the élite burial rite was becoming increasingly exclusive, and imported or imitated Mediterranean pottery generally appeared on hillforts only after the end of Hallstatt D1. Clearly, a model for the West Hallstatt culture should take account of its dynamic nature. Some important trends are described: (1) the spread of élite burial practices, (2) the foundation of the Fürstensitze, and (3) the ‘concentration of power’ in the late Hallstatt culture north-west of the Alps.
The emergence of an élite during the Hallstatt period had an internal logic which did not necessarily require a Mediterranean instigator. The foundation of Massalia in 600 BC has traditionally been seen as providing the impulse for the emergence of the ‘princely’ culture of Hallstatt D. But neither the internal developments of the Hallstatt culture, nor the degree of contact with the Greek colonies in Hallstatt D1, can support this view.
Previous emphasis on influence from the Greek colonies in the South of France has obscured the effects of contacts and trade with Italy, although it is certain that the increasing acquaintance with the civilized neighbours across the Alps led to events of historic importance: the Celtic invasion of Italy and the start of the Celtic diaspora. This process of acquaintance must be assigned to the late Hallstatt period (Hallstatt D2/3), when Italic imports became frequent north of the Alps. In fact, the transalpine areas which in the late Hallstatt period had especially close trading relations with Italy (particularly east central France) seem to have been the origin of most of the important contingents of Celtic invaders. The imported or imitated Italic objects in Hallstatt D2/3 and La Tène A reflect the changed political situation before and after the Celtic invasion. Whereas in both phases the Celts imported luxurious feasting equipment, only in the Early La Tène period is Italic influence apparent in Celtic weaponry.