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The Health and Family Welfare Department of the Government of Gujarat is implementing a program called Technology for Community Health Operation (TeCHO+) to address the state's priority health issues. This paper details the protocol for using health technology assessment to assess the impact of the TeCHO+ program on data quality, service delivery coverage, rates of morbidity and mortality, and cost effectiveness.
This mixed-method study will be conducted in five districts. Data will be validated in a phased manner over a three-year period, along with an assessment of key outcome indicators. Additionally, key informant interviews will be conducted and cost data will be gathered.
Early implementation of TeCHO+ has highlighted mixed impact at an operational level, with gaps in implementation. Despite some gaps in the available evidence, TeCHO+ solutions can significantly improve health service delivery through increased accuracy of data management, high-risk identification, and quality and accessibility of care. However, implementation challenges require even greater efforts to establish comprehensive systems for troubleshooting and corrective measures for improving data quality. Positive experiences encourage grassroots teams for continuing the use of TeCHO+.
TeCHO+ is expected to improve service coverage and reduce rates of morbidity and mortality by improving the population's nutritional status, the timeliness of care for high-risk cases, and the non-communicable disease profile of the community.
Web-based and mobile health interventions, also called eHealth, have significant potential to deliver cost effective, quality health care. The present review maps common eHealth technology solutions for primary healthcare by evaluating their safety, efficacy, and effectiveness, and the challenges associated with their implementation in low-middle income countries (LMIC) in the last ten years.
A search of various electronic database was conducted, including PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO, to identify articles published between 2009 and 2019 that focused on the implementation of eHealth in the primary healthcare setting across LMICs. A total of 450 articles were screened and thirty-nine relevant articles were selected for review.
The thirty-nine included studies were classified into the following four categories: (i) assessment of intervention effects (n = 26); (ii) cost-benefit analysis (n = 4); (iii) systematic review (n = 5); and (iv) conceptual exploration of eHealth interventions (n = 4). The eHealth studies covered three domains: (i) non-communicable diseases; (ii) reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health; and (iii) other health issues. The included eHealth technologies comprised mobile health (n = 27), telemedicine (n = 10), and information and communication technology (n = 2).
The majority of studies assessed eHealth technologies based on the following eight dimensions: safety, clinical effectiveness, technical aspects, acceptability, cost, ethical aspects, adaptability to local needs, and scalability. However, evidence on safety, cost effectiveness, and scalability were limited. The main implementation challenges identified were technology development and maintenance costs, the need for trained human resources, and acceptability among users. The methodologies and assessment frameworks of the studies were heterogeneous in nature, highlighting the need for a robust, standardized, and comprehensive framework for assessing eHealth technologies.
FB is a 53-year-old Caucasian male living in the USA. He had played professional football in the NFL until his thirties and in retirement had worked as a coach. He has two grown up children who have now left home. He is not currently working and lives with his wife of 28 years. He was initially reviewed by his family doctor in response to his wife’s concerns. Although his participation in this initial consultation was minimal it was noted that his personality seemed to have coarsened and there were significant changes in his behaviour. As a result he was referred to a psychiatrist for a more detailed assessment. He only agreed to attend this assessment after much encouragement from his family and friends although he had admitted privately to a friend that ‘something was not quite right’. The report from this psychiatric assessment is set out below.
A 43-year-old male, with a history of chronic back pain, presents to the emergency department (ED) with acute onset chronic pain. He states he “tweaked something” and has been debilitated by back pain, radiating down both his legs, for 24 hours. He has not had a bowel movement but denies noticing any “saddle anesthesia.” His clinical exam is limited by pain, and it is difficult to determine if he has objective weakness. His perineal sensation is intact, as is his sensation upon digital rectal examination. The patient has a post-void residual of 250 mL, but you are unsure how to interpret this value. As an emergency physician, when should you suspect, and how should you evaluate cauda equina syndrome?
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is associated with progressive cardiorespiratory failure, including left ventricular dysfunction.
Methods and Results:
Males with probable or definite diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, diagnosed between 1 January, 1982 and 31 December, 2011, were identified from the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance Tracking and Research Network database. Two non-mutually exclusive groups were created: patients with ≥2 echocardiograms and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation-compliant patients with ≥1 recorded ejection fraction. Quantitative left ventricular dysfunction was defined as an ejection fraction <55%. Qualitative dysfunction was defined as mild, moderate, or severe. Progression of quantitative left ventricular dysfunction was modelled as a continuous time-varying outcome. Change in qualitative left ventricle function was assessed by the percentage of patients within each category at each age. Forty-one percent (n = 403) had ≥2 ejection fractions containing 998 qualitative assessments with a mean age at first echo of 10.8 ± 4.6 years, with an average first ejection fraction of 63.1 ± 12.6%. Mean age at first echo with an ejection fraction <55 was 15.2 ± 3.9 years. Thirty-five percent (140/403) were non-invasive positive pressure ventilation-compliant and had ejection fraction information. The estimated rate of decline in ejection fraction from first ejection fraction was 1.6% per year and initiation of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation did not change this rate.
In our cohort, we observed that left ventricle function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy declined over time, independent of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation use. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of respiratory support on cardiac function.
Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a significant public health problem in Canada and it is estimated that nearly half of individuals with chronic hepatitis C infection are unaware of their disease status. Previous studies of urban emergency department (ED) based screening programs have shown a prevalence ranging from 7.3 to 26% in high risk patients presenting to the ED . The advent of new treatment regimens with high rates of virologic cure strengthens the case for identifying the optimal setting for screening and testing individuals who may benefit from treatment. The proposed pilot project of ED-based screening for hepatitis C virus will aim to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed HCV infection and to link patients with chronic HCV infection to appropriate specialized follow-up care. Methods: We will be conducting a prospective cohort study of patients presenting to an urban emergency department between March and May 2018. Patients will be screened using high risk criteria for HCV infection as per national guidelines. Eligible patients will be offered and consented for a rapid point of care antibody test. Individuals with a positive antibody screen will have confirmatory testing and be linked to hepatology follow-up. The primary outcome will be the prevalence of hepatitis C virus among tested patients. Secondary outcomes will include the proportion of high risk patients without a primary care MD or access to alternate care settings where screening may occur, as well as the proportion of HCV-positive patients who are successfully linked to care. Results: We expect to screen approximately 2000 participants during the study period leading to an estimated 400 rapid antibody tests. Based on published results from other centres, we estimate that a significant proportion of screened patients will test positive for chronic HCV infection ( > 10%). Descriptive analyses will be performed for all variables using proportions with 95% confidence intervals. Conclusion: To our knowledge, no emergency department in Canada has undertaken protocoled HCV screening using rapid antibody testing in the ED. Results will inform the future development of integrated ED-based screening programs in novel settings more likely to be accessed by the at-risk population. Linking patients with chronic HCV infection to appropriate care will decrease the number of individuals developing HCV-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, thereby improving patient outcomes and reducing the future impact on our health care system.
Urinary stress incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine on effort or exertion. It occurs when bladder pressure is greater than urethral resistance (1). It is a common medical condition reported by up to 25 percent of premenopausal women; 40 percent of postmenopausal women report loss of urine (2). The prevalence of incontinence increases with each passing decade of life, with the lowest prevalence found in women younger than 30 years, and the highest among women older than 90 years. A peak also occurs between the ages of 50–54 years. Half of these women have pure stress incontinence (3).
A complete evaluation of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) should include a detailed history, physical examination, urinalysis (to rule out infection), a cough stress test, assessment of urethral hypermobility, and an evaluation of a postvoid residual (4). Technically a cough stress test is performed with a full bladder, and demonstration of leaking with an increase in abdominal pressure (cough or Valsalva) supports the diagnosis of SUI. See Chapter 22.
Nonsurgical management of SUI includes lifestyle modifications, pelvic floor muscle training, and use of an incontinence pessary (1,5). These may be selected by patients who prefer to avoid surgical management for medical or personal reasons.
Frank first described a procedure for urinary incontinence in 1882. He described a transvaginal approach for the excision of the urethral wall and plication of the vagina at the bladder neck. A similar procedure was later reported on by F. Winckel from Munich (1881–1882) and B. S. Schultze in 1888.
A different approach was attempted in 1883 by Karl Pawlik from Vienna. By flattening the outer urethra, he was able to oppose the urethral walls. Surgically he brought the external orifice of the uethra out to the clitoris, and sutured it bilaterally to fix the position. In 1888, R. Gersuny, also from Vienna, attempted to improve on this method. He described torsion of the urethra, dissecting the entire urethral from the external orifice to the bladder neck and then suturing it to a new position. Urethral dissection and transfixation toward the clitoris was also described by Alfred Pousson and Joaquin Albarran in 1892, and by E. C. Dudley in 1895 (6).
Sinus venosus atrial septal defect can result in an increase in pulmonary blood flow and vascular resistance, leading to pulmonary hypertension. Rarely, the degree of pulmonary hypertension is out of proportion to the degree of intra-cardiac shunting. This case outlines the differences between pulmonary hypertension secondary to CHD and idiopathic pulmonary hypertension, and illustrates the investigation and management strategy used in a patient with features of both.
Multifunctional, complex oxides capable of exhibiting highly-coupled electrical, mechanical, thermal, and magnetic susceptibilities have been pursued to address a range of salient technological challenges. Today, efforts are focused on addressing the pressing needs of a range of applications and identifying, understanding, and controlling materials with the potential for enhanced or novel responses. In this prospective, we highlight important developments in theoretical and computational techniques, materials synthesis, and characterization techniques. We explore how these new approaches could revolutionize our ability to discover, probe, and engineer these materials and provide a context for new arenas where these materials might make an impact.
Adults with tetralogy of Fallot experience atrial tachyarrhythmias; however, there are a few data on the outcomes of radiofrequency ablation. We examined the characteristics, outcome, and predictors of recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmias after radiofrequency ablation in tetralogy of Fallot patients.
Retrospective data were collected from 2004 to 2013. In total, 56 ablations were performed on 37 patients. We identified two matched controls per case: patients with tetralogy of Fallot but no radiofrequency ablation and not known to have atrial tachyarrhythmias. Acute success was 98%. Left atrial arrhythmias increased in frequency over time. The mean follow-up was 41 months; 78% were arrhythmia-free. Number of cardiac surgeries, age, and presence of atrial fibrillation were predictors of recurrence. Lone cavo-tricuspid isthmus-dependent flutter reduced the likelihood of atrial fibrillation. Right and left atria in patients with tetralogy of Fallot were larger in ablated cases than controls. NYHA class was worse in cases and improved after ablation; baseline status predicted death. Of matched non-ablated controls, a number of them had atrial fibrillation. These patients were excluded from the case–control study but analysed separately. Most of them had died during follow-up, whereas of the matched ablated cases all were alive and the majority in sinus rhythm.
Patients with tetralogy of Fallot and atrial tachyarrhythmias have more dilated atria than those without atrial tachyarrhythmias. Radiofrequency ablation improves functional status. Left atrial ablation is more commonly required with repeat procedures. There is a high prevalence of atrial tachyarrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation, in patients with tetralogy of Fallot; early radiofrequency ablation may have a protective effect against this.